Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • Hello, my name is Emma, and in today's lesson we are going to learn about writing. What


  • kind of writing? Writing letters. Okay? So this is important for people who work in business.


  • It's also important for people who like to write letters to their friends maybe or to


  • their grandparents in English. Also, it is very... It is a very useful video for anyone


  • who is taking the general IELTS test. So if you're taking not academic, but general, this


  • is an important video. And also, if you plan to immigrate to Canada and you want to do


  • the Canadian immigration test which is called: "the CELPIP", this video is also... It will


  • also be useful and helpful to you. Okay?


  • So let's get started. What do I mean by "formal" and "informal"? "Informal" means something


  • you would write to your friends, something you would write to your parents, - well, probably

    寫給你的朋友或父母那些比較親近的人,內容比較輕鬆, - 嗯是的,也許

  • your parents unless you're afraid of your parents, then you might be more formal -, your

    會寫給你父母親,除非你很怕他們,那內容可能就會變得正式多了 - ,還有你的

  • classmates, your coworkers. Okay? So this is... It means it's not formal; it's for people

    同學和同事們。明白麼?所以...這意思就是非正式 ; 寫給你

  • you know well. On the other hand, "formal" English we use with strangers, we use with

    很熟的人。另一方面,"正式的" 英文是我們對陌生人時使用,我們用在對

  • our boss, in the workplace, we use it in these different ways. So it's the English you really


  • have to think about, whereas informal is kind of the relaxed English. So relaxed, serious. Okay?


  • So, sometimes you will have to write a letter formally, maybe to your boss or your company,


  • other times maybe you're on holiday and you want to write a letter to your friend, you'll


  • use informal English. So what is the difference? Let's see.


  • Informal English uses contractions. What are contractions? "Didn't", "wouldn't", "couldn't",


  • "haven't", "hasn't". So if you see a verb with an apostrophe and then a "t", that is


  • a contraction. Okay? It's very important to know this because in formal writing, you don't


  • use contractions. "Didn't" would be: "Did not". I can write that for you. "Did not".

    能使用縮寫。"Didn't"會寫成"Did not"。我可以寫下來給你看。"Did not"。

  • Couldn't: could not, haven't: have not, can't: cannot. Okay? So that's one major difference.

    Couldn't : could not,haven't :have not,can't:cannot。明白?所以這是一個主要的差異。

  • Another major difference between formal and informal writing is the use of idioms; the

    正式和非正式英文寫作的另一個主要的差別在於慣用語的使用 ;

  • use of certain expressions. If I'm writing to my friend, maybe I'll say: "Oh, you know,


  • I've been very under the weather lately." Meaning: I've been very sick. If I'm writing

    最近我都在天氣下面。" 意思是:我最近病的很重。如果我寫給

  • to my boss, I won't use idioms. If I'm writing a formal letter, I will not use idioms. Those


  • aren't good to use in formal writing.


  • Phrasal verbs, this is another thing we find in informal writing. What is a phrasal verb?


  • It's a verb that has a preposition. Okay? So, for example: "find out", "find" is a verb,

    就是動詞加上一個介係詞的組合。明白嗎?所以,舉例來說:"find out","find"是動詞,

  • "out" is the preposition. "Go" is the verb, "up" is the preposition. So the... The preposition


  • adds a different meaning to the verb. Phrasal verbs are very difficult to learn; we have

    使得動詞多了一層不一樣的意思。動詞片語是很難學習的 ; 在英文當中

  • so many of them in English. My students have told me phrasal verbs are one of the hardest


  • parts of learning English, but it's possible, you can do it.


  • So, in informal writing, we use phrasal verbs, whereas in formal writing: what do we use?


  • We don't use phrasal verbs. We usually use longer words that mean the same thing. Example:


  • "find out": "discover". "Discover" is more formal. "Go up", for example: "Prices have

    "find out":"discover"。"discover"是較正式的用語。而"go up",舉例來說 : 價格

  • gone up.": "Prices have increased." "Increased" is more formal. Okay. For more of these examples,

    攀升。":"價格升高了。" "Increased" 為比較正式用語。好。想知道更多關於

  • there will be a list in the resource section of the engVid website.

    類似這種的例子,可以到 engVid網站上的資源專區找,我們有整理一份清單出來。

  • I'll talk more about that later.


  • Next: imperatives. Imperatives are sentences that start with a verb. "Don't talk to me


  • that way.", "Help your mother more.", "Do your homework." Okay? Parents love to use

    跟我說話。","多幫你媽一點忙。","做你的功課。" 明白嗎?父母們喜歡使用

  • imperatives and so do teachers. So, if you're writing to your friends, you can use imperatives.


  • "Send it soon!" Maybe your friend has to mail you a package, you write: "Send it soon! I


  • want it, send it soon!" In formal writing, we do not use imperatives; they're too strong.

    想要,快點寄!" 在比較正式的寫作中,我們不會使用命令句 ; 這樣的句子顯得太過強硬。

  • We like to use more polite sentences: "You may send it at your earliest convenience."


  • Do you see how much longer the formal is than the informal? Formal writing is usually a


  • lot longer than informal writing; it's not simple sentences, it's long complex sentences.

    會比非正式寫作的篇幅要長出許多; 因為那變成不是簡單的句子了,句子就增長且複雜了。

  • And you often see words like: "may", "could", "would" instead of: "want", "can". Okay. So

    而你常常會看到像是:"may","could","would" 而不是:"want","can"。好的。

  • this is one of the main differences.


