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  • The Olympic motto is "Citius, Altius, Fortius."

    奧林匹克的格言是“Citius, Altius, Fortius”

  • Faster, Higher, Stronger.

    意為 “更快、更高、更強”。

  • And athletes have fulfilled that motto rapidly.

    而運動員們迅雷不及掩耳地做到這一格言。

  • The winner of the 2012 Olympic marathon

    2012年奧林匹克馬拉松的冠軍記錄是

  • ran two hours and eight minutes.

    兩小時八分鐘。

  • Had he been racing against the winner

    如果讓這位2012年的馬拉松冠軍

  • of the 1904 Olympic marathon,

    在1904年的奧林匹克馬拉松中競賽,

  • he would have won by nearly an hour and a half.

    他要比當年的冠軍快一個半小時。

  • Now we all have this feeling

    此時此刻,我們都覺得

  • that we're somehow just getting better

    某程度上我們作為人類

  • as a human race, inexorably progressing,

    在日漸一日地、勢不可擋地進步,

  • but it's not like we've evolved into a new species

    但這種進步,又並不像是在區區一世紀內

  • in a century.

    就進化成另一個新物種的那種。

  • So what's going on here?

    那麼到底是怎麼回事呢?

  • I want to take a look at what's really behind

    我想看看運動進步歷程的背後

  • this march of athletic progress.

    到底藏著什麼秘密。

  • In 1936, Jesse Owens

    1936年,傑西·歐文斯

  • held the world record in the 100 meters.

    在一百米田徑中創下了新的世界紀錄。

  • Had Jesse Owens been racing last year

    如果傑西·歐文斯參加了

  • in the world championships of the 100 meters,

    去年的世界一百米田徑賽,

  • when Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt finished,

    牙買加短跑運動員尤賽恩·博爾特衝到終點時,

  • Owens would have still had 14 feet to go.

    歐文斯離終點還有十四英尺。

  • That's a lot in sprinter land.

    在短跑賽場上,十四英尺可不是小數目。

  • To give you a sense of how much it is,

    為了讓大家感受一些其中的區別,

  • I want to share with you a demonstration

    我想跟大家分享

  • conceived by sports scientist Ross Tucker.

    運動科學家羅斯·德科構思的一個範例。

  • Now picture the stadium last year

    現在,請大家想像自己身處

  • at the world championships of the 100 meters:

    去年世界杯百米錦標賽的賽場:

  • thousands of fans waiting with baited breath

    成千上萬位運動迷屏住呼吸,

  • to see Usain Bolt, the fastest man in history;

    等候看見尤賽恩·博爾特這位歷史上最快的人;

  • flashbulbs popping as the nine fastest men in the world

    閃光燈奮然驟現,只見世界上最快的九個人

  • coil themselves into their blocks.

    現身於他們各自的起跑器旁。

  • And I want you to pretend

    我要大家想像

  • that Jesse Owens is in that race.

    傑西·歐文斯也在這九個人當中。

  • Now close your eyes for a second and picture the race.

    現在,閉上眼睛,想像一下這場比賽。

  • Bang! The gun goes off.

    梆!槍聲一響。

  • An American sprinter jumps out to the front.

    一名美國短跑運動員一下就躍到前列。

  • Usain Bolt starts to catch him.

    尤賽恩·博爾特開始追上這位運動員。

  • Usain Bolt passes him, and as the runners come to the finish,

    尤賽恩·博爾特超越了他,每位運動員衝線終點時,

  • you'll hear a beep as each man crosses the line.

    你都會聽到“嗶”一聲。

  • (Beeps)

    (”嗶“)

  • That's the entire finish of the race.

    然後整場比賽就結束了。

  • You can open your eyes now.

    現在大家可以睜開雙眼。

  • That first beep was Usain Bolt.

    第一聲“嗶”是,尤賽恩·博爾特。

  • That last beep was Jesse Owens.

    最後一聲“嗶”,是傑西·歐文斯。

  • Listen to it again.

    再聽一次。

  • (Beeps)

    (“嗶”)

  • When you think of it like that,

    這樣聽來,

  • it's not that big a difference, is it?

