Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • To be honest, by personality,

    譯者: melody yang 審譯者: Coco Shen

  • I'm just not much of a crier.

    老實說,依我的個性而言,

  • But I think in my career that's been a good thing.

    我不是個愛哭泣嚷嚷的人,

  • I'm a civil rights lawyer,

    但我想在我的工作上那是一件好事。

  • and I've seen some horrible things in the world.

    我是一個民權律師,

  • I began my career working police abuse cases in the United States.

    而我見過世界上一些非常可怕的事情,

  • And then in 1994, I was sent to Rwanda

    我的職涯始於處理美國的警察濫權案件,

  • to be the director of the U.N.'s genocide investigation.

    然後1994年,我被派到盧安達

  • It turns out that tears just aren't much help

    做聯合國的盧安達大屠殺調查團團長,

  • when you're trying to investigate a genocide.

    結果發現當你試著調查一件大屠殺事件的時候

  • The things I had to see, and feel and touch

    眼淚沒什麼用。

  • were pretty unspeakable.

    那些我必須看到、感覺和觸碰的東西,

  • What I can tell you is this:

    都讓人難以言說。

  • that the Rwandan genocide

    我能告訴你的是:

  • was one of the world's greatest failures of simple compassion.

    盧安達大屠殺

  • That word, compassion, actually comes from two Latin words:

    是人類世界同情心數一數二的大失敗。

  • cum passio, which simply mean "to suffer with."

    同情心(compassion) 這個字其實源自兩個拉丁語的字:

  • And the things that I saw and experienced

    「cum passio」, 直接的意思就是「和什麼人一起受苦」

  • in Rwanda as I got up close to human suffering,

    而那些我在盧安達看到和經歷的事物,

  • it did, in moments, move me to tears.

    讓我感受到人們承受的苦難,

  • But I just wish that I, and the rest of the world,

    那些時候,讓我流淚了。

  • had been moved earlier.

    但我希望我自己,和整個世界。

  • And not just to tears,

    能早一點對此有同情心,

  • but to actually stop the genocide.

    不只是流淚,

  • Now by contrast, I've also been involved

    而是阻止這場慘案。

  • with one of the world's greatest successes of compassion.

    相對地

  • And that's the fight against global poverty.

    我也經歷了同情心所帶來最好的成果,

  • It's a cause that probably has involved all of us here.

    也就是全球性的對抗貧窮的運動。

  • I don't know if your first introduction

    這場運動可能跟我們所有人都有關係。

  • might have been choruses of "We Are the World,"

    我不知道你們第一次了解到貧窮問題,

  • or maybe the picture of a sponsored child on your refrigerator door,

    是因為〈We Are the World〉這首合唱曲,

  • or maybe the birthday you donated for fresh water.

    或是你家冰箱門上貼的資助兒童的照片,

  • I don't really remember what my first introduction to poverty was

    或是你生日時捐助了新鮮的飲用水。

  • but I do remember the most jarring.

    我不太記得什麼讓我第一次了解貧窮問題,

  • It was when I met Venus --

    不過我記得最難過的一次,

  • she's a mom from Zambia.

    那是我遇到維納斯的時候。

  • She's got three kids and she's a widow.

    她是來自尚比亞的母親,

  • When I met her, she had walked about 12 miles

    是一位有著三個孩子的寡婦,

  • in the only garments she owned,

    當我看到她,她走了19多公里的路

  • to come to the capital city and to share her story.

    她穿著她唯一一套衣服

  • She sat down with me for hours,

    到首都來敘說她的故事。

  • just ushered me in to the world of poverty.

    她坐了好幾個小時

  • She described what it was like when the coals on the cooking fire

    引領我進入貧窮的世界。

  • finally just went completely cold.

    她所描述貧窮的景況, 像是:燒爐火的煤炭

  • When that last drop of cooking oil finally ran out.

    最終熄滅冷卻了。

  • When the last of the food, despite her best efforts,

    烹調的油用盡最後一滴。

  • ran out.

    盡最大的努力撙節

  • She had to watch her youngest son, Peter,

    還是用盡了所有的食物。

  • suffer from malnutrition,

    她不得不看著最小的兒子彼得

  • as his legs just slowly bowed into uselessness.

