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  • Hello, my name is Emma, and in today's lesson we are going to learn about writing. What

    哈囉,我叫艾瑪,今天的課我們要學習寫作。哪種

  • kind of writing? Writing letters. Okay? So this is important for people who work in business.

    寫作呢?書信寫作。瞭解嗎?這對在商業界工作的人十分重要。

  • It's also important for people who like to write letters to their friends maybe or to

    這也對喜歡用英文寫信給朋友或

  • their grandparents in English. Also, it is very... It is a very useful video for anyone

    他們祖父母的人而言很重要。同時,這是非常...這是對任何在準備非學術型雅思考試的人

  • who is taking the general IELTS test. So if you're taking not academic, but general, this

    來說非常有用的影片。所以如果你不是參加學術類考試,而是非學術類的,這就是個

  • is an important video. And also, if you plan to immigrate to Canada and you want to do

    很重要的影片。而同時,如果你計畫要移民加拿大且你要參加

  • the Canadian immigration test which is called: "the CELPIP", this video is also... It will

    加拿大移民測驗,名稱為"CELPIP",這影片也是...這也同時

  • also be useful and helpful to you. Okay?

    是有用且對你有益的。明白嗎?

  • So let's get started. What do I mean by "formal" and "informal"? "Informal" means something

    我們開始吧。你知道"正式"和"非正式"書信的差別嗎?"非正式"書信意思是你

  • you would write to your friends, something you would write to your parents, - well, probably

    寫給你的朋友或父母那些比較親近的人,內容比較輕鬆, - 嗯是的,也許

  • your parents unless you're afraid of your parents, then you might be more formal -, your

    會寫給你父母親,除非你很怕他們,那內容可能就會變得正式多了 - ,還有你的

  • classmates, your coworkers. Okay? So this is... It means it's not formal; it's for people

    同學和同事們。明白麼?所以...這意思就是非正式 ; 寫給你

  • you know well. On the other hand, "formal" English we use with strangers, we use with

    很熟的人。另一方面,"正式的" 英文是我們對陌生人時使用,我們用在對

  • our boss, in the workplace, we use it in these different ways. So it's the English you really

    我們的老闆,在工作場合上使用,我們會用在這幾種不同的場合中。所以這種英文用法是你應該

  • have to think about, whereas informal is kind of the relaxed English. So relaxed, serious. Okay?

    要好好深思細啄的,然而非正式的英文就是比較輕鬆的英文。所以放鬆一點,真的。明白嗎?

  • So, sometimes you will have to write a letter formally, maybe to your boss or your company,

    所以,有時你會需要寫比較正式的書信,也許給你的老闆或者對公司內部,

  • other times maybe you're on holiday and you want to write a letter to your friend, you'll

    其他的時候可能你正好在度假,而你想要寫給你的朋友,你就會

  • use informal English. So what is the difference? Let's see.

    使用非正式的英文。所以差異在哪呢?我們看下去。

  • Informal English uses contractions. What are contractions? "Didn't", "wouldn't", "couldn't",

    非正式的英文會使用縮寫。什麼是縮寫?"Didn't","wouldn't","couldn't",

  • "haven't", "hasn't". So if you see a verb with an apostrophe and then a "t", that is

    "haven't","hasn't"。如果你看到一個動詞接著一個單引號後面帶個"t",就是

  • a contraction. Okay? It's very important to know this because in formal writing, you don't

    一個縮寫形式。瞭解嗎?這點非常重要,因為在正式英文寫作當中,你不

  • use contractions. "Didn't" would be: "Did not". I can write that for you. "Did not".

    能使用縮寫。"Didn't"會寫成"Did not"。我可以寫下來給你看。"Did not"。

  • Couldn't: could not, haven't: have not, can't: cannot. Okay? So that's one major difference.