    是不是覺得差別不大?

  • And then consider that Usain Bolt started

    那麼想一下,尤賽恩·博爾特起步時

  • by propelling himself out of blocks

    腳下有起跑器

  • down a specially fabricated carpet

    將他推向特製的地面地毯,

  • designed to allow him to travel

    這種地毯的設計允許他

  • as fast as humanly possible.

    以人類所能達到的最快速度奔跑。

  • Jesse Owens, on the other hand,

    而傑西·歐文斯呢,

  • ran on cinders, the ash from burnt wood,

    則在煤渣路上跑,盡是木頭焚燒後剩下的灰渣,

  • and that soft surface stole far more energy

    而那種柔軟的路面在他跑步的過程中,

  • from his legs as he ran.

    吞噬了他腿上大量的精力。

  • Rather than blocks, Jesse Owens had a gardening trowel

    傑西·歐文斯沒有起跑器,只有一把種花用的泥鏟,

  • that he had to use to dig holes in the cinders to start from.

    他只能用這把泥鏟在起跑的煤渣路上挖坑。

  • Biomechanical analysis of the speed

    對歐文斯運動關節速度的生理力學分析顯示

  • of Owens' joints shows that had been running

    如果歐文斯的關節跑步接觸面

  • on the same surface as Bolt,

    能夠跟博爾特的一樣,

  • he wouldn't have been 14 feet behind,

    歐文斯就不會被拋在十四英尺外,

  • he would have been within one stride.

    而是只差一步之遙就能趕上博爾特。

  • Rather than the last beep,

    歐文斯不會是最後的一“嗶”,

  • Owens would have been the second beep.

    而是第二“嗶”。

  • Listen to it again.

    再聽一次。

  • (Beeps)

    (“嗶”)

  • That's the difference track surface technology has made,

    這就是田徑跑道接觸面技術進步所產生的差別,

  • and it's done it throughout the running world.

    而這一技術在賽跑界比比皆是。

  • Consider a longer event.

    想一個時間更長的運動時間。

  • In 1954, Sir Roger Bannister

    1954年的羅傑·班尼斯特爵士

  • became the first man to run under four minutes in the mile.

    是人類歷史上第一個在四分鐘內跑完一英里的人。

  • Nowadays, college kids do that every year.

    現在,每年都有大學生達到這一紀錄。

  • On rare occasions, a high school kid does it.

    偶爾,一個高中生也可以做到。

  • As of the end of last year,

    截至去年年底

  • 1,314 men

    有一千三百一十四個人

  • had run under four minutes in the mile,

    已經可以在四分鐘內跑完一英里,

  • but like Jesse Owens,

    但是跟傑西·歐文斯一樣,

  • Sir Roger Bannister ran on soft cinders

    羅傑·班尼斯特爵士跑的是軟煤渣路,

  • that stole far more energy from his legs

    他腿部的力量都被這煤渣路吞耗了,

  • than the synthetic tracks of today.

    不能與今日的塑膠跑道相比。

  • So I consulted biomechanics experts

    我因此找了一些生理力學專家

  • to find out how much slower it is to run on cinders

    諮詢在煤渣路上跑步

  • than synthetic tracks,

    到底比在塑膠跑道慢多少,

  • and their consensus that it's one and a half percent slower.

    他們一致認為,慢1.5%。

  • So if you apply a one and a half percent slowdown conversion

    因此,如果你按1.5%的算法

  • to every man who ran his sub-four mile

    來計算每位在塑膠跑道上

  • on a synthetic track,

    在四分鐘內完成了一英里的速度,

  • this is what happens.

    這就是呈現的結果。

  • Only 530 are left.

    只剩下五百三十人。

  • If you look at it from that perspective,

    如果你從這個角度來看的話,

  • fewer than ten new men per [year]

    每年只有不到十個人

  • have joined the sub-four mile club

    能夠跟隨羅傑·班尼斯特爵士

  • since Sir Roger Bannister.

    加入這個“四分鐘內一英里“俱樂部。

  • Now, 530 is a lot more than one,

    現在,五百三十人遠比一個人多,

  • and that's partly because there are many more people

    其中的部分原因是,

  • training today and they're training more intelligently.