    患上營養不良,

  • As his eyes grew cloudy and dim.

    他的腿慢慢蜷曲而無法行走,

  • And then as Peter finally grew cold.

    他的眼睛變得迷矇灰暗,

  • For over 50 years, stories like this have been moving us to compassion.

    最後他的身體變得冰冷。

  • We whose kids have plenty to eat.

    過去五十年,像這樣的故事 激起我們的同情心

  • And we're moved not only to care about global poverty,

    餵飽了很多孩子,

  • but to actually try to do our part to stop the suffering.

    我們不只關心世界貧窮,

  • Now there's plenty of room for critique that we haven't done enough,

    也試著盡力阻止它,

  • and what it is that we've done hasn't been effective enough,

    現在有許多批判的空間, 顯示我們做得還不夠。

  • but the truth is this:

    而且我們做的事情不夠有效。

  • The fight against global poverty is probably the broadest,

    不過事實是

  • longest running manifestation of the human phenomenon of compassion

    對抗貧窮的活動大概是人們的同情心

  • in the history of our species.

    有史以來

  • And so I'd like to share a pretty shattering insight

    發揮影響最廣泛的活動。

  • that might forever change the way you think about that struggle.

    我想分享一個驚人的觀察,

  • But first, let me begin with what you probably already know.

    可能會從此改變你對於對抗貧窮的想法。

  • Thirty-five years ago, when I would have been graduating from high school,

    不過首先, 我還是從大家知道的一些事情開始。

  • they told us that 40,000 kids every day died because of poverty.

    35年前,我將從高中畢業的時候

  • That number, today, is now down to 17,000.

    每天有四萬個孩童死於貧窮。

  • Way too many, of course,

    現在的數字已經降到一萬七千人。

  • but it does mean that every year,

    當然這數字還是太多,

  • there's eight million kids who don't have to die from poverty.

    不過確實代表著每一年

  • Moreover, the number of people in our world

    有八百萬個孩童不再死於貧窮。

  • who are living in extreme poverty,

    還有,在這世界上

  • which is defined as living off about a dollar and a quarter a day,

    每天生活費只有1.25美元

  • that has fallen from 50 percent,

    被定義為赤貧的人們,

  • to only 15 percent.

    從50%

  • This is massive progress,

    下降到只有15%,

  • and this exceeds everybody's expectations about what is possible.

    這是極大的進展,

  • And I think you and I,

    超乎所有人的預期。

  • I think, honestly, that we can feel proud and encouraged

    而且說實話,我認為你我

  • to see the way that compassion actually has the power

    都可以感到自豪且受到鼓勵。

  • to succeed in stopping the suffering of millions.

    看到惻隱之心發揮力量,

  • But here's the part that you might not hear very much about.

    成功阻止數百萬人受苦。

  • If you move that poverty mark just up to two dollars a day,

    但是你大概不太知道,

  • it turns out that virtually the same two billion people

    如果把貧窮的標準上移到一天2美元,

  • who were stuck in that harsh poverty when I was in high school,

    世界上幾乎仍然有20億人

  • are still stuck there,

    處於極度貧窮的狀態,

  • 35 years later.

    和我高中時一樣

  • So why, why are so many billions still stuck in such harsh poverty?

    在35年之後。

  • Well, let's think about Venus for a moment.

    為什麼有這麼多的幾十億人仍深陷於極度貧窮?

  • Now for decades, my wife and I have been moved by common compassion

    讓我們再回想一下維納斯,

  • to sponsor kids, to fund microloans,

    幾十年來,我妻子和我出於惻隱之心,

  • to support generous levels of foreign aid.

    資助孩童、借出微型貸款,

  • But until I had actually talked to Venus,

    慷慨地援助國外活動,

  • I would have had no idea that none of those approaches

    不過若不是到我跟維納斯談過後,

  • actually addressed why she had to watch her son die.

    我並不知道那些方式

  • "We were doing fine," Venus told me,

    都沒辦法改變她看著她兒子死去。

  • "until Brutus started to cause trouble."