    Couldn't : could not,haven't :have not,can't:cannot。明白?所以這是一個主要的差異。

  • Another major difference between formal and informal writing is the use of idioms; the

    正式和非正式英文寫作的另一個主要的差別在於慣用語的使用 ;

  • use of certain expressions. If I'm writing to my friend, maybe I'll say: "Oh, you know,

    某種特定的表達方式。如果我寫信給我的朋友,也許我會說:"喔,你知道嗎,

  • I've been very under the weather lately." Meaning: I've been very sick. If I'm writing

    最近我都在天氣下面。" 意思是:我最近病的很重。如果我寫給

  • to my boss, I won't use idioms. If I'm writing a formal letter, I will not use idioms. Those

    我的老闆,我就不會使用慣用語。如果我寫的是正式的書信,我就不該用慣用語。這

  • aren't good to use in formal writing.

    些用語寫在正式的書信當中並不恰當。

  • Phrasal verbs, this is another thing we find in informal writing. What is a phrasal verb?

    動詞片語,這是另一種我們會用在非正式寫作中的用語。什麼是動詞片語?

  • It's a verb that has a preposition. Okay? So, for example: "find out", "find" is a verb,

    就是動詞加上一個介係詞的組合。明白嗎?所以,舉例來說:"find out","find"是動詞,

  • "out" is the preposition. "Go" is the verb, "up" is the preposition. So the... The preposition

    "out"是介係詞。"go"是動詞,"up"是介係詞。所以..介係詞

  • adds a different meaning to the verb. Phrasal verbs are very difficult to learn; we have

    使得動詞多了一層不一樣的意思。動詞片語是很難學習的 ; 在英文當中

  • so many of them in English. My students have told me phrasal verbs are one of the hardest

    有很多的動詞片語。我的學生告訴我動詞片語是英文中最難學的

  • parts of learning English, but it's possible, you can do it.

    其中之一個部分,但也不是不可能學不起來,你可以的。

  • So, in informal writing, we use phrasal verbs, whereas in formal writing: what do we use?

    所以,在非正式的寫作當中,我們使用動詞片語,然而在正式的寫作:我們用些什麼詞呢?

  • We don't use phrasal verbs. We usually use longer words that mean the same thing. Example:

    我們不用動詞片語。而我們通常使用比較常的字來表達相同的含意。例子:

  • "find out": "discover". "Discover" is more formal. "Go up", for example: "Prices have

    "find out":"discover"。"discover"是較正式的用語。而"go up",舉例來說 : 價格

  • gone up.": "Prices have increased." "Increased" is more formal. Okay. For more of these examples,

    攀升。":"價格升高了。" "Increased" 為比較正式用語。好。想知道更多關於

  • there will be a list in the resource section of the engVid website.

    類似這種的例子,可以到 engVid網站上的資源專區找,我們有整理一份清單出來。

  • I'll talk more about that later.

    我會在之後談到更多關於這種用法。

  • Next: imperatives. Imperatives are sentences that start with a verb. "Don't talk to me

    下一個:命令句。命令句就是以一個動詞開頭的句法。"不要那樣

  • that way.", "Help your mother more.", "Do your homework." Okay? Parents love to use

    跟我說話。","多幫你媽一點忙。","做你的功課。" 明白嗎?父母們喜歡使用

  • imperatives and so do teachers. So, if you're writing to your friends, you can use imperatives.

    命令句,老師們也一樣。所以,如果你寫信給你的朋友,你可以用命令句法。

  • "Send it soon!" Maybe your friend has to mail you a package, you write: "Send it soon! I

    "快點寄!"也許你的朋友應該要寄給你一個包裹,你會寫:"快點寄!我

  • want it, send it soon!" In formal writing, we do not use imperatives; they're too strong.

    想要,快點寄!" 在比較正式的寫作中,我們不會使用命令句 ; 這樣的句子顯得太過強硬。

  • We like to use more polite sentences: "You may send it at your earliest convenience."

    我們喜歡用比較有禮貌的說法:"方便的話,請您盡可能早些寄出。"

  • Do you see how much longer the formal is than the informal? Formal writing is usually a

    你有看到正式的句子比非正式的長了多少嗎?正式的寫作通常

  • lot longer than informal writing; it's not simple sentences, it's long complex sentences.

    會比非正式寫作的篇幅要長出許多; 因為那變成不是簡單的句子了,句子就增長且複雜了。

  • And you often see words like: "may", "could", "would" instead of: "want", "can". Okay. So

    而你常常會看到像是:"may","could","would" 而不是:"want","can"。好的。

  • this is one of the main differences.

