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  • It's March the 17th in A.D. 73.

    現在是公元 73 年的三月十七日。

  • We're visiting ancient Rome to watch the Liberalia,

    我們到古羅馬來參加酒神節(Liberalia),

  • an annual festival that celebrates the liberty of Rome's citizens.

    這一年一度的慶典是用來 慶祝羅馬市民的自由。

  • We're looking in at a 17-year-old named Lucius Popidius Secundus.

    我們的主角是一個十七歲的少年, 他叫作 Lucius Popidius Secundus。

  • He's not from a poor family, but he lives in the region known as the Subura,

    他的家境並不貧困, 但他住在一個叫作 Subura 的地方。

  • a poorer neighborhood in Rome, yet close to the center of the city.

    那是一個較貧窮的地區, 不過卻離市中心很近。

  • The tenants of these apartments are crammed in,

    那裡的公寓很擁擠,

  • which poses considerable risk.

    而住戶常面臨許多危險。

  • Fires are frequent and the smell of ash and smoke in the morning is not uncommon.

    火災時常發生, 早上聞到煙灰味是很平常的事。

  • Lucius, who awoke at dawn, has family duties to perform today.

    Lucius 在黎明時起床, 他今天要參加家庭活動。

  • His 15-year-old brother is coming of age.

    他十五歲的弟弟要成年了。

  • Half the children in ancient Rome die before they reach adulthood,

    在羅馬,有一半的小孩活不到成年,

  • so this is a particularly important milestone.

    所以這是一個重要的里程碑。

  • Lucius watches his brother stand in his new toga before the household shrine with its protective deities

    Lucius 看著他的弟弟身穿新長袍 站在家族守護神龕前,

  • as he places his bulla, a protective amulet, in the shrine with a prayer of thanks.

    之後把他的 bulla,也就是護身符, 放在神龕裡,並祝禱以表示感謝。

  • The bulla had worked. It had protected him.

    這護身符發揮了它的作用, 它保護他成長。

  • Unlike many others, he had survived to become an adult.

    他存活下來,長大成人。

  • At 17, Lucius has almost completed his education.

    在十七歲的時候, Lucius 已經幾乎完成他的學業了。

  • He has learned to speak well, make public speeches,

    他已經學會了 得體的表達、公眾演說、

  • and how to read and write both Latin and Greek.

    以及讀寫拉丁文和希臘文。

  • His father has taught him the types of things you can't learn in the classroom:

    他的父親已經教導他 許多你在課堂上學不到的東西:

  • how to run, how to swim, and how to fight.

    如何奔跑、如何游泳、還有如何戰鬥。

  • Lucius could choose, at 17, to become a military tribune

    在 17 歲的時候,Lucius 可以決定 要不要當一個軍事指揮官,

  • and command soldiers on the edge of the Empire.

    並在帝國邊境指揮士兵。

  • But in other ways, Lucius is still a child.

    但在另一方面, Lucius 則還是小孩。

  • He's not trusted to arrange business deals.

    他還不能處理生意上的大小交易

  • His father will take care of that until he is 25.

    在他 25 歲前, 這些事情還是由他父親處理。

  • And Dad will arrange Lucius' marriage to a girl 10 years younger.

    他父親還會幫 Luciuse 安排 和一個小他十歲的女孩結婚。

  • His dad has his eye on a family with a 7-year-old daughter.

    他父親看上一個有七歲大的女兒的家庭。

  • Back to the Liberalia.

    回到酒神節這主題。

  • As Lucius leaves with his family, the shops are open as the population goes about its business.

    當 Lucius 隨著他的家人出門的時候, 路上的店鋪都開門做生意了。

  • The streets are full of itinerant traders selling trinkets

    街道上充滿了賣小玩意的旅行商人,

  • and people bustling from place to place.

    人潮四處熙熙攘攘。

  • Large wagons are not allowed in the city until after the ninth hour

    大型馬車在日間九點之前是不允許入城的, (譯註:羅馬時間分日間與夜間各十二時。)

  • but the streets are still crowded.

    然而街道依舊水洩不通。

  • Fathers and uncles take the kids to the Forum Augustus

    父親和親戚們帶著小孩們 到奧古斯都廣場(Forum Augustus)

  • to see statues of Rome's famous warriors

    去看一些有名羅馬戰士的雕像:

  • like Anaeus, who led Rome's ancestors, the Trojans, to Italy.

    像是埃涅阿斯(Anaeus) ──他帶領羅馬的祖先特洛伊人到達義大利;

  • And Romulus, Rome's founder.

    還有羅慕路斯(Romulus) ──羅馬的奠基者。

  • And all the great generals of the Republic from more than 100 years earlier.

