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  • Okay, I'm going to show you

    我又要來告訴你們

  • again something about our diets.

    一些有關我們飲食的事。

  • And I would like to know what the audience is,

    我想先知道現場聽衆有哪些人

  • and so who of you ever ate insects?

    曾有人吃過昆蟲嗎?

  • That's quite a lot.

    還真不少。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But still, you're not representing

    然而,在場的各位

  • the overall population of the Earth.

    並不代表全球人口的實況

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Because there's 80 percent out there that really eats insects.

    因爲,實際上全球百分之八十的人吃昆蟲

  • But this is quite good.

    而這樣是很好的。

  • Why not eat insects? Well first, what are insects?

    何不食昆蟲?首先我們要定義,什麽是昆蟲?

  • Insects are animals that walk around on six legs.

    昆蟲是有六隻腳的動物

  • And here you see just a selection.

    這裡你可以看到一些種類

  • There's six million species of insects on this planet,

    全球有六百萬種的昆蟲

  • six million species.

    六百萬種。

  • There's a few hundreds of mammals --

    哺乳類只有幾百種

  • six million species of insects.

    而昆蟲有六百萬種。

  • In fact, if we count all the individual organisms,

    而且,如果我們把所有生物個體算進來

  • we would come at much larger numbers.

    我們得到的不只這個數字。

  • In fact, of all animals on Earth,

    事實上,地球上的動物

  • of all animal species,

    所有的種類都算進去

  • 80 percent walks on six legs.

    百分之八十都是六隻腳的動物。

  • But if we would count all the individuals,

    如果我們把所有的生物個體都算進來

  • and we take an average weight of them,

    再取所有的平均重量

  • it would amount to something like 200 to 2,000 kilograms

    你我每個人會對應到

  • for each of you and me on Earth.

    大概200到2000公斤重的昆蟲。

  • That means that in terms of biomass,

    這表示,就生物質量來説

  • insects are more abundant than we are,

    昆蟲佔的比重比我們人類還大很多。

  • and we're not on a planet of men,

    我們住的不是人的星球

  • but we're on a planet of insects.

    而是昆蟲的星球。

  • Insects are not only there in nature,

    昆蟲不只存在自然裏

  • but they also are involved in our economy,

    也跟我們的經濟息息相關

  • usually without us knowing.

    這點大部分的我們都不知道。

  • There was an estimation,

    根據幾年前

  • a conservative estimation, a couple of years ago

    一項保守的估算說

  • that the U.S. economy

    昆蟲給美國經濟

  • benefited by 57 billion

    每年帶來

  • dollars per year.

    570億美金的效益。

  • It's a number -- very large --

    對美國的經濟來説

  • a contribution to the economy of the United States for free.

    這是一個十分大,但免費的貢獻。

  • And so I looked up what the economy was paying

    我也順便查了

  • for the war in Iraq

    同一年

  • in the same year.

    花在伊拉克戰爭的費用

  • It was 80 billion U.S. dollars.

    是800億美金。

  • Well we know that that

    我們都知道

  • was not a cheap war.

    伊拉克戰爭並不便宜。

  • So insects, just for free,

    但是昆蟲,免費地

  • contribute to the economy of the United States

    為美國的經濟帶來

  • with about the same order of magnitude,

    相當於伊戰規模的效益

  • just for free, without everyone knowing.

    卻沒有任何人知道。

  • And not only in the States,

    而且不止在美國,在任何國家、

  • but in any country, in any economy.

    任何經濟體系裏都有這樣的效益

  • What do they do?

    昆蟲們是怎麽辦到的?

  • They remove dung, they pollinate our crops.

    昆蟲會分解糞便,幫農作物授粉

  • A third of all the fruits that we eat

    我們吃的水果

  • are all a result

    有三分之一

  • of insects taking care of the reproduction of plants.

    都是藉由昆蟲授粉而生産的。

  • They control pests,

    昆蟲抑制害蟲的蔓延

  • and they're food for animals.

    也是動物的食物來源

  • They're at the start of food chains.

    他們位於食物鏈的底層

  • Small animals eat insects.

    小動物吃昆蟲

  • Even larger animals eat insects.

    大型的動物也吃昆蟲。

  • But the small animals that eat insects

    吃昆蟲的小動物

  • are being eaten by larger animals,

    被大動物吃掉

  • still larger animals.