    這是一個主要的差異。

  • All right, so what are some more examples? For informal, words like: "very". "He's very

    好,所以還有更多的例子嗎?以非正式的寫作來說,像"very"這樣的字就是。"他真的很

  • cool.", "He's really great.", "He's totally hot." Okay, these are things you would never

    酷。","他真的很棒。","他超帥的。"好的,這邊要談的是你絕對不會使用

  • say in the workplace, but you might say to your friend. So if you see: "very", "really",

    在工作場合的句子,但你可能會對你的朋友講的那種。所以如果你看到:"very","really",

  • "totally" - informal English. Okay? It's... It's okay to use these in letter writing,

    "totally" - 非正式的英文。明白嗎?這是...其實這用在書信寫作是沒問題的,

  • but not when you're writing to a client, to your boss, in the workplace, on the IELTS

    但前提是你並不是寫給某個客戶,老闆,或在工作場合當中使用,或者是雅思考試中,

  • if it says, you know: "A formal letter", don't use these words.

    你也知道,如果題目說:"一封正式書信",就別用這些字。

  • What about formal? "Strongly". "I strongly advise you to clean your room." You'd never

    那正式用語呢?"強烈建議"。"我強烈建議妳去清理你的房間。"你絕對不會

  • write that to anyone, but that's an example of "strongly". It gives emphasis just like

    那樣寫給任何人,但這就只是一個要表達"強烈建議"的例句而已。這字用法強調語氣就像用

  • "really", "very", and "totally" do. Okay? So: "I strongly agree.", "We strongly recommend

    "really","very",和" totally"一樣。明白嗎?所以:"我強烈同意。","我強烈建議

  • that you send in your order form as soon as possible." Okay? So you might see the word

    你儘快寄給我們你的訂單。"明白嗎?所以你可能會看到

  • "strongly" used in formal writing.

    "strongly"這個字用在正式寫作當中。

  • Okay. Informal writing, you can use these as connectors. Okay? So if you're connecting

    好的,非正式寫作,你可以用這些字當做連接詞使用。明白嗎?如果你要連接

  • one idea to another idea, one paragraph to another paragraph. "To top it all off,", "On

    兩個想法的闡述,兩段文章篇幅時可以使用。"最糟糕的是,","更有

  • top of it all,". "To top it all off, my vacation was ruined because of a blizzard.", "To top

    甚者,"。"最糟糕的是,我的假期因為暴風雪來襲而宣布報銷。","更糟

  • it all off, there was a fly in my salad.", "To top it all off, the actor in the movie

    的是,有隻蒼蠅飛進我的沙拉裡。","更糟的是,這部片的演員

  • was horrible." Okay? "On top of it all," these sort of mean like the last thing you say,

    實在遭透了。"明白嗎?"最糟糕的是,"這有點像是你要收尾時會說的話,

  • the last word on something. "On top of it all, she was very rude to me." So these are

    對某件事情的最後評論。"最糟的是,她對我十分無禮。"所以這些是

  • informal expressions to connect ideas.

    連接想法、說詞時的非正是表達法。

  • Here, we have some formal equivalents: "Furthermore,". "Furthermore, she was rude to me.", "Furthermore,

    這裡,我們有一些正式的同義詞:"furthermore(此外),"。"此外,她對我很無禮。","此外

  • the actor was terrible." Okay? So it's the formal way of saying things. "Moreover," and

    那個演員實在糟透了。"可以嗎?這就是正式用語形式。"moreover(還有)," 而

  • all of these are another way to say: "and", so don't let these words scare you; it's just

    這些都是"and"的另一種說法,別讓這些字嚇著你了 ; 這就只是

  • another way to say: "also", "and", you add another piece of information.

    "also" 和 "and" 的另一種說法而已,增加訊息給別人實用的連接詞。

  • Okay, next idea for what's informal use: "TV". "TV", what is "TV"? It's an abbreviation;

    好的,下一個關於非正式用法的概念是:"TV"。什麼是"TV"?這是一個簡寫 ;

  • it's the short form of a word. The full word is: "television". So what does this mean?

    是一個自的較簡短的形式。全名叫做:"television(電視)"。這是什麼意思?