    還有所有共和國下的偉大將軍, 從百多年前開始。

  • Lovingly, we can imagine fathers and guardians with their now adult childen

    我們可以想像得到 各家的父親和監護人帶著他們剛成年的孩子們

  • remembering stories of Rome's glory

    思古幽情地 回憶著羅馬的榮耀,

  • and re-telling the good deeds and sayings of the great men of the past:

    並且再次描述著古代偉人們的 偉業與名言:

  • lessons on how to live well, and to overcome the follies of youth.

    比如說怎麼好好的活下去, 並克服一些年輕氣盛的愚蠢行為。

  • There is a sense of history in this place, relevant to their present.

    相較於他們當代, 這是這個地方所帶來的歷史情感。

  • Romans made an empire without end in time and space.

    羅馬人建立了無邊無際的帝國 ──空間或時間上都是如此。

  • Rome was destined to be eternal through warfare.

    羅馬注定 靠戰事來締造永恆的帝國。

  • Wars were a fact of life, even in A.D. 73.

    儘管到了公元 73 年, 戰爭還是生活的一部份。

  • There are campaigns in the north of England

    戰役遍及各處, 從北英格蘭

  • and into Scotland,

    打到蘇格蘭,

  • to the north of the River Danube into Romania,

    從北多瑙河打到羅馬尼亞,

  • and on the frontier between Syria and Iraq to the east.

    並往東打到敘利亞和伊拉克邊界。

  • It's now the eighth hour -- time to head for the baths.

    現在是日間八點 ──是時候洗個澡了。

  • Lucius and his family head up the Via Lata, the wide street,

    Lucius 一家人前往科爾索大道(Via Lata), 那是一條寬廣的街道,

  • to the Campus Martius, and the enormous Baths of Agrippa.

    再到瑪爾斯廣場(Campus Martius) 到達宏偉的阿格里帕大浴場(Baths of Agrippa)。

  • The family members leave the clients and freedman outside,

    Lucius 一家把其他門客留在外面,

  • and enter the baths with their peer group.

    然後和同階級的人一同進去浴場。

  • Baths would change from dark, steamy rooms to light ones.

    浴場裡蒸氣濔漫, 並會由暗轉亮。

  • The Romans had perfected window glass.

    羅馬人懂得如何製造精美的玻璃。

  • Everyone moves from the cold room

    每個人會從冷池

  • to the tepid room

    到溫池

  • and to the very hot room.

    再到很高溫的池子。

  • More than an hour later, the bathers leave

    一個多小時過後, 這些沐浴者

  • massaged, oiled, and have been scraped down with a strigil to remove the remaining dirt.

    會去按摩、抹油、 並用刮身板(strigil)去除身上的髒汙。

  • At the ninth hour, seven hours after they left home,

    在日間九點的時候, 他們已經離家七個小時了,

  • the men return for a celebratory dinner.

    這群人回家參加慶祝的晚宴。

  • Dinner is an intimate affair, with nine people reclining around the low table.

    晚宴是件親密的事, 九個人斜躺在矮桌周圍。

  • Slaves attend to their every need

    用餐者只需做出手勢

  • if the diners, through gestures, demand more food and wine.

    奴隸便會送上美酒和食物。

  • As the day closes, we can hear the rumble of wagons outside.

    太陽下山時, 我們聽見外頭馬車的喧鬧聲。

  • The clients and freedmen, with a meal of robust -- if inferior -- food inside them,

    門客們用完一頓 氣味濃厚、彷彿較次等的一餐後,

  • shuffle off to the now tepid baths before returning to their apartment blocks.

    就前往那水溫已經變溫的浴場, 最後才回到各自的公寓。

  • Back at Lucius' house, the drinking continues into the night.

    回到 Lucius 的家, 他們會一直喝酒到晚上。

  • Lucius and his stepbrother don't look too well.

    Lucius 還有他的異母兄弟 看起來不太好。

  • A slave stands by in case either of them needs to vomit.

    一位奴隷就站在旁邊, 為他們要吐的時候作準備。

  • With hindsight, we know Lucius' future.

    而由後來的歷史,我們知道 Lucius 的未來。

  • In 20 years' time, the Emperor Vespasian's youngest son, Domitian, as emperor,

    在 20 年的光景,統治者維斯帕先(Vespasian) 最小的兒子多米提安(Domitian)成了君王,

  • will enact a reign of terror. Will Lucius survive?

    開始暴政統治。 而 Lucius 能夠存活下去嗎?

It's March the 17th in A.D. 73.

現在是公元 73 年的三月十七日。

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 羅馬 父親 打到 成年 帝國

【TED-Ed】窺見古羅馬時代年輕人的生活 (A glimpse of teenage life in ancient Rome - Ray Laurence)

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