    又被更大的動物吃掉

  • And at the end of the food chain, we are eating them as well.

    位於食物鏈末端的我們也吃昆蟲。

  • There's quite a lot of people that are eating insects.

    有很多人吃昆蟲

  • And here you see me

    這是我在中國

  • in a small, provincial town in China, Lijiang --

    一個人口兩百萬

  • about two million inhabitants.

    叫麗江的小城。

  • If you go out for dinner, like in a fish restaurant,

    你去吃晚餐,就像在海產店

  • where you can select which fish you want to eat,

    你挑選你要吃的魚

  • you can select which insects you would like to eat.

    在這裡你挑選你要吃的昆蟲。

  • And they prepare it in a wonderful way.

    廚師把昆蟲變成色香味俱全的菜。

  • And here you see me enjoying a meal

    你看我在吃的昆蟲大餐有

  • with caterpillars, locusts,

    毛毛蟲、蝗蟲

  • bee pupae -- delicacies.

    蜜蜂等等。

  • And you can eat something new everyday.

    每天還有新菜色

  • There's more than 1,000 species of insects

    全球有超過1000種的昆蟲

  • that are being eaten all around the globe.

    被人類食用。

  • That's quite a bit more

    跟我們吃的

  • than just a few mammals that we're eating,

    像牛、豬、羊

  • like a cow or a pig

    區區幾種哺乳類比起來

  • or a sheep.

    這是相當大的數量。

  • More than 1,000 species --

    超過1000種

  • an enormous variety.

    這種類是很多的

  • And now you may think, okay,

    你可能會想

  • in this provincial town in China they're doing that, but not us.

    好吧,中國這個鄉下地方的人吃蟲,我們可不吃。

  • Well we've seen already that quite some of you

    我們剛才看到了

  • already ate insects maybe occasionally,

    在場各位裏有些人偶爾可能吃昆蟲。

  • but I can tell you that every one of you

    我可以跟你們說,

  • is eating insects, without any exception.

    所有的人都吃昆蟲,而且沒有例外。

  • You're eating at least

    每一年你至少

  • 500 grams per year.

    吃進了五百公克

  • What are you eating?

    怎麽會呢?

  • Tomato soup, peanut butter,

    番茄湯、花生醬

  • chocolate, noodles --

    巧克力、麵條等

  • any processed food that you're eating

    所有處理過的食品

  • contains insects,

    都包含昆蟲

  • because insects are here all around us,

    因爲昆蟲無所不在

  • and when they're out there in nature

    在大自然裏、在我們的左右、

  • they're also in our crops.

    在穀物裏。

  • Some fruits get some insect damage.

    有些水果受到蟲咬

  • Those are the fruits, if they're tomato,

    像是番茄、

  • that go to the tomato soup.

    就被加工做成湯

  • If they don't have any damage, they go to the grocery.

    沒被蟲咬的水果才會拿到市場來賣

  • And that's your view of a tomato.

    這是你印象中的漂亮的番茄。

  • But there's tomatoes that end up in a soup,

    但是也有很多番茄直接被做成湯

  • and as long as they meet

    食品裏可能出現各式各樣的東西

  • the requirements of the food agency,

    只要能符合

  • there can be all kinds of things in there,

    食品管理單位的規定

  • no problem.

    就沒有問題。

  • In fact, why would we put these balls in the soup,

    事實上,番茄湯裡何必再放肉?

  • there's meat in there anyway?

    裡面早就有(蟲)肉了

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • In fact, all our processed foods

    所有處理過的食品

  • contain more proteins

    所含的蛋白質的量

  • than we would be aware of.

    都比我們認爲的還多。

  • So anything is a good protein source already.

    所以基本上所有的食品都含蛋白質。

  • Now you may say,

    現在你可能會說

  • "Okay, so we're eating 500 grams just by accident."

    “好吧,這500克是我們不小心吃進去的。”

  • We're even doing this on purpose.

    事實上,在很多食品裏

  • In a lot of food items that we have --

    我們也會故意加蟲進去。

  • I have only two items

    我這裡有兩樣

  • here on the slide --

    在投影片上

  • pink cookies or surimi sticks

    粉紅色餅乾和蟹肉棒

  • or, if you like, Campari --

    或是,Campari烈酒

  • a lot of our food products that are of a red color

    很多我們吃的紅色的東西

  • are dyed with a natural dye.