    「我們本來過得還好,」維納斯告訴我

  • Now, Brutus is Venus' neighbor and "cause trouble"

    「直到布魯圖斯開始找麻煩。」

  • is what happened the day after Venus' husband died,

    布魯圖斯是維納斯的鄰居,

  • when Brutus just came and threw Venus and the kids out of the house,

    找麻煩是指維納斯的丈夫死後第二天,

  • stole all their land, and robbed their market stall.

    布魯圖斯就過來把維納斯和孩子趕出房子。

  • You see, Venus was thrown into destitution by violence.

    偷走他們的土地,搶走他們的市場攤位。

  • And then it occurred to me, of course,

    維納斯的貧困是暴力所招致的。

  • that none of my child sponsorships, none of the microloans,

    然後我突然意識到,

  • none of the traditional anti-poverty programs

    我對兒童的資助、微型貸款,

  • were going to stop Brutus,

    傳統的反貧窮方案,

  • because they weren't meant to.

    沒有一樣能夠阻止布魯圖斯這種人,

  • This became even more clear to me when I met Griselda.

    沒有一樣是用來阻止暴力的。

  • She's a marvelous young girl living in a very poor community

    事情在我遇到葛莉塞達變得更清楚

  • in Guatemala.

    她是一個了不起的女孩,

  • And one of the things we've learned over the years

    生活在瓜地馬拉一個貧窮社區裡。

  • is that perhaps the most powerful thing

    我們過去所了解到的,

  • that Griselda and her family can do

    能夠使葛莉塞達和她的家人,

  • to get Griselda and her family out of poverty

    脫離貧窮

  • is to make sure that she goes to school.

    最有效的方法之一

  • The experts call this the Girl Effect.

    可能是讓她能夠去上學。

  • But when we met Griselda, she wasn't going to school.

    專家們把這叫做「女孩效應」

  • In fact, she was rarely ever leaving her home.

    不過當我們遇到葛莉塞達, 她並沒有去上學,

  • Days before we met her,

    事實上,她幾乎沒離開家裡。

  • while she was walking home from church with her family,

    在我們遇見她的幾天前,

  • in broad daylight,

    當她和家人從教堂回家,

  • men from her community just snatched her off the street,

    在光天化日之下

  • and violently raped her.

    她社區裡的男人將她從街道上拖走,

  • See, Griselda had every opportunity to go to school,

    而且強暴了她。

  • it just wasn't safe for her to get there.

    葛莉塞達是可以去上學的,

  • And Griselda's not the only one.

    但到學校的路卻是如此的危險。

  • Around the world, poor women and girls

    葛莉塞達不是唯一一個。

  • between the ages of 15 and 44,

    世界上,貧窮的女人和女孩,

  • they are -- when victims of the everyday violence

    在15到44歲之間,

  • of domestic abuse and sexual violence --

    她們是家庭暴力與性暴力等,

  • those two forms of violence account for more death and disability

    日常暴力的受害者。

  • than malaria, than car accidents, than war combined.

    而這兩種暴力所造成的死亡和殘疾人數,

  • The truth is, the poor of our world are trapped in whole systems of violence.

    超過瘧疾、車禍和戰爭的總和。

  • In South Asia, for instance, I could drive past this rice mill

    所以事實是,我們這世界的貧窮, 是由整個暴力系統所造成的牢籠。

  • and see this man hoisting these 100-pound sacks

    舉例而言,在南亞, 我開車經過碾米廠

  • of rice upon his thin back.

    看到一個男人把100磅的袋子們,

  • But I would have no idea, until later,

    背在瘦弱的背上。

  • that he was actually a slave,

    但我直到後來才知道

  • held by violence in that rice mill since I was in high school.

    他是個奴隸,

  • Decades of anti-poverty programs right in his community

    從我上高中的時候, 他就為碾米廠的暴力所控制。

  • were never able to rescue him or any of the hundred other slaves

    數十年來在他生活的社區, 許多對抗貧窮的方案,

  • from the beatings and the rapes and the torture

    都無法將幾百個奴隸中的一個,

  • of violence inside the rice mill.

    從碾米廠的毒打、強姦和酷刑中,

  • In fact, half a century of anti-poverty programs

    解救出來。

  • have left more poor people in slavery

    事實上,半個世紀以來的脫貧方案,

  • than in any other time in human history.

    讓更多窮人淪為奴隸的數量,

  • Experts tell us that there's about 35 million people in slavery today.

