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  • What happens after death?

    人死後會發生什麼事?

  • Is there a restful paradise?

    有平靜安詳的天堂嗎?

  • An eternal torment?

    一種永久的痛苦折磨嗎?

  • A rebirth?

    還是重生?

  • Or maybe just nothingness?

    或者可能只是什麼都不存在?

  • Well, one Chinese emperor thought that whatever the hereafter was,

    有一個中國皇帝認為不管死後的世界是什麼樣子,

  • he better bring an army.

    他最好帶著一支軍隊

  • We know that because in 1974,

    我們知道這件事是因為在1974年時,

  • farmers digging a well near their small village

    在小村莊附近挖井的農夫

  • stumbled upon one of the most important finds in archeological history:

    無意中找到考古學史上最重要的發現之一:

  • vast underground chambers surrounding that emperor's tomb,

    皇帝陵寢四周的寬闊地下墓室

  • and containing more than 8,000 life-size clay soldiers ready for battle.

    內有超過八千個真人大小備戰中的陶土士兵

  • The story of the subterranean army begins with Ying Zheng,

    這支地下軍隊的故事要從嬴政開始說起

  • who came to power as the king of the Qin state at the age of 13 in 246 BCE.

    在西元前 246,他年僅十三歲就即位掌權,成為秦國的國王

  • Ambitious and ruthless,

    有雄心抱負又冷酷無情

  • he would go on to become Qin Shi Huangdi,

    後來他成為了秦始皇

  • the first emperor of China after uniting its seven warring kingdoms.

    在統一戰國七雄之後,成為中國的第一位皇帝

  • His 36 year reign saw many historic accomplishments,

    他在位 36 年,完成許多歷史創舉,

  • including a universal system of weights and measures,

    包括統一度量衡、

  • a single standardized writing script for all of China,

    制定中國標準的書寫文字、

  • and a defensive barrier that would later come to be known as the Great Wall,

    以及後來眾所周知、作為防禦屏障的長城

  • but perhaps Qin Shi Huandgi dedicated so much effort

    但是也許秦始皇花了那麼多功夫

  • to securing his historical legacy

    以求確保他的歷史性遺產

  • because he was obsessed with his mortality.

    是因為死亡的陰影在他心頭揮之不去

  • He spent his last years desperately employing alchemists

    他晚年時拼命聘用煉丹師

  • and deploying expeditions in search of elixirs of life

    並且派遣遠征隊尋求長生不老藥

  • that would help him achieve immortality,

    來幫助他長生不死

  • and as early as the first year of his reign,

    早在他執政的第一年

  • he began the construction of a massive underground necropolis

    就開始蓋一個龐大的地下墓園

  • filled with monuments, artifacts,

    放滿了紀念碑、紀念文物、

  • and an army to accompany him into the next world

    以及一支護衛他到死後世界的軍隊

  • and continue his rule.

    延續他的統治

  • This magnificent army is still standing in precise battle formation and is split across several pits.

    這支雄壯的軍隊仍然以精確的戰鬥隊形矗立著,而且分列在許多坑道中

  • One contains a main force of 6,000 soldiers, each weighing several hundred pounds,

    其中一個內有 6000 個士兵的主力部隊,每一個有數百磅重

  • a second has more than 130 war chariots and over 600 horses,

    第二處有超過 130 輛雙輪戰車,及超過 600 匹馬

  • and a third houses the high command.

    第三處則存放了高階級將領

  • An empty fourth pit suggests that the grand project

    第四處是空坑,意味著這個大工程

  • could not be finished before the emperor's death.

    無法在皇帝死前大功告成

  • In addition, nearby chambers contain figures of musicians and acrobats,

    除此之外,附近房間的雕像有樂師及雜耍藝人、

  • workers and government officials, and various exotic animals,

    工人及政府官員、還有各種奇珍異獸

  • indicating that Emperor Qin had more plans for the afterlife than simply waging war.

    顯示秦始皇對死後有更多計劃,不只是單純想發動戰爭而已

  • All the figurines are sculpted from terracotta, or baked earth, a type of reddish brown clay.

    所有雕像都是用陶瓦(經燒烤過的土)雕刻而成 -- 一種紅棕色的黏土

  • To construct them, multiple workshops and reportedly over 720,000 laborers

    為了建造它們,許多工作坊及據報超過 72 萬名工人

  • were commandeered by the emperor,

    被皇帝徵召

  • including groups of artisans who molded each body part separately

    包括數組將身體各部份分開鑄模的工匠

  • to construct statues as individual as the real warriors in the emperor's army.

    再將它們組合成像皇帝軍隊中各自不同的戰士雕像

  • They stand according to rank

    他們依軍階排立

  • and feature different weapons and uniforms,

    配戴不同武器並穿著不同的軍服、

  • distinct hairstyles and expressions, and even unique ears.

    髮型及表情各異,甚至還有獨一無二的耳朵

  • Originally, each warrior was painted in bright colors,

    原本,每個士兵被漆上鮮明的色彩

  • but their exposure to air caused the paint to dry and flake,

    但他們暴露在空氣中,使得顏料乾掉剝落

  • leaving only the terracotta base.

    只留下陶瓦的基底

  • It is for this very reason that another chamber less than a mile away

    基於這個理由,另一處相距不到一英哩的墓穴

  • has not been excavated.

    尚未被挖掘

  • This is the actual tomb of Qin Shi Huangdi,

    這是秦始皇真正的陵墓

  • reported to contain palaces, precious stones and artifacts,

    據說裡面有宮殿、珍貴的珠寶及文物

  • and even rivers of mercury flowing through mountains of bronze.

    甚至有水銀河流經青銅山

  • But until a way can be found to expose it without damaging the treasures inside,

    但在找到能讓它呈現卻又不損傷內部珍寶的方法之前,

  • the tomb remains sealed.

    陵墓仍然被封存著

  • Emperor Qin was not alone in wanting company for his final destination.

    秦始皇不是唯一一位希望身邊有人陪伴到生命終點的人

  • Ancient Egyptian tombs contain clay models representing the ideal afterlife,

    古埃及的陵墓內有代表理想來世的黏土模型

  • the dead of Japan's Kofun period were buried with sculptures of horses and houses,

    日本古墳時代的死者和馬及房屋雕像埋葬在一起,

  • and the graves of the Jaina island off the Mexican coast

    離墨西哥海岸不遠的耆那教島上的墳墓

  • are full of ceramic figurines.

    有許許多多的陶瓷像

  • Fortunately, as ruthless as he was,

    幸運的是,即使他是這麼冷酷無情,

  • Emperor Qin chose to have servants and soldiers built for this purpose,

    秦始皇選擇鑄造奴僕和士兵來達成他的目的,

  • rather than sacrificing living ones to accompany him,

    而不是犧牲活人來陪他,

  • as had been practiced in Egypt, West Africa, Anatolia, parts of North America

    過去這在埃及、西非、安那托利亞及部分北美地區都有使用

  • and even China during the previous Shang and Zhou dynasties.

    甚至在中國稍早的商及周朝也是

  • And today, people travel from all over the world to see these stoic soldiers

    現在,來自世界各地的人們到這旅行,觀賞這些堅忍的士兵

  • silently awaiting their battle orders for centuries to come.

    在今後幾個世紀中,靜靜無聲地等待他們的戰鬥命令

What happens after death?

人死後會發生什麼事?

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 皇帝 士兵 軍隊 陵墓 雕像

【TED-Ed】中國兵馬俑的歷史 (The incredible history of China's terracotta warriors - Megan Campisi and Pen-Pen Chen)

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    Joyce Lee 發佈於 2015 年 07 月 07 日
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