    是用天然紅色染料染的。

  • The surimi sticks

    蟹肉棒

  • [of] crabmeat, or is being sold as crab meat,

    是蟹肉,或是仿蟹肉

  • is white fish

    實際是白魚肉

  • that's being dyed with cochineal.

    用胭脂蟲酸染色的。

  • Cochineal is a product

    胭脂蟲酸是

  • of an insect that lives off these cacti.

    是寄生在仙人掌上的蟲作的染料。

  • It's being produced in large amounts,

    胭脂蟲酸是量產的產物

  • 150 to 180 metric tons per year

    年產量為150到180公噸

  • in the Canary Islands in Peru,

    主要產在祕魯的加那利群島

  • and it's big business.

    是一項重要的產業。

  • One gram of cochineal

    每一克胭脂蟲酸

  • costs about 30 euros.

    要價30歐元

  • One gram of gold

    黃金一公克

  • is 30 euros.

    也是30歐元

  • So it's a very precious thing

    所以我們使用的這個食物染料

  • that we're using to dye our foods.

    是非常珍貴的。

  • Now the situation in the world is going to change

    對你我和這個地球而言

  • for you and me, for everyone on this Earth.

    現在世界的局勢將會改變。

  • The human population is growing very rapidly

    這世界的人口正在急速增加

  • and is growing exponentially.

    成指數爆炸性地增加

  • Where, at the moment, we have

    現在全球大約

  • something between six and seven billion people,

    有60到70億的人口

  • it will grow to about nine billion

    到2050年

  • in 2050.

    會增加到90億。

  • That means that we have a lot more mouths to feed,

    這表示會有更多張嘴嗷嗷待哺。

  • and this is something that worries more and more people.

    越來越多人開始為這個為這個問題擔心。

  • There was an FAO conference last October

    聯合國糧農組織去年十月

  • that was completely devoted to this.

    開了一個會專門來討論這個問題。

  • How are we going to feed this world?

    如何能產生足夠的食物?

  • And if you look at the figures up there,

    你如果看看這些數字

  • it says that we have a third more mouths to feed,

    說世界人口將增加33%

  • but we need an agricultural production increase

    但是農業產出必須增加70%

  • of 70 percent.

    才能餵飽所有人。

  • And that's especially because this world population

    這是因爲,

  • is increasing,

    雖然人口在增加

  • and it's increasing, not only in numbers,

    但增加的不只是量

  • but we're also getting wealthier,

    我們也越來越有錢

  • and anyone that gets wealthier starts to eat more

    有錢的人除了吃得更多

  • and also starts to eat more meat.

    也吃更多的肉。

  • And meat, in fact, is something

    而肉,事實上

  • that costs a lot

    要耗費

  • of our agricultural production.

    更多的農業產能。

  • Our diet consists, [in] some part, of animal proteins,

    我們的飲食的一部分是動物性蛋白

  • and at the moment, most of us here

    而這些動物性蛋白我們大部分

  • get it from livestock,

    是從畜牧牲畜、

  • from fish, from game.

    從魚、家禽那裏得來,

  • And we eat quite a lot of it.

    我們吃的動物性蛋白還不少。

  • In the developed world it's on average

    在已開發國家裏

  • 80 kilograms per person per year,

    平均每人每年吃80公斤的肉

  • which goes up to 120

    而在美國

  • in the United States

    更是高達120公斤

  • and a bit lower in some other countries,

    在一些國家雖然吃得少一些

  • but on average 80 kilograms

    但是平均

  • per person per year.

    每人每年80公斤。

  • In the developing world it's much lower.

    在開發中國家就少很多

  • It's 25 kilograms per person per year.

    每人每年25公斤

  • But it's increasing enormously.

    但急速增長中。

  • In China in the last 20 years,

    在中國過去20年裏

  • it increased from 20 to 50,

    消耗的肉從20增加到50公斤

  • and it's still increasing.

    還在持續增加中。

  • So if a third of the world population

    所以,如果世界三分之一的人口

  • is going to increase its meat consumption

    消耗的肉量將會

  • from 25 to 80 on average,

    從25增加到80公斤

  • and a third of the world population

    另外,三分之一的世界人口

  • is living in China and in India,

    住在中國和印度

  • we're having an enormous demand on meat.

