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  • Hey, Vsauce. Michael here.

    嗨大家好,我是Micheal

  • What are monsters?

    怪獸是什麼?

  • Scary, unnatural things?

    可怕的、不自然的東西?

  • Yes, but they're more than that and we knew that back when we named them.

    沒錯,但在我們幫他們命名的時候我們就知道他們不只這樣了

  • The word monster comes from the same root word

    怪物(monster)這個字的字源與

  • as demonstrate and demonstrative.

    示威、指示的單字來源一樣

  • Monere, meaning to teach, to instruct, to warn.

    Monere(拉丁文),蘊含著教育、指示、警告的意味

  • Monsters, like dinosaurs

    比如恐龍之類的怪物

  • and the stories we tell about them have a lot to tell us

    以及這些流傳著跟他們有關的故事其實有許多要告訴我們的事情

  • about ourselves, about the past and about the future.

    關於我們自己、關於過去與未來

  • This Vsauce1 video is not an ordinary video,

    這部Vsauce1影片並不是一部普通的影片

  • it is a dinosaur-dinary video

    這是一部恐龍百科的影片

  • built not just out of me talking,

    它不只包括我一個人的談話

  • but also world-famous paleontologist and technical adviser to every Jurassic Park film

    也包括每部侏儸紀電影裡的世界知名的古生物學家以及科技顧問

  • Jack Horner

    Jack Horner

  • and the hilarious Chris Pratt.

    以及最好笑的Chris Pratt

  • First things first, scientists have so far broken Earth's history down into 22 periods.

    首先,目前為止科學家已經把地球歷史分為22個時期

  • The Jurassic period has come and gone,

    而侏儸紀時代出現又滅絕

  • but the one we live in today is called the Quaternary.

    但我們今天生活的這個時代稱為第四紀

  • Jurassic World is the movie that you're in. Yes. The thing that we're filming right now

    侏儸紀世界是一部你有演的電影。沒錯。我們現在在拍的這部是

  • Quaternary World. Quaternary World. We are organisms from the Quaternary.

    第四紀世界。第四紀世界。我們是第四紀的生物

  • Quaternary Park would be, well, basically like Universal Studios or something.

    第四紀公園大概是,嗯,基本上會像是環球影城之類的吧

  • Exactly. Actually, literally any place on Earth right now.

    沒有錯。事實上就是 現在地球上的任何地方

  • Dinosaurs,

    恐龍

  • fossils. Yeah. Dinosaur, fossil.

    化石。對,恐龍,化石

  • Fossil, fossil fuel. Wow. Is it safe to say that

    化石、石油。哇,這樣說好嗎

  • our cars run on the ghosts of dinosaurs?

    我們的車是靠著恐龍的鬼魂在跑的

  • That question sounds mind-blowing,

    這個問題聽起來非常令人驚訝!

  • but is it true? Are we really fuelling our cars with dinosaur remains?

    但這是真的嗎?我們是否真的用恐龍遺骸來幫我們的車加油呢?

  • Well, I asked paleontologist Jack Horner

    我問了古生物學家Jack Horner

  • and his answer is worth beginning from the bottom or rather

    而他的答案指出是來自地底的,或者應該說

  • from things that come out of bottoms.

    從“底下”出來的東西

  • You'll see what I mean. Okay, so this.

    你等等會知道我再說什麼。好的,所以這個

  • Let me guess what this is. Okay. Yeah, it looks like coal almost. Well, they are, it's

    讓我猜猜這個是什麼。 好,恩這看起來幾乎像是木炭。 他們是

  • actually a coprolite. What's a coprolite?

    這其實是糞化石。 什麼是糞化石?

  • Fossilised dung. Dung?

    石化的糞便。 糞便?

  • Oh, so this is plant material that was eaten

    噢,所以這是被吃過的植物

  • Eaten. Turned into poop. Yes. And then preserved

    被吃過,然後變成糞便。 沒錯,然後他們被保留了下來

  • so that I could hold it today. Yes, exactly.

    所以我今天才可以拿著它。 沒錯。

  • That's a dinosaur poop. This is dinosaur poop.

    那是恐龍大便!這是恐龍大便!