    比人類有史以來其他時候的數量還要多。

  • That's about the population of the entire nation of Canada,

    專家說現在大約有三千五百萬人是奴隸

  • where we're sitting today.

    相當於加拿大整個國家的人口,

  • This is why, over time, I have come to call this epidemic of violence

    也是我們今天所在之地。

  • the Locust Effect.

    這就是為什麼,我開始 稱這種傳染病一樣的暴力行為,

  • Because in the lives of the poor, it just descends like a plague

    蝗蟲效應。

  • and it destroys everything.

    因為在窮人的生活裡, 它就像瘟疫一樣降臨,

  • In fact, now when you survey very, very poor communities,

    摧毀了一切。

  • residents will tell you that their greatest fear is violence.

    事實上,當你調查非常、 非常貧窮的社區時,

  • But notice the violence that they fear

    居民會告訴你, 他們最大的恐懼就是暴力。

  • is not the violence of genocide or the wars,

    注意,他們害怕的暴力

  • it's everyday violence.

    並不是戰爭那種滅族大屠殺,

  • So for me, as a lawyer, of course, my first reaction was to think,

    而是日常暴力。

  • well, of course we've got to change all the laws.

    所以,身為律師,我第一個反應是想

  • We've got to make all this violence against the poor illegal.

    我們必須要改變法律

  • But then I found out, it already is.

    我們必須把這些欺負窮人的暴力視為非法

  • The problem is not that the poor don't get laws,

    但我隨即發現, 我們已經有這樣的法律了。

  • it's that they don't get law enforcement.

    問題不是那些窮人沒有法條可用,

  • In the developing world,

    問題是沒有執法。

  • basic law enforcement systems are so broken

    在那些開發中國家,

  • that recently the U.N. issued a report that found

    執法系統如此腐敗,

  • that "most poor people live outside the protection of the law."

    最近聯合國發表報告,

  • Now honestly, you and I have just about no idea

    稱「最貧窮的人們生活在法律保護傘之外」。

  • of what that would mean

    說實話,你我無法想見,

  • because we have no first-hand experience of it.

    這代表什麼意思,

  • Functioning law enforcement for us is just a total assumption.

    因為我們沒有第一手的經歷。

  • In fact, nothing expresses that assumption more clearly than three simple numbers:

    正常執法只是我們理所當然的假設。

  • 9-1-1,

    事實上,三個簡單的數字 最能傳達我們的想當然,

  • which, of course, is the number for the emergency police operator

    「911」

  • here in Canada and in the United States,

    代表在加拿大和美國,

  • where the average response time to a police 911 emergency call

    緊急聯絡警方的號碼,

  • is about 10 minutes.

    911緊急電話的平均回應時間

  • So we take this just completely for granted.

    大約是10分鐘。

  • But what if there was no law enforcement to protect you?

    所以我們視為理所當然。

  • A woman in Oregon recently experienced what this would be like.

    但是如果沒有執法單位來保護你呢?

  • She was home alone in her dark house on a Saturday night,

    一名在奧勒崗的女子經歷了類似的事情。

  • when a man started to tear his way into her home.

    週六晚上她一個人在她昏暗的房子裡,

  • This was her worst nightmare,

    一名男子試圖撬門而入,

  • because this man had actually put her in the hospital from an assault

    這是她最可怕的夢魘。

  • just two weeks before.

    因為兩個禮拜前,

  • So terrified, she picks up that phone and does what any of us would do:

    這名男子才襲擊她,讓她住了院。

  • She calls 911 --

    驚慌失措下,她做了我們都會做的事:

  • but only to learn that because of budget cuts in her county,

    打給911。

  • law enforcement wasn't available on the weekends.

    但卻發現她的所在郡,因為預算撙節

  • Listen.

    週末沒有執法單位。

  • Dispatcher: I don't have anybody to send out there.

    「聽著,」

  • Woman: OK

    接線人員說:「我沒辦法派人員過去」

  • Dispatcher: Um, obviously if he comes inside the residence and assaults you,

    女子說:「OK」

  • can you ask him to go away?

    接線人員說,「如果他要進到你家襲擊你,」

  • Or do you know if he is intoxicated or anything?

