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  • One of the biggest challenges in computer graphics

    電腦繪圖的巨大挑戰之一,

  • has been being able to create a photo-real,

    是如何製作一個如相片般真實的

  • digital human face.

    數位人物面孔。

  • And one of the reasons it is so difficult is that, unlike aliens and dinosaurs,

    不像外星人和恐龍,它之所以如此困難的原因是,

  • we look at human faces every day.

    我們每天都會看到人的面孔,

  • They are very important to how we communicate with each other.

    它們對我們非常重要,因為我們藉此來彼此溝通,

  • As a result, we're tuned in to the subtlest things

    因此,我們會注意到那些通過電腦渲染出來,

  • that could possibly be wrong with a computer rendering,

    不正確的、非常細微的東西,

  • in order to believe whether these things are realistic.

    並用它們來分辨這些事物是否真實的。

  • And what I'm going to do in the next five minutes

    在接下來的五分鐘裡面,

  • is take you through a process

    我將帶領大家一起看一個過程,

  • where we tried to create a reasonably photo-realistic computer-generated face,

    從我們嘗試去創造一個以電腦制作的幾近相片般真實的面孔,

  • using some computer graphics technology we've developed,

    通過我們

  • and also some collaborators at a company called Image Metrics.

    和一些來自 Image Metrics 的伙伴開發的一系列電腦繪圖技術。

  • And we're going to try to do a photo-real face

    我們將嘗試製作

  • of an actress named Emily O'Brien, who is right there.

    一位名叫 Emily O'Brien 的女演員的面孔,她就在那兒。

  • And that's actually a completely computer-generated rendering of her face.

    那實際上是一個完全依據她的面孔,由電腦渲染產生的結果。

  • By the end of the talk, we're going to see it move.

    在演講的最後,我們將會看到她動起來。

  • The way that we did this is we tried to start with Emily herself,

    我們嘗試的方式是由 Emily 她本身開始,

  • who was gracious enough to come to our laboratory

    她非常親切地來到我們的實驗室。

  • in Marina Del Rey, and sit for a session in Light Stage 5.

    在瑪麗安德爾灣,並坐到了我們的設備「光台五號」(Light Stage 5) 當中。

  • This is a face-scanning sphere, with 156 white LEDs all around

    這是一個臉部掃描球體,有 156 個白色的發光二極管,

  • that allow us to photograph her

    能讓我們在一系列嚴格控制的照明條件下,

  • in a series of very controlled illumination conditions.

    對她進行拍照。

  • And the lighting that we use these days looks something like this.

    我們當時使用的照明方式看起來是這樣的。

  • We shoot all of these photographs in about three seconds.

    我們在三秒鐘之內拍攝出這裡全部的照片。

  • And we basically capture enough information

    我們基本上採集到了足夠的資訊,

  • with video projector patterns that drape over the contours of her face,

    能夠通過圖像投影模擬出她的面部輪廓,

  • and different principle directions of light from the light stage,

    以及在燈光舞台不同角度的照明條件下,

  • to figure out both the coarse-scale

    來計算出她面孔粗略的

  • and the fine-scale detail of her face.

    以及精細的面部細節模型。

  • If we zoom in on this photograph right here,

    如果我們放大這張照片的這個地方,

  • we can see it's a really nice photograph to have of her,

    我們可以很清晰地看到她臉部的細節,

  • because she is lit from absolutely everywhere at the same time

    因為她的臉部同時從各個角度被完全地照亮了,

  • to get a nice image of her facial texture.

    因此得到一份非常優質的她的臉部紋理的相片。

  • And in addition, we've actually used polarizers on all the lights --

    再加上,我們實際上在所有燈光上應用了偏光鏡

  • just like polarized sunglasses can block

    就如同偏光的太陽眼鏡可以阻擋

  • the glare off of the road,

    馬路上的強烈反強光,

  • polarizers can block the shine off of the skin,

    偏光鏡可以阻擋皮膚上出現的光澤,

  • so we don't get all those specular reflections to take this map.

    所以在這張圖中,我們沒有採集到那些球面反射。

  • Now, if we turn the polarizers around just a little bit,

    現在,如果我們稍微調整一下偏光鏡,

  • we can actually bring that specular reflection

    我們就可以將球面反射

  • of the skin back in,

    帶回到皮膚上面,

  • and you can see she looks kind of shiny and oily at this point.

