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  • Cigarettes and Marijuana and have been used for centuries, but only recently has the process of vaporizing these substances become popular.

    香菸和大麻已經被使用超過百年了,但最近蒸發這些物質的過程才變得很流行。

  • So, what does science have to say about this technology?

    所以,科學跟這個科技有什麼關係呢?

  • Is it actually better for you?

    它是真的對你比較好嗎?

  • When smoking normally, the heat from fire causes substances to change from a solid state to a vapor.

    當你在抽一般香菸時,火的熱能導致那些物質從固態轉成氣態。

  • In cigarettes, this releases nicotine which is absorbed into your bloodstream through the lungs, causing increased heart rate, constricted blood vessels, release of dopamine in the brain and feelings of alertness.

    在香菸中,這些被釋放的尼古丁會被你的肺吸收到血液中,因而提高心臟病發生機率、造成血管收縮、多巴胺在腦中的釋放、官能放大。

  • But because nicotine is a stimulant, once it’s no longer present, you crash and crave more, which ultimately leads to addiction in many people.

    但是因為尼古丁是一個刺激物,所以一但沒有它的時候,你會渴望擁有更多,最後會讓許多人上癮。

  • In the case of marijuana, the active component THC is aerosolized and follows the same pathway into your body, but with different effects which we explain in our videoYour Brain on Marijuanahere.

    以大麻來說,活性化合物 THC 被氣化了並照著一樣的方式進入你的身體,但有不同的影響,在我們影片"吸大麻中時大腦"有更多解釋。

  • Smoking only takes 6 seconds for the active compounds to reach your nervous system, unlike chewing tobacco or eating edible marijuana which takes much more time.

    由抽菸讓活性化合物進入到你的神經系統只需要 6 秒,不像嚼菸草或是吃可食用的大麻葉需要比較多時間。

  • But you have to inhale smoke in the process.

    但是在過程中你必須吸入煙。

  • This smoke consists of partially burned particles which creates tar in your body, has cancer causing effects, blackens teeth and destroys taste buds.

    這些煙包含了已燃燒的分子,這些分子在你的身體裡形成焦油,它會引發癌症、染黑你的牙齒和破壞你的味蕾。

  • This is where vaping comes in.

    因此電子煙誕生了。

  • If you can heat the active components enough to become aerosolized without starting a combustion reaction with the other compounds, then you theoretically get fast effects without the damage of smoke inhalation.

    如果你可以足夠加熱活性化合物讓它氣化而不燃燒其他分子,理論上就可以得到同樣的快速效果而且不用吸入那些有害的煙。

  • Vaping typically involves a glass or metal chamber which has an electrical current passing through it - this way it can heat to a controlled temperature creating a vapor with minimal combustion, meaning you inhale much less smoke.

    電子菸通常包含了一個玻璃或鐵的儲藏空間並會有電流經過,這個方式可控制菸燃燒的溫度,減少燃燒出有害物質,使你吸入較少的煙。

  • For marijuana users, vaporizers have become popular as the plant material can be heated to a specific temperature - usually between 185-210 degrees celsius - allowing just the THC containing vapor to be extracted.

    對於大麻的使用者,蒸發器變得很有流行是因為植物材料可以被加熱到一個特定的溫度,通常是介於185-210攝氏之間,剛好可以只讓 THC 釋放出來。

  • For e-cigarettes, using a liquid solution instead of dried tobacco has become popular; this e-liquid contains water, nicotine, a base and occasionally flavorings, and vaporizes at a much lower temperature.

    對於電子菸使用者來說,燃燒液態溶液取代乾菸草的方法越來越流行;這個電子液體包含了水、尼古丁、偶爾加入調味劑,它在較低的溫度下就可以蒸發。

  • But this is where things get tricky.

    但是這是一個很難對付的地方。

  • The “e-liquidcontains a base similar to that used in cosmetics and food which helps maintain moisture without creating sogginess.

    所謂的「電子液體」包含了一種基料,它類似我們用於化妝品和食物上能保水卻不會有濕軟感的物質。

  • One common base called propylene glycol, which is also used in theatrical smoke, is known to cause irritation to the eyes and respiratory infections.

    其中一種常見的基料叫丙二醇,它也使用於戲劇中的煙霧,是一種會對眼睛造成刺激和呼吸道感染的物質。

  • So what’s going to happen after prolonged inhalation in e-cigarettes?

    所以長期吸入電子菸會發生什麼事?