    現在越來越多人接受訓練,而且訓練相當有技巧。

  • Even college kids are professional in their training

    跟羅傑·班尼斯特爵士相比,

  • compared to Sir Roger Bannister,

    大學生的訓練也要比他的專業,

  • who trained for 45 minutes at a time

    班尼斯特爵士當年在醫學院上完婦科課之後才去訓練,

  • while he ditched gynecology lectures in med school.

    而且每次只是訓練四十五分鐘。

  • And that guy who won the 1904 Olympic marathon

    贏得1904年奧林匹克馬拉松賽的那位仁兄

  • in three in a half hours,

    在半小時內跑完三英里,

  • that guy was drinking rat poison and brandy

    那位仁兄是一邊喝著老鼠藥和白蘭地,

  • while he ran along the course.

    一邊跑完整程馬拉松。

  • That was his idea of a performance-enhancing drug.

    那些就是他所謂的增強表現藥。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Clearly, athletes have gotten more savvy

    相比以前,現在的運動員對增強表現的藥物

  • about performance-enhancing drugs as well,

    顯然已經更加精通,

  • and that's made a difference in some sports at some times,

    而這有時也會使某些運動顯示出差距變化,

  • but technology has made a difference in all sports,

    但是科技在所有運動領域中創造差距變化,

  • from faster skis to lighter shoes.

    例如速度更快的雪橇、更加輕便的鞋子。

  • Take a look at the record for the 100-meter freestyle swim.

    我們看看百米自由泳的記錄。

  • The record is always trending downward,

    這個記錄一直往下降,

  • but it's punctuated by these steep cliffs.

    但卻不時出現這些突然峭降。

  • This first cliff, in 1956, is the introduction

    第一次的峭降是在1956年

  • of the flip turn.

    第一次引入翻騰轉體技巧。

  • Rather than stopping and turning around,

    運動員不再需要停止再轉身,

  • athletes could somersault under the water

    而是可以在水上一百八十度轉體,

  • and get going right away in the opposite direction.

    往反方向繼續前游。

  • This second cliff, the introduction of gutters

    第二次的峭降,當時引入了水槽設計,

  • on the side of the pool

    在游泳池四周的水槽

  • that allows water to splash off,

    允許水濺出,

  • rather than becoming turbulence

    而不是形成漩渦,

  • that impedes the swimmers as they race.

    給運動員在比賽中造成阻礙。

  • This final cliff,

    最後一次峭降,

  • the introduction of full-body

    當時引入了

  • and low-friction swimsuits.

    低摩擦力的全身泳衣。

  • Throughout sports, technology has changed the face of performance.

    在運動歷程中,科技已經為運動性能改頭換面。

  • In 1972, Eddy Merckx set the record

    1972年,艾迪·莫克斯

  • for the longest distance cycled in one hour

    創下了一小時內最長的單車行程記錄

  • at 30 miles, 3,774 feet.

    三十英里三千七百七十四英尺。

  • Now that record improved and improved

    這個記錄在不斷地更新再更新,

  • as bicycles improved and became more aerodynamic

    自行車不斷地在更新,更加符合空氣動力學,

  • all the way until 1996,

    一直到了1996年,

  • when it was set at 35 miles, 1,531 feet,

    當時的記錄是三十五英里一千五百三十一英尺,

  • nearly five miles farther

    跟1972年的艾迪·莫克斯相比,

  • than Eddy Merckx cycled in 1972.

    幾乎超出五英里。

  • But then in 2000, the International Cycling Union

    但是在2000年,國際自行車聯盟決定

  • decreed that anyone who wanted to hold that record

    任何想要打破這個記錄的人

  • had to do so with essentially the same equipment

    所使用的設備必須與1972年

  • that Eddy Merckx used in 1972.

    艾迪·莫克斯所使用的基本一致。

  • Where does the record stand today?

    今日這個記錄又是多少?

  • 30 miles, 4,657 feet,

    三十英里四千六百五十七英尺,

  • a grand total of 883 feet

    比起四十年之前

  • farther than Eddy Merckx cycled

    艾迪·莫克斯所騎的行程

  • more than four decades ago.

