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  • The Charter of the United Nations is the foundational treaty of the international organization called

  • the United Nations. It was signed at the San Francisco War Memorial and Performing Arts

  • Center in San Francisco, United States, on 26 June 1945, by 50 of the 51 original member

  • countries. It entered into force on 24 October 1945, after being ratified by the five permanent

  • members of the Security Councilthe Republic of China under Chapter II of the United Nations

  • Charter, France, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom, and the United

  • Statesand a majority of the other signatories. As a charter, it is a constituent treaty,

  • and all members are bound by its articles. Furthermore, Article 103 of the Charter states

  • that obligations to the United Nations prevail over all other treaty obligations. Most countries

  • in the world have now ratified the Charter.

  • Summary The Charter consists of a preamble and a series

  • of articles grouped into chapters. The preamble consists of two principal parts.

  • The first part contains a general call for the maintenance of peace and international

  • security and respect for human rights. The second part of the preamble is a declaration

  • in a contractual style that the governments of the peoples of the United Nations have

  • agreed to the Charter. Chapter I sets forth the purposes of the United

  • Nations, including the important provisions of the maintenance of international peace

  • and security. Chapter II defines the criteria for membership

  • in the United Nations. Chapters III-XV, the bulk of the document,

  • describe the organs and institutions of the UN and their respective powers.

  • Chapters XVI and Chapter XVII describe arrangements for integrating the UN with established international

  • law. Chapters XVIII and Chapter XIX provide for

  • amendment and ratification of the Charter. The following chapters deal with the enforcement

  • powers of UN bodies: Chapter VI describes the Security Council's

  • power to investigate and mediate disputes; Chapter VII describes the Security Council's

  • power to authorize economic, diplomatic, and military sanctions, as well as the use of

  • military force, to resolve disputes; Chapter VIII makes it possible for regional

  • arrangements to maintain peace and security within their own region;

  • Chapters IX and Chapter X describe the UN's powers for economic and social cooperation,

  • and the Economic and Social Council that oversees these powers;

  • Chapters XII and Chapter XIII describe the Trusteeship Council, which oversaw decolonization;

  • Chapters XIV and Chapter XV establish the powers of, respectively, the International

  • Court of Justice and the United Nations Secretariat. Chapters XVI through Chapter XIX deal respectively

  • with XVI: miscellaneous provisions, XVII: transitional security arrangements related

  • to World War II, XVIII: the charter amendment process, and XIX: ratification of the charter.

  • Charter Provisions Preamble

  • The Preamble to the treaty reads as follows:

  • We the peoples of the United Nations determined to save succeeding generations from the scourge

  • of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and

  • to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person,

  • in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and

  • to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from

  • treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and

  • to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,

  • And for these ends to practice tolerance and live together in

  • peace with one another as good neighbours, and

  • to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and

  • to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed

  • force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and

  • to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement

  • of all peoples, Have resolved to combine our efforts to accomplish

  • these aims

  • Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in the city of San

  • Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed

  • to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization

  • to be known as the United Nations. Although the Preamble is an integral part

  • of the Charter, it does not set out any of the rights or obligations of member states;

  • its purpose is to serve as an interpretative guide for the provisions of the Charter through

  • the highlighting of some of the core motives of the founders of the organisation.

  • Chapter I: Purposes And Principles

  • Article 1 The Purposes of the United Nations are

  • To maintain international peace and security, to take effective collective measures for

  • the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of

  • aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and

  • in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement

  • of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace;

  • To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal

  • rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to

  • strengthen universal peace; To achieve international co-operation in solving

  • international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in

  • promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all

  • without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion; and

  • To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common

  • ends. Article 2

  • The Organization and its Members, in pursuit of the Purposes stated in Article 1, shall

  • act in accordance with the following Principles: The Organization is based on the principle

  • of the sovereign equality of all its Members. All Members, in order to ensure to all of

  • them the rights and benefits resulting from membership, shall fulfill in good faith the

  • obligations assumed by them in accordance with the present Charter.