  • Scientists are still studying these effects, and even though in America the FDA has given the seal of approval, much is still unknown.

    科學家們還在研究它的影響,即使美國的食品及藥物管理局已給予它正式認可,但還有許多未知數。

  • E-liquid can also differ greatly between manufacturers with barely any regulation for additives.

    不同的製造商也會有不同的電子液體配方,它們對添加物沒有太多規範。

  • Some have been found to contain diacetyl, a chemical that is known to give butter itsbutterytaste.

    有一些被檢驗出內含有丁二銅,這種化學物質常被用於讓奶油有「奶油口感」。

  • Inhalation of this chemical can lead to scarring in the lungs known asPopcorn Lung”, named after hundreds of workers inhaled the chemical in a microwaveable popcorn factory and suffered irreversible lung damage.

    吸入這種化學物質會讓傷害肺部,稱作「爆米花肺」,因上百名員工在微波式爆米花製造工廠吸入這個化學物質導致肺部永久傷害而取的名字。

  • This is an example of how the lack of quality control in e-cigarettes should be a significant concern.

    這就該重視電子菸缺乏品質控管的一個原因。

  • But, current evidence does indicate that vaporizers administer nicotine with far less adverse effects due to decreased carcinogenic products and smoke inhalation.

    但是,近期證實吸電子菸的尼古丁較不會引起不良反應,因為吸入較少的致癌物質和煙。

  • But less harmful does not mean safe.

    然而,傷害較小不代表無害。

  • E-cigarettes with added flavouring (such as blueberry or grape) have been found to contain other harmful chemicals.

    那些有添加調味劑的(例如藍莓或葡萄口味)的電子菸被發現有包含其它有害的化學因子。

  • And second hand smoke is still an issue; exhaled particles from vaporizers known asultrafine particlesare known to affect pulmonary health.

    另外,二手菸仍然是一個問題,從蒸發器散發出的物質「超微粒子」會影響肺的健康。

  • Others are worried that because these “e-cigsare deemed healthier that they are becoming more appealing for young people.

    其它人也擔心因為認為這些電子菸似乎比較健康會對年輕人有更多吸引力。

  • A study reported that continued use of e-cigarettes for teens in grade 6 - 12 had increased from 6% - 20% over 3 years.

    研究報告顯示,從小學六年級到高中三年級中使用電子菸青少年的比例近三年來從 6% 提升到了 20% 。

  • On the other hand, much of the information we have on the adverse effects of smoking comes from long term studies, with cancers appearing much later life.

    另一方面,大部份我們知道關於吸菸造成的傷害都是從長期研究才能有結果的,因為晚年較容易得到癌症。

  • Since vaporizer use is relatively new we simply don’t have the same access to longitudinal studies.

    因為蒸發器的使用較新穎,我們還沒有長期研究可以獲得資訊。

  • So well wait to see what the future brings.

    所以我們得等待看它未來會有什麼影響。

  • Special thanks to audible for supporting this episode and giving you a free audiobook at audible.com/asap.

    特別感謝 audible 贊助這集並免費送給大家一本在 audible.com/asap 的有聲書。

  • This week we wanted to recommend the bookElon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX and the Quest for a Fantastic Futureby Ashlee Vance, which explores the full spectacle and arc of the geniuslife, work and vision.

    這週我們想要推薦一本由艾希莉‧凡斯所寫的書, Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX and the Quest for a Fantastic Future ,書中作者探索天才 Elon Musk 的一生、他的工作和願景。

  • You can get a free copy at audible.com/asap or any others of your choice from a massive selection!

    你可以在 audible.com/asap 上免費得到這本,你也可以從廣大的收藏中的挑選你想要的書!

  • We love them as they are great when youre on the go.

    我們很喜歡有聲書,因為它們可以隨身帶著走。

  • Don’t forget to ask your burning questions, and subscribe for more weekly science videos!

    別忘記問你很想知道答案的問題,還有訂閱就可以收看每週科學影片喔!

Cigarettes and Marijuana and have been used for centuries, but only recently has the process of vaporizing these substances become popular.

香菸和大麻已經被使用超過百年了,但最近蒸發這些物質的過程才變得很流行。

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 吸入 物質 尼古丁 香菸 大麻 燃燒

哪個比較傷身?傳統香菸和電子菸的比較 (Smoking vs Vaping)

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    nanco97 發佈於 2019 年 08 月 28 日
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