Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • On June 12, 2014, precisely at 3:33

    2014 年 6 月 12 日,更準確地說是下午3 點 33 分,

  • in a balmy winter afternoon in São Paulo, Brazil,

    在巴西聖保羅的一個溫暖冬日午後,

  • a typical South American winter afternoon,

    一個典型的南美洲冬天午後,

  • this kid, this young man that you see celebrating here

    這個孩子,如你所看到的

  • like he had scored a goal,

    像是他射了門般地慶祝的年輕人,

  • Juliano Pinto, 29 years old, accomplished a magnificent deed.

    29 歲的朱利亞諾·平托完成了一個偉大的創舉。

  • Despite being paralyzed

    雖然他全身癱瘓

  • and not having any sensation from mid-chest to the tip of his toes

    而且從胸部到腳尖都沒有任何知覺。

  • as the result of a car crash six years ago that killed his brother

    這是 6 年前的一場車禍造成同時也奪去他弟弟的生命,

  • and produced a complete spinal cord lesion that left Juliano in a wheelchair,

    車禍造成脊椎損傷,讓朱利亞諾·平托必需依靠輪椅,

  • Juliano raise to the occasion, and on this day did something

    朱利亞諾克服萬難,並在這一天,

  • that pretty much everybody that saw him in the six years deemed impossible.

    做了一件在這六年內看到他的人都覺得不可思議的事情。

  • Juliano Pinto delivered the opening kick

    朱利亞諾·平托在巴西

  • of the 2014 Brazilian World Soccer Cup here

    替 2014 年世界足球盃開球,

  • just by thinking.

    僅僅透過他腦中的思考來達成。

  • He could not move his body,

    他無法移動他的身體,

  • but he could imagine the movements needed to kick a ball.

    但他卻可以想像踢球需要的動作。

  • He was an athlete before the lesion. He's a para-athlete right now.

    他在脊椎損傷之前是個運動員,他現在是個殘障運動員。

  • He's going to be in the Paralympic Games, I hope, in a couple years.

    他即將進入殘障奧運會比賽,我希望能在幾年內達成。

  • But what the spinal cord lesion did not rob from Juliano

    脊椎損傷並沒有奪走朱利亞諾

  • was his ability to dream.

    實現夢想的能力。

  • And dream he did that afternoon, for a stadium of about 75,000 people

    在那個下午他夢想成真,在容納七萬五千人的體育場內,

  • and an audience of close to a billion watching on TV.

    還有在將近十億電視機前的觀眾。

  • And that kick crowned, basically, 30 years of basic research

    那關鍵一踢,基本上,表揚了三十年來

  • studying how the brain,

    對於腦部的基礎研究,

  • how this amazing universe that we have between our ears

    這個我們兩耳間的神奇宇宙,是如何運作的研究。

  • that is only comparable to universe that we have above our head

    它是唯一能和我們頭頂上的宇宙媲美的,

  • because it has about 100 billion elements

    因為它有大約有千億個元素,

  • talking to each other through electrical brainstorms,

    互相透過腦內的電子流溝通著,

  • what Juliano accomplished took 30 years to imagine in laboratories

    讓朱利亞諾達成夢想花了三十年在實驗室的構思,

  • and about 15 years to plan.

    和大概十五年的計畫。

  • When John Chapin and I, 15 years ago, proposed in a paper

    當約翰·蔡平和我在十五年前在一篇論文中提出

  • that we would build something that we called a brain-machine interface,

    我們應該建造一種叫做「腦機介面」的東西,

  • meaning connecting a brain to devices

    意思是連接頭腦和裝置,

  • so that animals and humans could just move these devices,

    讓動物和人類可以移動這些裝置,

  • no matter how far they are from their own bodies,

    不論這些裝置離自己的身體有多遠,

  • just by imagining what they want to do,

    只要透過思考來達到他們想做的事,

  • our colleagues told us that we actually needed professional help,

    我們的同事當時跟我們說我們需要來自精神醫學

  • of the psychiatry variety.

    的專業協助。

  • And despite that, a Scot and a Brazilian persevered,

    儘管如此,一個蘇格蘭人和巴西人的堅持,

  • because that's how we were raised in our respective countries,

    因為那是我們在我們的國家從小所接受的觀念,

  • and for 12, 15 years,

    而接下來 12,15 年中,

  • we made demonstration after demonstration suggesting that this was possible.

    我們做出一次次的實驗,證明這是可行的。

  • And a brain-machine interface is not rocket science,

    而一個腦機介面並不像是火箭科學,

  • it's just brain research.