  • All Members shall settle their international disputes by peaceful means in such a manner

  • that international peace and security, and justice, are not endangered.

  • All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force

  • against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other

  • manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations.

  • All Members shall give the United Nations every assistance in any action it takes in

  • accordance with the present Charter, and shall refrain from giving assistance to any state

  • against which the United Nations is taking preventive or enforcement action.

  • The Organization shall ensure that states which are not Members of the United Nations

  • act in accordance with these Principles so far as may be necessary for the maintenance

  • of international peace and security. Nothing contained in the present Charter shall

  • authorize the United Nations to intervene in matters which are essentially within the

  • domestic jurisdiction of any state or shall require the Members to submit such matters

  • to settlement under the present Charter; but this principle shall not prejudice the application

  • of enforcement measures under Chapter Vll. Chapter II: Membership

  • Chapter II of the United Nations Charter deals with membership of the United Nations organization

  • Chapter III: Organs

  • There are established as principal organs of the United Nations: a General Assembly,

  • a Security Council, an Economic and Social Council, a Trusteeship Council, an International

  • Court of Justice and a Secretariat. Such subsidiary organs as may be found necessary

  • may be established in accordance with the present Charter.

  • Chapter IV: The General Assembly

  • Chapter V: The Security Council

  • COMPOSITION Article 23

  • 1. The Security Council shall consist of fifteen Members of the United Nations. The Republic

  • of China, France, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain

  • and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America shall be permanent members of the

  • Security Council. The General Assembly shall elect ten other Members of the United Nations

  • to be non-permanent members of the Security Council, due regard being specially paid,

  • in the first instance to the contribution of Members of the United Nations to the maintenance

  • of international peace and security and to the other purposes of the Organization, and

  • also to equitable geographical distribution. 2. The non-permanent members of the Security

  • Council shall be elected for a term of two years. In the first election of the non-permanent

  • members after the increase of the membership of the Security Council from eleven to fifteen,

  • two of the four additional members shall be chosen for a term of one year. A retiring

  • member shall not be eligible for immediate re-election.

  • 3. Each member of the Security Council shall have one representative.

  • FUNCTIONS and POWERS Article 24

  • 1. In order to ensure prompt and effective action by the United Nations, its Members

  • confer on the Security Council primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace

  • and security, and agree that in carrying out its duties under this responsibility the Security

  • Council acts on their behalf. 2. In discharging these duties the Security

  • Council shall act in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations. The

  • specific powers granted to the Security Council for the discharge of these duties are laid

  • down in Chapters VI, VII, VIII, and XII. 3. The Security Council shall submit annual

  • and, when necessary, special reports to the General Assembly for its consideration.

  • Article 25 The Members of the United Nations agree to

  • accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council in accordance with the present

  • Charter. Article 26

  • In order to promote the establishment and maintenance of international peace and security

  • with the least diversion for armaments of the world's human and economic resources,

  • the Security Council shall be responsible for formulating, with the assistance of the

  • Military Staff Committee referred to in Article 47, plans to be submitted to the Members of

  • the United Nations for the establishment of a system for the regulation of armaments.

  • VOTING Article 27

  • 1. Each member of the Security Council shall have one vote.

  • 2. Decisions of the Security Council on procedural matters shall be made by an affirmative vote

  • of nine members. 3. Decisions of the Security Council on all

  • other matters shall be made by an affirmative vote of nine members including the concurring

  • votes of the permanent members; provided that, in decisions under Chapter VI, and under paragraph

  • 3 of Article 52, a party to a dispute shall abstain from voting.

  • PROCEDURE Article 28

  • 1. The Security Council shall be so organized as to be able to function continuously. Each

  • member of the Security Council shall for this purpose be represented at all times at the

  • seat of the Organization. 2. The Security Council shall hold periodic

  • meetings at which each of its members may, if it so desires, be represented by a member

  • of the government or by some other specially designated representative.