    不過多出整整八百八十三英尺。

  • Essentially the entire improvement in this record

    這一記錄的突破,

  • was due to technology.

    基本源於科技。

  • Still, technology isn't the only thing pushing athletes forward.

    但是,科技並不是推使運動員前進的唯一因素。

  • While indeed we haven't evolved

    的確,我們尚未在一個世紀內

  • into a new species in a century,

    完全進化成另外一個新物種,

  • the gene pool within competitive sports

    但是競賽運動的基因庫

  • most certainly has changed.

    很肯定已經發生了變化。

  • In the early half of the 20th century,

    在二十世紀上半葉,

  • physical education instructors and coaches

    體育教育的指導員和教練都認為

  • had the idea that the average body type

    平均的身體類型

  • was the best for all athletic endeavors:

    是所有運動的最適宜的體型:

  • medium height, medium weight, no matter the sport.

    中等身高、中等體重,無論是對何種運動而言。

  • And this showed in athletes' bodies.

    這在運動員的體態上可以體現。

  • In the 1920s, the average elite high-jumper

    20世紀20年代,平均優秀跳高運動員

  • and average elite shot-putter were the same exact size.

    跟平均優秀鉛球選手有完全一樣的體型。

  • But as that idea started to fade away,

    但是這樣的想法開始消失,

  • as sports scientists and coaches realized that

    因為運動科學家和教練發現

  • rather than the average body type,

    平均身體體型並非是最好的,

  • you want highly specialized bodies

    你需要的是

  • that fit into certain athletic niches,

    專門適合某種運動類型的體型,

  • a form of artificial selection took place,

    並且開始了某種人為的篩選,

  • a self-sorting for bodies that fit certain sports,

    自我篩選出適合某種運動的體型,

  • and athletes' bodies became more different from one another.

    而不同運動員的體型差距越來越大。

  • Today, rather than the same size as the average elite high jumper,

    時至今日,平均優秀跳高運動員的體型

  • the average elite shot-putter

    跟平均優秀鉛球選手的體型不再一樣,

  • is two and a half inches taller

    後者比前者要高2.5英寸,

  • and 130 pounds heavier.

    並且重130磅。

  • And this happened throughout the sports world.

    而這樣的事情在運動界比比皆是。

  • In fact, if you plot on a height versus mass graph

    事實上,如果你要畫一張身高體重對照表,

  • one data point for each of two dozen sports

    為二十世紀上半葉的二十四種運動

  • in the first half of the 20th century, it looks like this.

    畫出各自的數據點,則會得到這樣的一張圖。

  • There's some dispersal,

    稍微呈現離散,

  • but it's kind of grouped around that average body type.

    但還是圍繞著平均體型而出現。

  • Then that idea started to go away,

    然後這樣的想法開始消失,

  • and at the same time, digital technology --

    與此同時,數位科技——

  • first radio, then television and the Internet --

    首先是無線電台,然後是電視、網路——

  • gave millions, or in some cases billions, of people

    向數百萬人或者數十億人

  • a ticket to consume elite sports performance.

    提供了消費精英運動表演的門票。

  • The financial incentives and fame and glory afforded elite athletes skyrocketed,

    得到金錢獎勵以及名望榮譽的運動員直線上升,

  • and it tipped toward the tiny upper echelon of performance.

    並且漸漸擠向性能表現的頂端。

  • It accelerated the artificial selection for specialized bodies.

    這種情況加速了專門合適體型的人為挑選。

  • And if you plot a data point for these same

    如果你要為今日同樣的二十四類運動

  • two dozen sports today, it looks like this.

    畫一張數據點表的話,看上去會是這樣(藍色部分)。

  • The athletes' bodies have gotten

    運動員的體型

  • much more different from one another.

    已經大大地拉開差距。

  • And because this chart looks like the charts

    正因為這張圖看上去

  • that show the expanding universe,

    與顯示宇宙擴展的圖相似,

  • with the galaxies flying away from one another,

    就像不同的星系飛離另外其他星系一樣,

  • the scientists who discovered it call it

    發現這張圖的科學家把這張圖命名為

  • "The Big Bang of Body Types."