    它只是個腦部研究。

  • It's nothing but using sensors

    它只是利用感測器

  • to read the electrical brainstorms that a brain is producing

    讀懂大腦所產生的電子流

  • to generate the motor commands

    以下達運動命令

  • that have to be downloaded to the spinal cord,

    而這指令需要傳至脊椎。

  • so we projected sensors that can read

    所以我們設計了可以同時讀懂

  • hundreds and now thousands of these brain cells simultaneously,

    幾百種,現在是數千種腦細胞的感測器,

  • and extract from these electrical signals

    並從電子訊號中知道

  • the motor planning that the brain is generating

    大腦正在產生的動作計畫

  • to actually make us move into space.

    讓我們移動到對的位置。

  • And by doing that, we converted these signals into digital commands

    如此一來,我們把這些訊息轉換成數字指令,

  • that any mechanical, electronic, or even a virtual device can understand

    讓任何機械、電子、甚至虛擬設備能理解,

  • so that the subject can imagine what he, she or it wants to make move,

    使得個體可以想像他或她想做的動作,

  • and the device obeys that brain command.

    這個設備就會服從大腦的命令。

  • By sensorizing these devices with lots of different types of sensors,

    藉著在這些有很多感測器的設備加上感知能力,

  • as you are going to see in a moment,

    正如你們等一下就會看到的,

  • we actually sent messages back to the brain to confirm

    我們事實上是把訊息傳回給大腦來確認,

  • that that voluntary motor will was being enacted, no matter where --

    隨意移動意志會被啟動,不管在哪裡,

  • next to the subject, next door, or across the planet.

    像是在個體旁邊、隔壁、或是地球的另一端。

  • And as this message feedback back to the brain,

    而當這個訊息被回饋給大腦時,

  • the brain realized its goal: to make us move.

    大腦就會發現他的目標是要讓我們移動。

  • So this is just one experiment that we published a few years ago,

    這是幾年前我們發表的一個實驗,

  • where a monkey, without moving its body,

    實驗中一隻猴子不用透過移動牠的身體

  • learned to control the movements of an avatar arm,

    可以控制一個虛擬手臂的動作,

  • a virtual arm that doesn't exist.

    這個虛擬手臂並不真的存在。

  • What you're listening to is the sound of the brain of this monkey

    你現在聽到的是這隻猴子大腦所發出的聲音

  • as it explores three different visually identical spheres

    在虛擬空間裡探索三個看起來

  • in virtual space.

    相同的球體。

  • And to get a reward, a drop of orange juice that monkeys love,

    猴子得到的獎賞是一滴牠喜歡的柳橙汁,

  • this animal has to detect, select one of these objects

    這隻動物需要偵查,透過觸碰

  • by touching,

    選取其中一個物體,

  • not by seeing it, by touching it,

    不是透過觀看,而是透過觸摸,

  • because every time this virtual hand touches one of the objects,

    因為每一次這個虛擬的手碰到任一個物品時,

  • an electrical pulse goes back to the brain of the animal

    一個電脈衝會傳回動物的大腦

  • describing the fine texture of the surface of this object,

    描述這個物品的表面材質,

  • so the animal can judge what is the correct object that he has to grab,

    所以牠才能判斷哪一個才是牠要拿的正確物品,

  • and if he does that, he gets a reward without moving a muscle.

    如果拿對了,牠可以不動用肌肉就獲得獎賞。

  • The perfect Brazilian lunch:

    一個完美的巴西式午餐:

  • not moving a muscle and getting your orange juice.

    不動用肌肉就獲得你的柳橙汁。

  • So as we saw this happening,

    當我們看見發生這種事情,

  • we actually came and proposed the idea that we had published 15 years ago.

    事實上我們十五年前就提出這個想法並發表它。

  • We reenacted this paper.

    我們重現這篇論文。

  • We got it out of the drawers,

    我們把文章從抽屜裡拿出來,

  • and we proposed that perhaps we could get a human being that is paralyzed

    然後我們提出,或許我們可以讓一個癱瘓的人

  • to actually use the brain-machine interface to regain mobility.

    實際使用腦機介面來重獲行動能力。

  • The idea was that if you suffered --

    這個概念是,萬一你為此所苦

  • and that can happen to any one of us.

    而這可能會發生在我們任何一個人身上。

  • Let me tell you, it's very sudden.

    我跟你們說,世事難料。

  • It's a millisecond of a collision,

    只要千分之一秒的撞擊,

  • a car accident that transforms your life completely.