  • All right, so what are some more examples? For informal, words like: "very". "He's very


  • cool.", "He's really great.", "He's totally hot." Okay, these are things you would never


  • say in the workplace, but you might say to your friend. So if you see: "very", "really",


  • "totally" - informal English. Okay? It's... It's okay to use these in letter writing,

    "totally" - 非正式的英文。明白嗎?這是...其實這用在書信寫作是沒問題的,

  • but not when you're writing to a client, to your boss, in the workplace, on the IELTS


  • if it says, you know: "A formal letter", don't use these words.


  • What about formal? "Strongly". "I strongly advise you to clean your room." You'd never


  • write that to anyone, but that's an example of "strongly". It gives emphasis just like


  • "really", "very", and "totally" do. Okay? So: "I strongly agree.", "We strongly recommend

    "really","very",和" totally"一樣。明白嗎?所以:"我強烈同意。","我強烈建議

  • that you send in your order form as soon as possible." Okay? So you might see the word


  • "strongly" used in formal writing.


  • Okay. Informal writing, you can use these as connectors. Okay? So if you're connecting


  • one idea to another idea, one paragraph to another paragraph. "To top it all off,", "On


  • top of it all,". "To top it all off, my vacation was ruined because of a blizzard.", "To top


  • it all off, there was a fly in my salad.", "To top it all off, the actor in the movie


  • was horrible." Okay? "On top of it all," these sort of mean like the last thing you say,


  • the last word on something. "On top of it all, she was very rude to me." So these are


  • informal expressions to connect ideas.


  • Here, we have some formal equivalents: "Furthermore,". "Furthermore, she was rude to me.", "Furthermore,


  • the actor was terrible." Okay? So it's the formal way of saying things. "Moreover," and

    那個演員實在糟透了。"可以嗎?這就是正式用語形式。"moreover(還有)," 而

  • all of these are another way to say: "and", so don't let these words scare you; it's just

    這些都是"and"的另一種說法,別讓這些字嚇著你了 ; 這就只是

  • another way to say: "also", "and", you add another piece of information.

    "also" 和 "and" 的另一種說法而已,增加訊息給別人實用的連接詞。

  • Okay, next idea for what's informal use: "TV". "TV", what is "TV"? It's an abbreviation;

    好的,下一個關於非正式用法的概念是:"TV"。什麼是"TV"?這是一個簡寫 ;

  • it's the short form of a word. The full word is: "television". So what does this mean?


  • Do not use abbreviations in formal writing. You can use "TV" in informal writing. Don't

    就是別用簡寫在正式寫作就對了。"TV" 可以用在非正式寫作中。別

  • use abbreviations in formal writing.


  • Next idea: "!". In informal writing, you can write: "!", it's okay. In formal writing:

    下一個概念:"驚嘆號語法"。在非正式寫作中,你可以使用驚嘆號 "!",是沒問題的。在正式寫作中:

  • can you do this? No. So no "!".


  • Another difference: in informal writing, you can use the word: "a lot". "I have a lot of

    另一個差異:在非正式寫作中,你可以用 "a lot(很多)" 這個詞。"我有很多的

  • friends.", "I have a lot of hobbies.", "I have a lot to say to you.", "I have a lot


  • to teach you." In formal writing, the better thing to use is: "much/many". Okay, so if

    要教給你。" 在正式寫作中,最好是用:"much/many"。好,如果

  • you write a letter in your company: "much/many" better idea. They all mean: "a lot".

    你寫信給你的公司:"much/many" 當然比較適合。它們全部都指:"很多"的意思。

  • Finally, in informal writing, non-Latin words are common. Now, why do I say: "non-Latin"?


  • For those of you who speak Spanish, French, Italian, these are Latin-based languages.


  • For example: "intelligente" in French, the English word... The English equivalent: "intelligent".

    舉個例子;在法語中的 "intelligente" ,英文叫做...英文中的同意自是:"intelligent"。

  • So you can see that many words in English have a Latin root. Now, these words are usually


  • more formal, so you don't want to use Latin words. You want to use common words. Okay?


  • So non-Latin words/common words, this is in informal writing, but you don't want to use

    所以非拉丁文/常用 字彙,也就是非正式寫作中會使用,但你不會用在

  • it in formal writing.


  • In formal writing: use Latin based words, use uncommon words. Okay? That's a characteristic.


  • So I would use the word: "intelligent", I would use the word... Instead of "smart".


  • Maybe with my friends, I write: "smart", here, I might use: "intelligent".


  • Okay, so for a full list of some of these words I'm talking about, - you know, another

    好,我討論的這些字的完整的清單,- 你知道的,另一個

  • example would be: "kids", "children" -, phrasal verbs, expressions to use in informal writing

    例子就是:"kids"和"children" -,動詞片語,用在非正式寫作的表達法對上

  • versus formal writing, for a longer list, you can come visit our website at


  • You can also visit our website to do our quiz to see how much of this you remember.


  • Until next time.


Hello, my name is Emma, and in today's lesson we are going to learn about writing. What



影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

A2 初級 中文 英國腔 寫作 動詞 使用 片語 用語 字彙

【英文技巧】寫信:正式和非正式英語 (中英字幕) (Writing Letters: formal & informal English)

  • 8020 747
    William Hvef 發佈於 2015 年 09 月 06 日