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  • What is Evil?

    什麼是惡?

  • Traditional conceptions of evil focus on the utter monstrosity of evil actionsthe complete awe and unthinkability of horror.

    惡的傳統概念,都集中在邪惡作為的獸性上,也就是絕對的敬畏與意想不到的恐怖。

  • Called pure or radical evilthis is the sort of evil associated with antagonists or villainsit is the antithesis of good.

    這種與敵對勢力或惡人相關,而我們稱之為純粹或根本的惡,往往是善的對立面。

  • For Hannah Arendt, a German-Jewish philosopher, evil is not always as simple as an overriding desire to do no good.

    但對漢娜.鄂蘭,一位猶太裔德國籍的哲學家來說,惡並不是一股完全不想為善的衝動那麼簡單。

  • Rather, Arendt chooses to focus her discussion of evil on this man: Adolf Eichmann.

    相反地,鄂蘭決定將她的討論焦點放在這個這個男人的邪惡上,他就是阿道夫.愛希曼。

  • Put on trial for numerous horrors, Eichmann was found guilty of crimes against humanity

    艾希曼因無數項令人髮指且悖逆人性的罪名而受審,

  • especially against the Jewish people, for overseeing the trains that transported people to Nazi death camps.

    尤其是針對猶太人,因為他負責監督那些將猶太人送到納粹死亡集中營的火車。

  • On May 31, 1962 he was hanged.

    在 1962 年的 5月 31日,他被吊死。

  • Arendt traveled to Jerusalem to cover the Eichmann trial.

    鄂蘭到耶路撒冷來報導艾希曼的審判。

  • She expected to encounter a cold calculating monster, a man who reveled in his malicious deeds.

    她預期見到一個冷血且工於心計的怪獸,一個沉迷在自己邪惡罪行中的男人。

  • Instead what she found was something far more shocking.

    豈料,她見到的遠超出她的預期。

  • Eichmann was an altogether innocuous and seemingly normal little manin some sense, he was a cliché, a stereotypical bureaucrat,

    艾希曼是一個完全無害而且看似平凡矮小的男人。某個程度上來說,他是一個不值一提的標準官僚,

  • a sort of sleepwalker in life—a person who refused to comprehend the weight of his crimes.

    一個生命中的夢遊者,一個拒絕理解自己罪行嚴重性的人。

  • Eichmann wasn’t afflicted with an overriding sense of maliciousnessinstead what Arendt found was a man that was thoughtless,

    艾希曼並未因絕對的惡性而困擾;相反地,鄂蘭看見的是一個無知的人,

  • that never stopped to put himself in someone else’s shoes, that refused to think from another’s perspective.

    一個不曾從他人的角度看事情,也不願意從他人的觀點來思考的人。

  • She found someone with an unquestioning sense of obligation to authority

    她發現一個絕對服從權威的人,

  • who all his life he had been a follower—a person eager to fit in and be led

    他一輩子都是一個跟隨者,一個非常願意適應並且被領導的人,

  • he suffered from blind allegiance and a complete self-deception about the morality of his actions.

    他因盲從而受難,並且對自己行為的道德性進行徹底的自我欺瞞。

  • This made Arendt rethink the concept of evilfor Eichmann wasn’t a demon in any obvious way.

    這讓鄂蘭重新思考惡的概念,因為艾希曼不管從任何角度來看,都不是一個惡魔。

  • What she encountered was the banality of evilan everyday sort of evil: a bureaucrat eager to do his job.

    她面臨到的是一種日常的惡,也就是「邪惡的平庸性」,而這只不過是一個官僚迫切的想完成他的工作。

  • One who lacked empathy or perspective.

    一個缺乏同理心與遠見的人。

  • You don't need to be cruel, sadistic, or vicious to embody evil

    你並不需要很殘忍、有虐待性格,或是品行惡毒才能為惡,

  • all that a person has to do is blindly follow the orders of another person.

    所有一個人需要的,只是盲目的遵從他人的指示。

  • For Arendt that is the banality of evil.

    鄂蘭認為,這就是邪惡的平庸性。

  • So, dear viewer, what can be done to save humanity from mindless obedience?

    那麼,我們親愛的觀賞者,我們能做些什麼來避免人性落入無知的服從呢?

What is Evil?

什麼是惡?

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 邪惡 官僚 罪行 服從 無知 男人

邪惡是什麼? (What Is Evil? – 8-Bit Philosophy)

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    Jacky Avocado Tao 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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