  • Yes. It smells like a rock. Sometimes when we break open

    是的,它聞起來像石頭。 有時候我們會打開

  • somebody's things that are... that have a...

    某些人的東西,而那些是......那有......

  • have a very high concentration plant material you actually can smell it.

    有非常濃郁的植物在內,而你可以完全聞到那個味道

  • Really? What does it smell like?

    真的嗎? 恩...那聞起來像什麼?

  • Mmmh, rotting wood.

    恩...腐爛的木頭

  • After this long it still has an odor of rotting? It can, yes.

    過了這麼久還是可以有腐爛的味道嗎? 是的,它可以

  • So, we can probably learn a lot.

    所以,我們應該可以學到很多。

  • We can learn more about the dinosaur from that right there than we can from the bone from its body

    比起來自恐龍身上的骨頭,我們可以從那個東西學到更多關於恐龍的事情

  • That is amazing. Because we can determine,

    這真是太棒了。 因為我們可以判定

  • we can determine exactly what it was eating

    我們可以精準的判定他之前正在吃什麼

  • and and and we can

    而且我們可以

  • look at how it's chopped up, so you can tell a lot about

    看出它是如何被吃掉的,這樣就可以看出很多

  • exactly how they process the food. So, from the

    關於他們如何消化食物。 所以從

  • scientific perspective of learning about dinosaurs

    科學的觀點來看恐龍

  • poop is not crappy at all.

    糞便其實一點也不奇怪

  • Yes.

    沒錯

  • Thanks for laughing at that. Now, at any point would that turn into oil?

    謝謝你笑了。 現在,有任何可能它們會變成石油嗎?

  • No, oil does not come from dinosaur poop.

    不會,石油並不來自於恐龍糞便

  • Does it come from dinosaurs at all?

    那有任何成分來自恐龍嗎?

  • It doesn't come from dinosaurs at all. They come from microorganisms and oceans.

    石油完全跟恐龍沒有關係。它們來自微生物以及海洋。

  • If you took all of the dinosaurs that ever lived

    如果你蒐集所有曾經存在過的恐龍

  • and... and, you know, squished them up

    然後..然後,你知道,把它們壓扁

  • in order to get the oil out of them,

    來從他們身上榨出石油

  • we'd probably go through that oil in, you know, couple of days.

    我們大概可以用那些石油,你知道到,大概幾天而已吧

  • No kidding! I mean the microorganisms from the ocean,

    沒有在開玩笑! 我指的是這些來自海洋的微生物

  • from the oceans over these millions of years produced...

    已經在海洋生成了超過幾百萬年

  • I mean, the biomass is just incredible compared to the dinosaurs.

    我只能說這些生物跟恐龍比起來真的是太不可思議了

  • Compared to the dinosaurs.

    跟恐龍比起來

  • So there could be a tiny molecule of oil in every thousand gallons or more

    所以每千加侖的石油中,可能只有非常非常的分子

  • that's from a dinosaur. No, you really not even gonna...

    是來自恐龍。 不,那甚至不......

  • That's not even going to happen as well. Basically, all of the oil reserves we have

    那甚至不會發生。 基本上,我們現在所有的石油儲存

  • are in

    都在

  • in sedimentary rocks, produced in oceans.

    在沉積石裡,生成在海洋中

  • So we don't put dinosaur ghosts into our cars,

    所以我們不會把恐龍的鬼魂放進我們的車裡

  • but don't feel lonely. There are actual living dinosaurs with us today.

    但不用覺得寂寞。 現代其實有真正活著的恐龍。

  • There are dinosaurs still around today.

    直到現在其實恐龍都還在我們身邊

  • Dinosaurs never went extinct.

    恐龍從未滅絕。

  • What? Elaborate, alright, fine I will. So, dinosaurs...

    甚麼? 好啦我會仔細說明。所以恐龍......

  • Yeah, that's what I meant. Dinosaurs are not a species, that was called a clade.

    對,那就是我說的。 恐龍不是一個物種,其實是一種生物支序

  • They're from the clade dinosauria. And the clade is just some

    他們來自於恐龍分支。 而分支只是一些

  • organism and all of its descendants. Okay. Okay?