    一場車禍就會完全改變你的人生。

  • If you have a complete lesion of the spinal cord,

    如果你的脊椎完全損傷,

  • you cannot move because your brainstorms cannot reach your muscles.

    你就不能動了,因為你腦中的電子訊號無法到達你的肌肉。

  • However, your brainstorms continue to be generated in your head.

    然而,電子訊號還是持續在你腦中產生。

  • Paraplegic, quadriplegic patients dream about moving every night.

    半身或全身癱瘓的患者每晚都會夢到他們在移動。

  • They have that inside their head.

    在他們腦中有那種移動的感覺。

  • The problem is how to get that code out of it

    問題是要如何把這個密碼取出

  • and make the movement be created again.

    且讓動作可以再被創造出來。

  • So what we proposed was, let's create a new body.

    所以我們提出的想法是,我們來做個新的身體。

  • Let's create a robotic vest.

    我們來做個機械背心。

  • And that's exactly why Juliano could kick that ball just by thinking,

    而這正是為什麼朱利亞諾可以僅透過思考來踢球,

  • because he was wearing the first brain-controlled robotic vest

    因為他穿著第一件大腦控制的機械背心。

  • that can be used by paraplegic, quadriplegic patients to move

    這背心可以讓半身或全身癱瘓的病人移動,

  • and to regain feedback.

    並且重獲移動的反饋。

  • That was the original idea, 15 years ago.

    這是十五年前的原創想法。

  • What I'm going to show you is how 156 people from 25 countries

    我現在要展現給你們的是來自這美麗地球五大洲

  • all over the five continents of this beautiful Earth,

    25 個國家的 156 個人,

  • dropped their lives, dropped their patents,

    他們拋下他們的生活,拋下他們的父母,

  • dropped their dogs, wives, kids, school, jobs,

    拋下他們的狗、妻子、孩子、學校、工作,

  • and congregated to come to Brazil for 18 months to actually get this done.

    然後聚集在巴西,待了十八個月把這個完成。

  • Because a couple years after Brazil was awarded the World Cup,

    這是因為巴西獲得世界杯足球賽主辦權的幾年後,

  • we heard that the Brazilian government wanted to do something meaningful

    我們聽說巴西政府想要在開幕典禮上

  • in the opening ceremony

    做一些有意義的事,

  • in the country that reinvented and perfected soccer

    在這個重建並完善足球運動的國家裡,

  • until we met the Germans, of course.

    當然,那是在我們碰到德國人之前。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But that's a different talk,

    但那會是另一個演講,

  • and a different neuroscientist needs to talk about that.

    而且要有一個不同的神經科學家來講這件事。

  • But what Brazil wanted to do is to showcase

    不過巴西當時想要做的事是

  • a completely different country,

    展現一個完全不同的國家,

  • a country that values science and technology,

    一個重視科學與科技的國家,

  • and can give a gift to millions, 25 million people around the world

    而且可以送個禮物給世界上二十五萬

  • that cannot move any longer because of a spinal cord injury.

    因為脊椎受傷而失去行動能力的人。

  • Well, we went to the Brazilian government and to FIFA and proposed,

    我們去巴西政府和國際足協,

  • well, let's have the kickoff of the 2014 World Cup

    提議讓一個巴西的半癱瘓者

  • be given by a Brazilian paraplegic

    來為 2014 世界盃開球,

  • using a brain-controlled exoskeleton that allows him to kick the ball

    使用一個大腦控制的外骨骼機器人來踢球

  • and to feel the contact of the ball.

    並感覺與球的接觸。

  • They looked at us, thought that we were completely nuts,

    他們看著我們,覺得我們簡直是怪胎,

  • and said, "Okay, let's try."

    然後說:「好吧,我們來試試看。」

  • We had 18 months to do everything from zero, from scratch.

    我們以 18 個月的時間來做所有的事情,從零、從無開始。

  • We had no exoskeleton, we had no patients,

    我們沒有外骨骼機器人,沒有病人,

  • we had nothing done.

    我們什麼都沒有。

  • These people came all together

    那些人全部聚集在一起,

  • and in 18 months, we got eight patients in a routine of training

    然後在 18 個月內,我們對 8 個病人做日常訓練,

  • and basically built from nothing this guy,

    並且基本上是從無開始,這個傢伙,

  • that we call Bra-Santos Dumont 1.

