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  • People around the world celebrate many different holidays for many different reasons. But no

    因為各種不同的原因,世上的人們有各種不同的慶祝方式

  • matter how we celebrate, most of us have one thing in common, and that's sitting down to

    但不論何種方式,大多有一個共同點,

  • a big holiday meal together.

    就是一起坐下來,享用一頓節日大餐

  • We're not the only social animals that sit down to eat together, but we are the only

    我們不是唯一會大家坐下一起吃東西的群居動物,但我們是唯一會煮過才吃的

  • ones who cook. Cultural anthropologist Claude Levi-Strass, cooking establishes the difference

    文化人類學家Claude Levi-Strass說,因為烹煮讓人和動物產生了不同

  • between animals and people, although I think he'd agree that pants make a big difference

    雖然我認為他會同意,穿褲子也產生了很大的不同

  • too. I think he was probably talking about the cultural attachments to cooking, the ceremonies,

    我認為他可能是指一些飲食文化上的附屬品,例如慶典或餐具,

  • or the tools, but he was right in a completely different way.

    但在另一個完全不同的方面,他是對的

  • Cooking literally allowed us to become human, in the most basic biological and evolutionary

    烹飪(cooking)本身就是我們之所以為人類的原因,不論烹飪(cooking)這個字的在生物學或演化上的意義

  • sense of the word. This theory is championed by people like Harvard's Richard Wrangham.

    這個理論被哈佛的 Richard Wrangham 支持

  • He says, above all else, cooking allowed us to transition from primitive ape to complex

    他說這個原因高於一切,因為烹飪讓我們從原始的猿人轉變為複雜的人類

  • human. it allowed us to feed our growing brains, and it opened up a lot of free time.

    烹飪讓我們餵食了自己不斷增長的大腦,而且創造了很多自由的時間

  • The success of human culture and evolution is because of our remarkably advanced brain,

    人類在文化和演化上的成功,是因為我們非常先進的大腦

  • it's 100 billion neurons full of language and creativity and curiosity, but that brain

    它高達一千億個的神經元,充滿著語言、創意和好奇心。但我們大腦也付出了代價

  • comes at a cost. It uses 1/5th of the calories that we eat. I guess with great power, comes

    它佔用了我們飲食中的五分之一的能量。我想愈大的能力,

  • great hunger.

    伴隨愈大的飢餓感。(蜘蛛人的梗)

  • We've got enormous brains in relation to our body size, and that's one of the key differences

    對比身體大小,我們的大腦佔了很大的比例,而這就是我們和那些原始兄弟們不同的關鍵原因之一

  • between us and our primate cousins. Take gorillas for instance: they're three times as massive

    以大猩猩為例:牠們的體積是人的三倍大,

  • as humans, but their brains only have one-third the number of neurons. Scientists actually

    但牠們大腦中神經元的數目只有人的三分之一

  • estimate that for a gorilla to have a brain the size of ours, they'd have to add 700 calories

    科學家們估計如果大猩猩要運作和我們一樣大小的腦袋,牠們每天要多進食700卡路里的能量

  • to their daily diet. The thing is gorillas already spend 80% of their daylight hours

    問題是大猩猩每天已經要花80%的時間在吃東西了

  • eating. Their diet is mostly leaves and fruits, and all raw. Chimpanzees, too, spend more

    他們的食物主要是葉子和水果,而且都是生的,沒有煮過。黑猩猩也是要花一半以上的時間吃東西

  • than half of their day eating, compared with us, that's just 5%, but most of that's probably waiting

    和我們人類的5%比較,但我們大部份時間可能都在

  • in line.

    排隊等候

  • Gorillas and chimps share more in common with human ancestors like Australopithecus than

    跟我們比較起來,人類祖先南方古猿和大猩猩/黑猩猩有更多共同點

  • they do with us. Compared to humans, gorilla skulls have enormous jaws, and huge teeth

    相比於人類,大猩猩頭骨有巨大的下顎和牙齒,

  • and powerful ridges to attach chewing muscles, which are all adaptations to a diet that consists

    還有附在強大的脊骨上的咀嚼肌,這些都是為了適應緻密的植物性纖維為主

  • mainly of dense, fibrous plant matter.

    組成的飲食

  • We see a lot of those same traits in Australopithecus, but then something happened around 1.8 million

    我們在南方古猿看到很多相同的性狀特徵,但接著大約180萬年前,發生了一些事,

  • years ago, brains and body sizes doubled, in the form of Homo erectus, the first modern

    大腦和身體的大小增加了一倍,人屬的直立人,第一個現代人類的形式

  • human.

  • While Australopithecus looks distinctly ape-like, if you saw Homo erectus walking down the street,

    雖然南方古猿看起來明顯的和猿猴一樣,但如果你看到的直立人走在馬路上,

  • you'd pretty much recognize it as human, except for the lack of pants again. But inside of

    你幾乎就能認出他是人類,除了身上還是沒穿褲子...

  • Homo erectus' basically human skull is a basically human brain, which means that it had figured

    但基本上直立人的頭骨內就是人類的大腦,

  • out a way to get a lot more energy out of its food.