    生物體以及他們的後代。 Okay, Okay?

  • Dinosaurs came in all different types, right? -mhm

    恐龍有不同的類型,對吧?

  • All of these things were called dinosauria -mhm

    而所有的類型都被稱為恐龍類

  • and then a huge extinction event happened, 65 million years ago.

    然後在六千五百萬年前,發生了大規模的滅絕

  • Yup. Giant rock hit Earth -yeah

    沒錯。 巨大的石頭撞上地球

  • and like almost all of them, all the ones, died

    然後幾乎所有的生物都死了

  • except for a few.

    除了僅存的一些

  • And you know what this one was, this little branch?

    而你知道剩下來這一個小小的分支是甚麼嗎?

  • That's what clade means, by the way - branch.

    順帶一提這就是生物分支的意思─分支

  • Aardvark. Aardvark. No? Uhh,

    土豬! 土豬。 不是嗎?

  • I do. I know what it was. What? Halibut.

    我知道了,我知道是什麼了。 什麼? 大比目魚

  • Just for the halibut I will say correct.

    如果是大比目魚我會說沒錯啦

  • That's a dumb joke, that's a joke that's been made a bunch.

    那是一個很蠢的笑話。那個笑話被用過太多次了

  • I've never heard it before. Really? You just said "halibut" like

    我之前從來沒聽過。 真的? 你剛剛把「大比目魚」這個字念得像

  • "hell of it." Yeah. Yeah. Classic. Now figure this trout.

    「隨便啦管它的」(英文音近) 沒錯,經典。 好現在我們來看這條鱒魚

  • Wow.

  • Dude.

    老兄

  • The answer is birds.

    答案是鳥類

  • Technically birds aren't just descended from dinosaurs, they literally are dinosaurs.

    技術上來說,鳥類不僅是恐龍的後代,他們根本就是恐龍

  • Exactly. You know, to determine how things are related to one another

    沒錯。你知道,要決定甚麼東西跟另一個東西有相關時

  • we look at the characteristics that they share

    我們會去看他們的共同特徵

  • and when you think about birds and the characteristics

    然後當你去想想鳥類以及他們的的特徵

  • that we think of as being bird characteristics, they are feathers,

    我們覺得鳥的特徵包括,牠們有羽毛

  • hollow bones, the wishbone,

    中空的骨頭、叉骨

  • um you know, you can go on and on, but those are just a few of them

    你知道的,你可以再列出很多,但那些都只是一小部分

  • and it turns out dinosaurs have them as well, so

    然後我們發現恐龍也有這些同樣的特徵

  • dinosaurs had these characteristics before birds.

    恐龍在鳥類之前就有這些特徵了

  • The hypothesis is that birds are dinosaurs.

    假說認為,鳥類就是恐龍

  • The meteor impact that killed off the dinosaurs

    當時隕石衝撞殺死恐龍

  • didn't kill off all of them.

    但並沒有殺死全部。

  • It killed off the, what we call the non-avian dinosaurs and

    隕石害死了那些我們稱作非鳥類的恐龍

  • and the avian dinosaurs we still have with us.

    而那些鳥類的恐龍依然在我們身邊。

  • In Jurassic World, the park's decision-makers create dinosaurs

    在侏儸紀世界裡,公園的決策者創造的恐龍

  • that have appearances that bring in tourists,

    是呈現出能夠吸引遊客樣貌

  • not appearances that are historically accurate.

    而不是呈現了它們歷史中正確的樣貌

  • For example, they didn't put feathers on any of their dinosaurs,

    比如,他們沒有把任何的恐龍加上羽毛

  • although it is believed that many dinosaurs

    雖然事實相信許多的恐龍

  • had feathers.

    都有羽毛

  • It's believed that the velociraptor probably

    事實認為迅猛龍大概

  • actually looked more like this.

    看起來比較像這樣

  • And as far as the reality of creating a park like Jurassic World,

    而既然事實上創造了像是侏儸紀世界的公園

  • Horner had this to say.

    Horner想說

  • Everything about it is fictional,

    所有東西都是科幻的

  • we can't bring dinosaurs back by cloning them.