    我們稱它為「巴西-桑托斯杜蒙一號」。

  • The first brain-controlled exoskeleton to be built

    世界第一個大腦控制的外骨骼機器人

  • was named after the most famous Brazilian scientist ever,

    是以巴西有史以來最有名的科學家,

  • Alberto Santos Dumont,

    亞伯托‧桑托斯‧杜蒙來命名,

  • who, on October 19, 1901, created and flew himself

    他在 1901 年 10 月 19 日,駕駛自己所創造的

  • the first controlled airship on air in Paris for a million people to see.

    第一架飛行器,在巴黎上空一百萬人的注視下飛行。

  • Sorry, my American friends,

    不好意思,我的美國朋友們,

  • I live in North Carolina,

    我住在北卡羅萊納州,

  • but it was two years before the Wright Brothers flew

    但萊特兄弟是在二年之後

  • on the coast of North Carolina.

    才飛過北卡羅萊納州海岸。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Flight control is Brazilian. (Laughter)

    飛行管制是巴西人建立的。(笑聲)

  • So we went together with these guys

    所以我們跟這些人一起

  • and we basically put this exoskeleton together,

    把這個外骨骼機器人組起來,

  • 15 degrees of freedom, hydraulic machine

    15 個自由度,液壓控制的機器,

  • that can be commanded by brain signals

    由大腦訊號所控制

  • recorded by a non-invasive technology called electroencephalography

    被一個非侵入性的科技,叫腦波儀所記錄下來。

  • that can basically allow the patient to imagine the movements

    這可以讓病人來想像動作,

  • and send his commands to the controls, the motors,

    然後傳遞他的指令到控制系統與運動神經,

  • and get it done.

    來把動作完成。

  • This exoskeleton was covered with an artificial skin

    這個外骨骼機器人被一層人造皮膚覆蓋。

  • invented by Gordon Cheng, one of my greatest friends, in Munich,

    這是我在慕尼黑最優秀的朋友之一,戈登‧鄭所發明的。

  • to allow sensation from the joints moving and the foot touching the ground

    這個人造皮可以讓關節移動和腳掌接觸地面的感覺,

  • to be delivered back to the patient through a vest, a shirt.

    透過背心或上衣傳回病人身上。

  • It is a smart shirt with micro-vibrating elements

    這是一件有微震動元件的智慧衣服,

  • that basically delivers the feedback and fools the patient's brain

    衣服傳遞反饋,給病患的大腦產生假象。

  • by creating a sensation that it is not a machine that is carrying him,

    創造一種不是機器在移動人,

  • but it is he who is walking again.

    而是人自己走路的感覺。

  • So we got this going, and what you'll see here

    所以我們讓這機器人可以運作,然後你將會看到的是,

  • is the first time one of our patients, Bruno, actually walked.

    我們其中一個病人,布魯諾,第一次行走。

  • And he takes a few seconds because we are setting everything,

    他花了幾秒的時間,因為我們要設定所有東西,

  • and you are going to see a blue light cutting in front of the helmet

    接著你會看到頭罩前面有一道藍光,

  • because Bruno is going to imagine the movement that needs to be performed,

    因為布魯諾需要想像移動所需要做的動作,

  • the computer is going to analyze it, Bruno is going to certify it,

    電腦會分析這個動作,布魯諾會確認它,

  • and when it is certified,

    當它被確認之後,

  • the device starts moving under the command of Bruno's brain.

    這個裝置開始在布魯諾大腦的命令下移動。

  • And he just got it right, and now he starts walking.

    現在他剛站好,然後他開始走。

  • After nine years without being able to move,

    在九年不能移動之後,

  • he is walking by himself.

    他開始自己走路。

  • And more than that --

    而且不只如此

  • (Applause) --

    (掌聲)

  • more than just walking,

    不只是走路,

  • he is feeling the ground,

    他能感受地面,

  • and if the speed of the exo goes up,

    當外骨骼機器人的速度變快,

  • he tells us that he is walking again on the sand of Santos,

    他告訴我們他像是再一次走在桑托斯的沙灘上,

  • the beach resort where he used to go before he had the accident.

    那是他發生意外之前習慣去的海灘度假區。

  • That's why the brain is creating a new sensation in Bruno's head.

    這是為什麼布魯諾的大腦會創造出一個全新的感受。

  • So he walks, and at the end of the walk -- I am running out of time already --

    他行走,在結束行走的時候我快沒時間了

  • he says, "You know, guys,

    他說:「各位,

  • I need to borrow this thing from you when I get married,

    我結婚的時候需要跟你們借這個東西,

  • because I wanted to walk to the priest

    因為我想要走到神父面前

  • and see my bride and actually be there by myself.