    並且,你會看到她的面部看起來有些閃耀和油光。

  • If you take the difference between these two images here,

    如果你取得這兩張圖像的差別,

  • you can get an image lit from the entire sphere of light

    你可以得到的一個被球形光線照亮的

  • of just the shine off of Emily's skin.

    Emily 的皮膚的相片。光照效果

  • I don't think any photograph like this had ever been taken

    我認為沒有任何人拍過像這樣的照片,

  • before we had done this.

    我們是第一個這麼做的。

  • And this is very important light to capture,

    採集這種光線是非常重要的,

  • because this is the light that reflects off the first surface of the skin.

    因為這是皮膚最表層所反射出來的光線,

  • It doesn't get underneath the translucent

    它不會跑到皮膚的透明層下面去,

  • layers of the skin and blur out.

    然後造成模糊不清。

  • And, as a result, it's a very good cue

    因此,它是一個

  • to the detailed shape of the skin-pore structure

    用來獲得皮膚細緻毛孔結構

  • and all of the fine wrinkles that all of us have,

    以及我們都有的皮膚全部的褶皺細節的很好線索,

  • the things that actually make us look like real humans.

    實際上,是這些東西讓我們看起來像真實人類。

  • So, if we use information that comes off of this specular reflection,

    如果,我們使用來自高光反射的資訊,

  • we can go from a traditional face scan

    我們可以從傳統的臉部掃描開始,

  • that might have the gross contours of the face and the basic shape,

    來得到臉部的粗略輪廓和基本形狀,

  • and augment it with information

    再加上大量

  • that puts in all of that skin pore structure and fine wrinkles.

    皮膚的毛孔結構和紋理特徵的資訊。

  • And, even more importantly,

    更重要的是,

  • since this is a photometric process that only takes three seconds to capture,

    因為這是基於照片建模的流程而我們只採集了三秒鐘的照片資料,

  • we can shoot Emily

    我們可以用一下午的時間

  • in just part of an afternoon,

    來拍愛蜜麗 (Emily),

  • in many different facial poses and facial expressions.

    拍攝不同的面部姿態和表情變化。

  • So, here you can see her moving her eyes around, moving her mouth around.

    這裡,你可以看到她轉動眼睛,嘴巴的開合。

  • And these we're actually going to use to create a photo-real digital character.

    這些,實際上都會被我們用來創造數位虛擬的寫實人物。

  • If you take a look at these scans that we have of Emily,

    來看一下這些我們對愛蜜麗 (Emily) 進行的掃描,

  • you can see that the human face does an enormous amount of amazing things

    你會看到我們人類臉部表情是千變萬化的,

  • as it goes into different facial expressions.

    在不同的臉部表情變換之中,

  • You can see things. Not only the face shape changes,

    你會看到,不僅僅是臉部形態發生變化,

  • but all sorts of different skin buckling and skin wrinkling occurs.

    各種各樣的皮膚的弧線和皮膚上的褶皺也會出現。

  • You can see that the skin pore structure changes enormously

    你可以看到皮膚毛孔結構也有著巨大的變化,

  • from stretched skin pores

    從被拉伸的皮膚毛孔,

  • to the regular skin texture.

    到普通的皮膚質地。

  • You can see the furrows in the brow and how the microstructure changes there.

    你可以看到前額眉骨那裡細微的變化,

  • You can see muscles pulling down at flesh to bring her eyebrows down.

    你可以看到在她皺眉時候肌肉的收縮。

  • Her muscles bulging in her forehead when she winces like that.

    在她畏懼的時候,她前額的肌肉會這樣地膨脹。

  • In addition to this kind of high-resolution geometry,

    對於這樣高分辨率的幾何體,

  • since it's all captured with cameras, we've got a great texture map to use for the face.

    因為這些都通過照相機採集,我們有她面部表情足夠的貼圖。

  • And by looking at how the different color channels of the illumination,

    通過顏色和亮度不同的頻道,

  • the red and the green and the blue,

    紅綠藍色彩頻道,

  • diffuse the light differently,

    受光照不同的散射,

  • we can come up with a way of shading the skin on the computer.