    我們無法透過複製把恐龍帶回現代

  • If we make dinosaurs, which,

    如果我們做出恐龍

  • I hope we are able to do one of these days,

    這是一件我希望我們能夠在近代做到的事

  • it will be retro engineering from a bird,

    應該是要從鳥類身上進行復原工程

  • in other words going backwards from a bird.

    換句話說我們要從鳥類往後推

  • They're still going to be fictional creatures

    但牠們還會是科幻的生物

  • because they're not going to be historical dinosaurs.

    因為牠們不會是歷史上真的存在過的恐龍

  • They'll be things we made. They'll be things we make, yeah, that's right.

    牠們就只是我們創造出來的東西。 牠們會是我們創造出來的東西,沒錯,對啊

  • Why are we so thrilled by the idea of bringing back un-extincting non-avian dinosaurs?

    為什麼我們要對於把沒有滅絕、非鳥類恐龍帶回來這件事情如此興奮呢

  • You know what? That actually brings up an even bigger question.

    你知道嗎? 這其實表現出更大的問題

  • Why are dinosaurs so fascinating to kids?

    為何恐龍對於小孩而言會如此迷人?

  • Dinosaurs are terrifying and we love to be scared,

    恐龍是可怕的而且我們喜歡被嚇

  • but Dracula and ghosts and all this stuff,

    但是德古拉跟其他鬼魂還有那些東西

  • it's a little, it's a little not real.

    都有一點點,一點點不真實

  • But dinosaurs? We've got their fossils. Right. You know?

    但是恐龍呢? 我們有牠們的化石欸。對吧。你知道的。

  • We've got the fact that, no, these really were on Earth,

    我們掌握這個事實,不,這些真的都曾經在地球上

  • they really were walking around right here.

    它們真的曾經在這裡走來走去

  • Why is it so awesome when they flip out and start killing people?

    為什麼當牠們抓狂然後開始殺人會是一件這麼令人振奮的事?

  • Watching something flip out and kill people is thrilling.

    看著某個東西抓狂然後殺人是一件興奮的事。

  • It's morbid curiosity, but the more intense the flip out,

    這是病態的好奇。 但抓狂的情況越是激烈

  • the more exciting it is to see the flip undone,

    觀看如何壓制這樣的抓狂就越是興奮

  • to see humans prevail in the end.

    去看人們如何在最後的到壓倒性的勝利

  • No matter how beastly and huge dinosaurs were,

    不管恐龍有多們的兇猛或巨大

  • the fact remains that they went extinct.

    牠們最終滅絕的事實還是無法改變。

  • They are a reminder that

    牠們提醒我們

  • sooner or later the universe will beat everything.

    遲早宇宙都會打敗所有東西

  • A meteor impact, like the one that

    隕石撞擊,就像那個

  • killed off all the non-avian dinosaurs will happen again

    殺了所有非鳥類恐龍的實情可能再次發生

  • in about the next 100 million years or so, but we might stand a fighting chance.

    大約就在往後的一億年之類的,但我們可能可以掌握對抗的機會

  • We have technology, and we have the ability to predict,

    我們擁有科技以及預測的能力

  • and possibly even avoid, a similar fate involving us.

    還有甚至有可能去避免相同的命運發生在我們身上。

  • Outer space may seem distant

    外太空可能感覺很遙遠

  • and sometimes irrelevant to pressing earthly concerns,

    而且有時候感覺跟地球危機不太相關

  • but let's not forget what Larry Niven said,

    但我們不要忘記Larry Niven說過的

  • "The dinosaurs went extinct because they didn't have a space program."

    「恐龍會滅絕是因為牠們沒有太空計畫」

  • And as always, thanks for watching.

    還有最後,感謝觀看

Hey, Vsauce. Michael here.

嗨大家好,我是Micheal

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B2 中高級 中文 恐龍 鳥類 石油 滅絕 分支 特徵

與侏羅紀世界男主角一起來探討恐龍世界! (Jurassic World Science feat. Chris Pratt and Jack Horner)

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    吳 珦宏 發佈於 2015 年 07 月 07 日
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