    去看我的新娘,而且是我本人在場。」

  • Of course, he will have it whenever he wants.

    當然,他隨時都可以擁有。

  • And this is what we wanted to show during the World Cup, and couldn't,

    這是我們在世界盃很想展示卻沒有展示的東西,

  • because for some mysterious reason, FIFA cut its broadcast in half.

    因為某些神祕的原因,國際足協把直播給減半了。

  • What you are going to see very quickly is Juliano Pinto in the exo doing the kick

    各位即將看到的是朱里亞諾‧平托穿著外骨骼機器人踢球

  • a few minutes before we went to the pitch

    這是在我們調整好後的幾分鐘,

  • and did the real thing in front of the entire crowd,

    而且是觀眾面前做這件事,

  • and the lights you are going to see just describe the operation.

    你們即將看到藍光描述這個過程。

  • Basically, the blue lights pulsating indicate that the exo is ready to go.

    基本上,藍色光閃爍代表外骨骼機器人已經準備好運作。

  • It can receive thoughts and it can deliver feedback,

    它可以接受想法並且傳遞回饋,

  • and when Juliano makes the decision to kick the ball,

    而當朱利亞諾做出踢球的決定時,

  • you are going to see two streams of green and yellow light

    你們將會看到二道綠光和黃光

  • coming from the helmet and going to the legs,

    從頭罩流到腿,

  • representing the mental commands that were taken by the exo

    這代表外骨骼機器人已經接獲指令

  • to actually make that happen.

    來讓動作真的產生。

  • And in basically 13 seconds,

    在 13 秒內,

  • Juliano actually did.

    朱利亞諾就做到了。

  • You can see the commands.

    你可以看到那些指令。

  • He gets ready, the ball is set, and he kicks.

    他準備好,球放好,然後他踢球。

  • And the most amazing thing is,

    最令人訝異的是,

  • 10 seconds after he did that, and looked at us on the pitch,

    在他做完十秒後,他看著主控台上的我們,

  • he told us, celebrating as you saw,

    他跟我們說,歡欣鼓舞就像你們看到的樣子,

  • "I felt the ball."

    「我感覺到球了。」

  • And that's priceless.

    那真是無價。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • So where is this going to go?

    所以這會怎麼發展下去?

  • I have two minutes to tell you

    我有兩分鐘可以告訴你們,

  • that it's going to the limits of your imagination.

    受限於各位想像力。

  • Brain-actuating technology is here.

    腦驅動的科技就在這裡。

  • This is the latest: We just published this a year ago,

    這是最近的,我們一年前才發表,

  • the first brain-to-brain interface

    第一個腦對腦介面

  • that allows two animals to exchange mental messages

    能讓兩隻動物交換心靈訊息。

  • so that one animal that sees something coming from the environment

    所以一隻動物從環境中看到某些東西,

  • can send a mental SMS, a torpedo, a neurophysiological torpedo,

    可以傳一個心靈簡訊,一個魚雷,一個神經生理的魚雷,

  • to the second animal,

    給另一隻動物。

  • and the second animal performs the act that he needed to perform

    然後第二隻動物做出牠需要做的反應,

  • without ever knowing what the environment was sending as a message,

    甚至不知道環境給了什麼訊息,

  • because the message came from the first animal's brain.

    因為訊息是從第一隻動物的腦傳出來的。

  • So this is the first demo.

    所以這是第一個展示,

  • I'm going to be very quick because I want to show you the latest.

    我要加快腳步因為我想要給你們看最新的。

  • But what you see here is the first rat getting informed

    你們看到的是第一隻老鼠,

  • by a light that is going to show up on the left of the cage

    被籠子左邊出現的光提示

  • that he has to press the left cage to basically get a reward.

    要按左邊籠子來獲得獎賞。

  • He goes there and does it.

    牠走到那邊然後按下去。

  • And the same time, he is sending a mental message

    在這同時,牠傳送一個心靈訊息,

  • to the second rat that didn't see any light,

    給沒有看到任何光線的第二隻老鼠,

  • and the second rat, in 70 percent of the times

    而第二隻老鼠,在百分之七十的試驗裡,

  • is going to press the left lever and get a reward

    會去按左邊控制桿然後獲得獎賞,

  • without ever experiencing the light in the retina.

    牠的視網膜完全沒有感應到光。

  • Well, we took this to a little higher limit

    我們加深這個的難度,

  • by getting monkeys to