    「可以請他離開嗎?」

  • Woman: I've already asked him. I've already told him I was calling you.

    「或者,你知道他是否醉了?」

  • He's broken in before, busted down my door, assaulted me.

    女子:「我已經請他離開了, 而且告訴他我打了911」

  • Dispatcher: Uh-huh.

    「以前他闖入過我家,攻擊了我」

  • Woman: Um, yeah, so ...

    接線人員:「呃…」

  • Dispatcher: Is there any way you could safely leave the residence?

    女子:「呃,那…」

  • Woman: No, I can't, because he's blocking pretty much my only way out.

    接線人員: 「你有沒有什麼方法可以離開那房子?」

  • Dispatcher: Well, the only thing I can do is give you some advice,

    女子:「不,我沒辦法, 他堵住唯一的出路」

  • and call the sheriff's office tomorrow.

    接線人員:「好吧, 我唯一能做的是給你一些建議。」

  • Obviously, if he comes in and unfortunately has a weapon

    「明天我會通知警長辦公室。」

  • or is trying to cause you physical harm, that's a different story.

    「當然,如果他闖入而且有武器,」

  • You know, the sheriff's office doesn't work up there.

    「還試圖造成你的身體傷害, 那就是另一回事了。」

  • I don't have anybody to send."

    「你知道,今天警長辦公室休息,」

  • Gary Haugen: Tragically, the woman inside that house

    「我無法派出任何人。」

  • was violently assaulted, choked and raped

    不幸地,這名女子就在自己房子裡

  • because this is what it means to live outside the rule of law.

    被暴力攻擊、緊扼,及強暴。

  • And this is where billions of our poorest live.

    這是生活在法律保護之外的情形,

  • What does that look like?

    也是那數十億窮人生活的環境。

  • In Bolivia, for example, if a man sexually assaults a poor child,

    那種生活是什麼樣子呢?

  • statistically, he's at greater risk of slipping in the shower and dying

    在玻利維亞, 如果一個男人強暴一個窮小孩,

  • than he is of ever going to jail for that crime.

    以統計數字來看, 他被送進監獄的機率,

  • In South Asia, if you enslave a poor person,

    比洗澡滑倒死掉還低。

  • you're at greater risk of being struck by lightning

    在南亞奴役一個人,

  • than ever being sent to jail for that crime.

    被送到監獄的機率

  • And so the epidemic of everyday violence, it just rages on.

    比被雷打到還低。

  • And it devastates our efforts to try to help billions of people

    這些瘟疫般的日常暴力仍然肆虐,

  • out of their two-dollar-a-day hell.

    摧毀我們努力去幫助的數十億人

  • Because the data just doesn't lie.

    脫離一天2美元地獄的嘗試。

  • It turns out that you can give all manner of goods and services

    因為資料不會說謊。

  • to the poor,

    結果你可以提供窮人

  • but if you don't restrain the hands of the violent bullies

    好的食物和服務,

  • from taking it all away,

    但是,如果你無法抑止 把東西從他們手中奪走的

  • you're going to be very disappointed in the long-term impact of your efforts.

    暴力霸凌,

  • So you would think that the disintegration of basic law enforcement

    你將會對長久以來努力的影響非常失望。

  • in the developing world would be a huge priority

    所以你會想,在開發中國家

  • for the global fight against poverty.

    基本執法的崩解是對抗貧窮,

  • But it's not.

    首要解決的問題,

  • Auditors of international assistance recently couldn't find

    不過,事實上並沒有

  • even one percent of aid going to protect the poor

    國際援助的審計員最近發現,

  • from the lawless chaos of everyday violence.

    對於保護窮人 免於無法無天的日常暴力的援助

  • And honestly, when we do talk about violence against the poor,

    連百分之一都沒有。

  • sometimes it's in the weirdest of ways.

    說實話,當我們談論對付窮人的暴力行為,

  • A fresh water organization tells a heart-wrenching story

    用的方式有時候頗為怪異。

  • of girls who are raped on the way to fetching water,

    提供新鮮水資源的組織, 說了一個令人痛心的故事:

  • and then celebrates the solution of a new well

    一個女孩在取水的路上被強暴,

  • that drastically shortens their walk.

    然後還是慶祝新井的落成,

  • End of