  • Do not use abbreviations in formal writing. You can use "TV" in informal writing. Don't

    就是別用簡寫在正式寫作就對了。"TV" 可以用在非正式寫作中。別

  • use abbreviations in formal writing.

    把簡寫用在正式寫作就好。

  • Next idea: "!". In informal writing, you can write: "!", it's okay. In formal writing:

    下一個概念:"驚嘆號語法"。在非正式寫作中,你可以使用驚嘆號 "!",是沒問題的。在正式寫作中:

  • can you do this? No. So no "!".

    你能這樣用嗎?不,驚嘆號是被禁止的。

  • Another difference: in informal writing, you can use the word: "a lot". "I have a lot of

    另一個差異:在非正式寫作中,你可以用 "a lot(很多)" 這個詞。"我有很多的

  • friends.", "I have a lot of hobbies.", "I have a lot to say to you.", "I have a lot

    朋友。","我有很多的興趣嗜好。","我有好多話要跟你說。","我有好多事情

  • to teach you." In formal writing, the better thing to use is: "much/many". Okay, so if

    要教給你。" 在正式寫作中,最好是用:"much/many"。好,如果

  • you write a letter in your company: "much/many" better idea. They all mean: "a lot".

    你寫信給你的公司:"much/many" 當然比較適合。它們全部都指:"很多"的意思。

  • Finally, in informal writing, non-Latin words are common. Now, why do I say: "non-Latin"?

    最後,在非正式寫作中,非拉丁文的字彙是很普遍的。什麼意思叫做;"非拉丁文"?

  • For those of you who speak Spanish, French, Italian, these are Latin-based languages.

    對如果會說西班牙語、法語、義大利語的你們來說,這些語言都是拉丁文為基礎的語言。

  • For example: "intelligente" in French, the English word... The English equivalent: "intelligent".

    舉個例子;在法語中的 "intelligente" ,英文叫做...英文中的同意自是:"intelligent"。

  • So you can see that many words in English have a Latin root. Now, these words are usually

    你可以看到英文當中有很多自有拉丁文字根。好,這些字通常都

  • more formal, so you don't want to use Latin words. You want to use common words. Okay?

    更加正式,所以你不諱想要使用拉丁字的。你會想用普遍常用字彙。可以嗎?

  • So non-Latin words/common words, this is in informal writing, but you don't want to use

    所以非拉丁文/常用 字彙,也就是非正式寫作中會使用,但你不會用在

  • it in formal writing.

    正是寫作當中。

  • In formal writing: use Latin based words, use uncommon words. Okay? That's a characteristic.

    在正式寫作中:要使用拉丁文字源的字彙,使用比較不常見的字彙。明白嗎?這就是其中的特色。

  • So I would use the word: "intelligent", I would use the word... Instead of "smart".

    所以我會用這個字:"intelligent",我會用這個字...而不是用"smart"。

  • Maybe with my friends, I write: "smart", here, I might use: "intelligent".

    也許給我朋友,我會寫:"smart",這堂課上,我可能會用:"intelligent"。

  • Okay, so for a full list of some of these words I'm talking about, - you know, another

    好,我討論的這些字的完整的清單,- 你知道的,另一個

  • example would be: "kids", "children" -, phrasal verbs, expressions to use in informal writing

    例子就是:"kids"和"children" -,動詞片語,用在非正式寫作的表達法對上

  • versus formal writing, for a longer list, you can come visit our website at www.engvid.com.

    正式寫作的表達法,會是一個冗長的清單,你可以到我們的網站www.engvid.com上來看。

  • You can also visit our website to do our quiz to see how much of this you remember.

    你也可以來我們的網站做做測驗,看看到底你記得了多少。

  • Until next time.

    下次見囉。

Hello, my name is Emma, and in today's lesson we are going to learn about writing. What

哈囉,我叫艾瑪,今天的課我們要學習寫作。哪種

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

A2 初級 中文 英國腔 寫作 動詞 使用 片語 用語 字彙

【英文技巧】寫信:正式和非正式英語 (中英字幕) (Writing Letters: formal & informal English)

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    William Hvef 發佈於 2015 年 09 月 06 日
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