    這意味著它已經想出了辦法,從食物中獲得更多的能量

  • Part of that is thanks to hunting and eating large animals, but also to tools that allowed

    其中的一部分是由於狩獵和吃進大型動物,

  • it to cut meat from large animal carcasses and break bones to get at their calorie-rich

    而且由於有工具,就能從大型動物屍體切下肉,並破壞骨頭吃到熱量豐富的骨髓

  • marrow. While Homo erectus probably ate meat when they could get it, we think they still

    即使直立人在能取得肉時就會吃肉,但我們認為他們還是以吃菜為主,

  • ate mostly plants, and it's cooking that made the difference.

    而因為烹飪又產生了不同

  • When plants are cooked, it breaks down their tough cell walls, which lets them release

    當植物被烹煮過,能破壞堅固的植物細胞壁,使得植物釋放更多的養份,

  • more of their nutrients, and it makes them easier to chew. Not only that, heat denatures

    並讓植物更容易被咀嚼。不光如此,熱能讓蛋白質螺旋被解開並改變性質,

  • or unwinds proteins, which allows our bodies to digest them easier and it inactivates plant

    讓我們身體能更容易的消化它們,而且使植物內的毒性失去活性

  • toxins. This means that our ancestors could have gotten access to more foods, and more

    這指出我們的祖先能比以往的任何時期,獲得更多的食物和能量,

  • energy than ever before. This works with animal and meat products too, you can see it every

    這在動物性肉類的產品上也行得通,當我們煮雞蛋時就能看到,

  • time you cook an egg, as you go from clear to white.

    從透明到變成白色

  • There's a catch, though. Scientists haven't found definitive proofthat Homo erectus harnessed

    即使這有一個潛藏的問題。科學家們仍無法發現確切的證據,證明直立人在180萬年前就會利用火,

  • fire 1.8 million years ago, but that could be because things like burnt sticks don't

    但那可能是因為像燃燒的木頭棍子很難變成化石,

  • fossilize well, and well, fossils from that era are pretty rare to begin with.

    而且那個時代的化石是很罕見的

  • Cooking can mean a lot more than just putting your food over fire, though. Maybe it means

    然而烹飪的意義比單單放食物在火上煮要多多了

  • crushing it up into a more edible form, or it could mean preserving it and breaking down

    可能意味著磨碎成更可食用的形式,或用鹽巴分解醃製以保存食物,

  • with salt, maybe it means cutting it into pieces and drying it up in the sun, or mashing

    可能指切成片狀然後放在太陽下曬乾,或搗成糊狀讓食物像這樣子來食用,

  • it up into an edible form like this, and maybe you let nature do the work for you.

    可能你讓大自然去做這份工作(如釀酒)

  • Because our ancestors were spending less time eating, that gave them a bunch of free time

    因為我們的祖先花在吃的時間不長,所以讓他們有一堆時間能去做一些事

  • to do things like develop language, or invent art, and tools. Chimps mostly eat food where

    像發展語言、發明藝術或工具。黑猩猩大多在發現食物的地方就吃下去了,

  • they find it, and they'll gladly take food from another chimp. "I drink your milkshake"

    牠們會很樂意從另一隻黑猩猩的手上拿走食物。「我要喝你的奶昔」(黑金企業的梗)

  • But when our ancestors started cooking food, that means they'd bring it back to a central

    但當我們的祖先開始烹煮食物,也指出他們會帶這些食物到一個重要的位置,

  • location, and that means they'd have to strengthen social bonds and cooperation. Maybe cooking

    意味著他們要強化社交與合作

  • helped us evolve to just get along.

    也許烹飪幫助我們進化成能夠"和睦相處"

  • They would have had to invent new tools to carry their food around in, our children would

    他們將不得不發明新的工具來裝他們的食物,

  • have lived longer, and so would our adults. We ate our way to becoming a stronger species.

    小孩和成人都會因更好的營養而活得更久。用我們的方式來"吃",讓我們成為更強大的物種

  • When you sit down to your next holiday meal and your weird Uncle Larry starts talking

    下次當你坐下來享用你的節日大餐,而你有點怪的Larry叔叔又開始談起政治時,

  • about politics again, well, just remember that cooking, together, is a big part of what

    就想想因為一起烹飪用餐,是讓我們之所以為人類的一個重要原因,

  • makes you human, and hey, at least you'll have something else to talk about. Stay curious.

    或者起碼你會有其他東西可以聊。保持好奇心

  • If you'd like to know more about the evolution of human cooking, check out Richard Wrangham's

    如果你想了解更多人類烹飪的演變,

  • "Catching Fire - How Cooking Made Us Human" I've got a link down in the description. And

    看看Richard Wrangham的書《引來火燄 - 烹飪如何讓我們成為人》,連結在下面的訊息中

  • of course, if you'd like to continue to feed your brain, well, subscribe.

    當然如果你想要持續的餵食你的大腦,訂閱我們

  • Special thanks to the Thinkery, Austin's new children's museum, where science and families

    特別感謝Thinkery,Austin的全新兒童博物館,在那裡科學和家庭並肩一起遊玩

  • play side by side. See ya later.

    再見囉

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 烹飪 食物 人類 大腦 猩猩 黑猩猩

為什麼人會是唯一烹煮食物的動物?人類的進步象徵? (Why Do We Cook?)

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    陳震寰 發佈於 2016 年 04 月 15 日
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