    我們可以通過電腦總結出為皮膚添加陰影的方式。

  • Then, instead of looking like a plaster mannequin,

    然後,不同於看起來如同石膏像的假人,

  • it actually looks like it's made out of living human flesh.

    她看起來如同人類一樣鮮活。

  • And this is what we used

    這就是我們

  • to give to the company Image Metrics

    為 Image Metrics 公司

  • to create a rigged, digital version of Emily.

    所製作的寫實的數位虛擬人物 Emily。

  • We're just seeing the coarse-scale geometry here.

    這裡,我們看一下粗糙的幾何模型,

  • But they basically created a digital puppet of her,

    但他們已經對她創建了一些基本的數據程式,

  • where you can pull on these various strings,

    你可以拖曳這些不同的座標繩,

  • and it actually moves her face in ways that are

    它實際上運動的方式就會依照

  • completely consistent with the scans that we took.

    我們掃描出的數據那樣。

  • And, in addition to the coarse-scale geometry,

    並且,對於這個基本模型,

  • they also used all of that detail

    他們也使用了全部的細節

  • to create a set of what are called "displacement maps"

    來創建一系列的「置換貼圖」,

  • that animate as well.

    同樣可以對其進行動畫設置。

  • These are the displacement maps here.

    這裡是一些置換貼圖,

  • And you can see those different wrinkles actually show up as she animates.

    你可以看到不同的褶皺出現在她的動畫之中。

  • So the next process was then to animate her.

    所以,接下來的步驟是對她進行動畫設置,

  • We actually used one of her own performances to provide the source data.

    我們實際上應用她自身的表演作為源數據。

  • So, by analyzing this video with computer vision techniques,

    通過計算機視覺技術來分析這些影片,

  • they were able to drive the facial rig

    他們可以使用電腦合成的表演,

  • with the computer-generated performance.

    來驅動表情的變化。

  • So what you're going to see now, after this,

    所以,我們將看到,通過這一切處理,

  • is a completely photo-real digital face.

    是一個完全寫實的數位化臉部。

  • We can turn the volume up a little bit if that's available.

    我們可以把聲音開大一點,如果可以的話。

  • Emily: Image Metrics is a markerless, performance-driven animation company.

    Emily: Image Metrics 是一家追求高品質的動畫公司。

  • We specialize in high-quality facial animation

    我們致力於為電動和電影

  • for video games and films.

    製作高品質的臉部表情動畫。

  • Image Metrics is a markerless, performance-driven animation company.

    Image Metrics 是一家追求高品質動畫的公司。

  • We specialize in high quality facial animation

    我們致力於為電動和電影

  • for video games and films.

    製作高品質的臉部表情動畫。

  • Paul Debevec: So, if we break that down into layers, here's that diffuse component

    保羅•德貝維奇:因此,如果我們把它分解到各個層,這是散射部分,

  • we saw in the first slide.

    我們在第一張投影片裡面看到的。

  • Here is the specular component animating.

    這是高光部分的動畫。

  • You can see all the wrinkles happening there.

    你們可以看到各處皮膚褶皺的出現。

  • And there is the underlying wireframe mesh.

    這是原始的線框結構層。

  • And that is Emily herself.

    那是 Emily 她自己。

  • Now, where are we going with this here?

    現在,我們接下來會做些什麼?

  • We've gone a little bit beyond Light Stage 5. This is Light Stage 6,

    我們已經有了高於「光台五」的裝置設備。這是「光台六」。

  • and we're looking at taking this technology

    我們期望將這一技術

  • and applying it to whole human bodies.

    應用到人的全身。

  • This is Bruce Lawmen, one of our researchers in the group,

    這是布魯斯•勞曼,我們研發團隊中的一位,

  • who graciously agreed to get captured running in the Light Stage.

    非常樂意配合我們,採集他在「光台」中跑步的數據。

  • And let's take a look at a computer-generated version

    接著讓我們看一下電腦合成的,

  • of Bruce, running in a new environment.

    在一個全新的環境中跑步的,布魯斯的影像。

  • And thank you very much.

    感謝大家。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

One of the biggest challenges in computer graphics

電腦繪圖的巨大挑戰之一,

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 臉部 皮膚 面孔 動畫 表情

TED】Paul Debevec為照片真實的數字臉部做動畫。 (【TED】Paul Debevec animates a photo-real digital face)

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    逍海 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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