    那麽我們對肉將會有很大量的需求。

  • And of course, we are not there to say

    當然,我們不能說

  • that's only for us, it's not for them.

    只有我們能吃肉,這三分之一的人不能吃肉。

  • They have the same share that we have.

    他們跟我們有一樣的權利。

  • Now to start with, I should say

    說起來,第一點我覺得

  • that we are eating way too much meat

    在歐美國家裏

  • in the Western world.

    我們吃太多肉了。

  • We could do with much, much less --

    事實上我們可以少吃一點的

  • and I know, I've been a vegetarian for a long time,

    這點我很清楚,因爲我吃素很久了

  • and you can easily do without anything.

    我知道肉可以不吃

  • You'll get proteins in any kind of food anyway.

    從很多食物你都可以獲取蛋白質。

  • But then there's a lot of problems

    再者,肉的生産過程裏

  • that come with meat production,

    有很多問題

  • and we're being faced with that more and more often.

    而這些問題的出現也越來越頻繁。

  • The first problem that we're facing is human health.

    首當其衝的問題就是人體的健康。

  • Pigs are quite like us.

    豬跟人很像

  • They're even models in medicine,

    不單做人類藥劑試驗的對象

  • and we can even transplant organs from a pig to a human.

    也還可以移植器官給人類。

  • That means that pigs also share diseases with us.

    這表示說豬也和人有很多共同的疾病

  • And a pig disease,

    豬的疾病

  • a pig virus, and a human virus

    一株豬的病毒,和人的病毒

  • can both proliferate,

    都是會增殖的。

  • and because of their kind of reproduction,

    因爲兩種病毒的複製

  • they can combine and produce a new virus.

    可以交叉而產生一株新的病毒

  • This has happened in the Netherlands in the 1990s

    這在1990年代在荷蘭爆發的傳統豬瘟裏

  • during the classical swine fever outbreak.

    就發現這樣的事。

  • You get a new disease that can be deadly.

    而這種新的病是會致命的。

  • We eat insects -- they're so distantly related from us

    因爲昆蟲和我們之間物種差異十分大

  • that this doesn't happen.

    這種事是不會發生的。

  • So that's one point for insects.

    所以在這方面,昆蟲獲得一分。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And there's the conversion factor.

    另外還有生産報酬率的因素

  • You take 10 kilograms of feed,

    10公斤的飼料

  • you can get one kilogram of beef,

    可以養出一公斤的牛肉

  • but you can get nine kilograms of locust meat.

    但是蝗蟲肉可以養出9公斤

  • So if you would be an entrepreneur,

    如果你是老闆

  • what would you do?

    你要養那一種?

  • With 10 kilograms of input,

    同樣是10公斤的飼料

  • you can get either one or nine kg. of output.

    你可以得到1或9公斤的產出。

  • So far we're taking

    目前我們還都是選擇

  • the one, or up to five kilograms of output.

    1公斤,最多到5公斤的產出

  • We're not taking the bonus yet.

    紅利都還放在那邊沒人拿呢,

  • We're not taking the nine kilograms of output yet.

    我們都還沒去拿這9公斤的產出,

  • So that's two points for insects.

    所以到這裡昆蟲得兩分

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And there's the environment.

    再來有環境的考量

  • If we take 10 kilograms of food --

    如果我們用10公斤的飼料

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • and it results in one kilogram of beef,

    來產出1公斤的牛肉

  • the other nine kilograms are waste,

    那麽有9公斤是排泄掉了

  • and a lot of that is manure.

    其中大部分變成糞便排出

  • If you produce insects, you have less manure

    如果你改養昆蟲,每公斤飼料投入

  • per kilogram of meat that you produce.

    所產生的糞便量是比較少的

  • So less waste.

    產生的排泄物較少。

  • Furthermore, per kilogram of manure,

    再者,就每一公斤的糞便

  • you have much, much less ammonia

    產生的氨氣

  • and fewer greenhouse gases

    和溫室氣體而言,

  • when you have insect manure

    昆蟲糞便在這方面

  • than when you have cow manure.

    比起牛糞又少了很多。

  • So you have less waste