  • 3. The Security Council may hold meetings at such places other than the seat of the

  • Organization as in its judgment will best facilitate its work.

  • Article 29 The Security Council may establish such subsidiary

  • organs as it deems necessary for the performance of its functions.

  • Article 30 The Security Council shall adopt its own rules

  • of procedure, including the method of selecting its President.

  • Article 31 Any Member of the United Nations which is

  • not a member of the Security Council may participate, without vote, in the discussion of any question

  • brought before the Security Council whenever the latter considers that the interests of

  • that Member are specially affected. Article 32

  • Any Member of the United Nations which is not a member of the Security Council or any

  • state which is not a Member of the United Nations, if it is a party to a dispute under

  • consideration by the Security Council, shall be invited to participate, without vote, in

  • the discussion relating to the dispute. The Security Council shall lay down such conditions

  • as it deems just for the participation of a state which is not a Member of the United

  • Nations. Chapter VI: Pacific Settlement of Disputes

  • Chapter VII: Action with respect to Threats to the Peace, Breaches of the Peace, and Acts

  • of Aggression

  • Chapter VIII: Regional Arrangements

  • Chapter IX: International Economic and Social Co-operation

  • Chapter X: The Economic and Social Council

  • Chapter XI: Declaration regarding Non-Self-Governing Territories

  • Chapter XII: International Trusteeship System

  • Chapter XIII: The Trusteeship Council

  • Chapter XIV: The International Court of Justice

  • Chapter XV: The Secretariat It comprises the secretary general and such

  • other staff as the organization may require. It provides services to the other organs of

  • the United Nations, such as the G.A, the S.C, the ECOSOC, and the trusteeship council, as

  • well as their subsidiary bodies. The secretary general is appointed by the

  • G.A on the recommendation of security council. The staff of the secretariat is appointed

  • by the secretary general according to the regulation laid G.A.

  • The secretariat is located at the headquarters of the U.N in New York.

  • The secretariat also includes the regional commission secretariat at Baghdad, Bangkok,

  • Geneva and Santiago. Function of Secretariat

  • preparation of report and other documents containing information, analysis, historical

  • background research finding, policy suggestions and so forth, to facilitate deliberations

  • and decision making by other organs. to facilitate legislative organs and their

  • subsidiary bodies. provision of meeting services for the G.A

  • and other organs provision of editorial, translation and document

  • reproduction services for the issuance of UN documents in different language.

  • conduct of studies and provision of information to various member states in meeting challenge

  • in various fields preparation of statistical publication, information

  • bulletin and analytical work which the G.A. has decided

  • organization of conferences experts group meetings and seminar on topics of concern

  • to the international community provision of technical assistance to develop

  • countries. understanding of service mission to countries,

  • areas or location as authorized by the G.A or the security council

  • Chapter XVI: Miscellaneous Provisions

  • Chapter XVII: Transitional Security Arrangements

  • Chapter XVIII: Amendments

  • Chapter XIX: Ratification and Signature

  • See also Command responsibility

  • Nuremberg Principles United Nations

  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights Notes and references

  • External links Full Text In the UN Website

  • Scanned copy of the signed charter Original ratifications.

  • Ratifications/admissions under Article IV. Alger Hiss recounts transporting the UN Charter

  • after its signing. Procedural history note and audiovisual material

  • on the Charter of the United Nations in the Historic Archives of the United Nations Audiovisual

  • Library of International Law Declaration of Principles of International

  • Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation Among States in Accordance with the Charter

  • of the United Nations Lecture by Annebeth Rosenboom entitled Practical

  • Aspects of Treaty Law: Treaty Registration under Article 102 of the Charter of the United

  • Nations in the Lecture Series of the United Nations Audiovisual Library of International

  • Law

The Charter of the United Nations is the foundational treaty of the international organization called

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《聯合國憲章》 (United Nations Charter)

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