    “體型大爆炸”。

  • In sports where height is prized, like basketball,

    在重視身高的運動中,例如籃球,

  • the tall athletes got taller.

    高的運動員會越來越高。

  • In 1983, the National Basketball Association

    1983年國家籃球協會(NBA)

  • signed a groundbreaking agreement

    簽訂了一份具有歷史性意義的協議,

  • making players partners in the league,

    允許選手加入聯盟,

  • entitled to shares of ticket revenues

    能夠分享門票收益

  • and television contracts.

    和電視合約收益。

  • Suddenly, anybody who could be an NBA player

    霎時間,任何可能成為NBA選手的人

  • wanted to be,

    都想成為NBA選手,

  • and teams started scouring the globe

    而籃球隊也開始在全球搜索,

  • for the bodies that could help them win championships.

    尋找可以幫助他們贏得冠軍的體型。

  • Almost overnight,

    一夜間,

  • the proportion of men in the NBA

    NBA中

  • who are at least seven feet tall doubled

    至少有七尺高的人數比例

  • to 10 percent.

    翻倍到10%。

  • Today, one in 10 men in the NBA

    今日,NBA中,十個人

  • is at least seven feet tall,

    就有一個至少有七尺高,

  • but a seven-foot-tall man is incredibly rare

    但是在大眾人口當中,

  • in the general population --

    七尺高的男人是相當少見的——

  • so rare that if you know an American man

    少見的程度是,如果你認識一個美國男人

  • between the ages of 20 and 40

    他剛好在二十歲到四十歲之間,

  • who is at least seven feet tall,

    又剛好至少有七尺高,

  • there's a 17 percent chance

    那麼就有17%的可能性

  • he's in the NBA right now.

    他現在就是NBA的人。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • That is, find six honest seven footers,

    也就是說,隨意找七位老實的七尺高人

  • one is in the NBA right now.

    就有一個在NBA工作。

  • And that's not the only way that NBA players' bodies are unique.

    NBA選手體型的獨特之處不僅如此。

  • This is Leonardo da Vinci's "Vitruvian Man,"

    這是列奧納多·達·芬奇的“維特魯威人”,

  • the ideal proportions,

    擁有最理想的體態比例,

  • with arm span equal to height.

    臂長與身高相等。

  • My arm span is exactly equal to my height.

    我的臂長與身高剛剛相等。

  • Yours is probably very nearly so.

    大家的也大概一樣。

  • But not the average NBA player.

    但是一般的NBA選手卻不是這樣。

  • The average NBA player is a shade under 6'7",

    平均的NBA選手身高約六尺七寸,

  • with arms that are seven feet long.

    但手臂有七尺長。

  • Not only are NBA players ridiculously tall,

    NBA選手不僅高得離譜,

  • they are ludicrously long.

    而且還長得荒唐。

  • Had Leonardo wanted to draw

    如果當初里奧納多想要畫的

  • the Vitruvian NBA Player,

    是維特魯威NBA選手,

  • he would have needed a rectangle and an ellipse,

    他估計要用長方形和橢圓,

  • not a circle and a square.

    而不是圓形和正方形。

  • So in sports where large size is prized,

    因此那些重視體型的運動裡面,

  • the large athletes have gotten larger.

    體型大的運動員已經越變越大了。

  • Conversely, in sports where diminutive stature is an advantage,

    相對而言,在小巧體型佔優勢的運動裡面,

  • the small athletes got smaller.

    小巧的運動員就越變越小。

  • The average elite female gymnast

    平均優秀女體操運動員

  • shrunk from 5'3" to 4'9" on average

    在過去三十年內

  • over the last 30 years,

    就從五尺三寸縮水到四尺九寸,

  • all the better for their power-to-weight ratio

    更加符合他們的力量—體重比例,

  • and for spinning in the air.

    也更加適合在空中旋轉。

  • And while the large got larger

    因此體型大的運動員越來越大,

  • and the small got smaller,

    體型小巧的就越來越小,