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  • It's not about technology, it's about people and stories.

    我想說的跟科技無關,而是關於人們與其背後的故事

  • I could show you what recently was

    我可以給大家看看

  • on television as a high quality video:

    最近在電視上播出評價很高

  • 60 Minutes, many of you may have seen it.

    「60分鐘」,大部分的人應該都有看過

  • And it was the now director of the entire piece of the

    主角是現任的退伍軍人協會會長

  • veteran's administration--

    主角是現任的退伍軍人協會會長

  • who, himself, had lost an arm 39 years ago in Vietnam--

    他在39年前,在越南失去了一條手臂

  • who was adamantly opposed to these crazy devices that don't work.

    他很固執地拒絕使用以前那種不好用的義肢

  • And it turns out that with 60 Minutes cameras rolling in the background,

    當「60分鐘」一開始採訪他的時候

  • after he pretty much made his position clear on this --

    他立即表明他的立場

  • he had his hook and he had his --

    雖然他有那種有鈎子的義肢

  • he wore this arm for less than two hours

    他換上新式義肢不到二個小時

  • and was able to pour himself a drink and got quite emotional over the fact that, quote --

    他就能自己倒水了,他激動地說

  • his quote --

    他說

  • it's the first time he's felt like he's had an arm in 39 years.

    這是他39年來第一次覺得自己的手臂又長回來了

  • But that would sort of be jumping to the middle of the story,

    我好像講得太快了... 都跳到故事中段去了

  • and I'm not going to show you that polished video.

    我今天不想放那段修飾過的影片

  • I'm going to, instead, in a minute or two,

    我想要放的是更早之前拍的

  • show you an early, crude video

    一段較為寫實的一至二分鐘影片

  • because I think it's a better way to tell a story.

    我覺得這段影片更能表達出真實的故事

  • A few years ago I was visited by the guy that runs DARPA,

    幾年前,國防部高等計畫研究局的局長來找我

  • the people that fund all the advanced technologies that

    他們贊助的先進科技

  • businesses and universities probably wouldn't take the risk of doing.

    是許多企業或大學認為不值得投資的科技

  • They have a particular interest in ones that will help our soldiers.

    他們對可以協助軍人的科技特別感興趣

  • I get this sort of unrequested -- by me anyway -- visit,

    就這樣,我見了這個不速之客

  • and sitting in my conference room is a very senior surgeon

    陪同局長坐在我的會議室的,是軍中的一位資深外科手術醫生

  • from the military and the guy that runs DARPA.

    陪同局長坐在我的會議室的,是軍中的一位資深外科手術醫生

  • They proceed to tell me a story

    他們告訴我一件事

  • which comes down to basically the following.

    那就是接下來基本上所說的

  • We have used such advanced technologies now

    我們現在所使用的科技非常先進

  • and made them available in the most remote places that we put soldiers:

    就連遠在阿富汗、伊拉克 山岳裡的軍人,也都可以使用

  • hills of Afghanistan, Iraq ...

    就連遠在阿富汗、伊拉克 山岳裡的軍人,也都可以使用

  • They were quite proud of the fact that you know,

    他們對此感到很驕傲

  • before the dust clears,

    因為在戰事過後

  • if some soldier has been hurt they will have collected him or her,

    如果有士兵受傷了

  • they will have brought him back,

    他們很快就能把士兵救回來

  • they will be getting world-class triage emergency care faster than you and I would be getting it

    送到醫院, 讓受傷的士兵接受世界級的急救醫療

  • if we were hurt in a car accident in a major city in the United States.

    其速度之快,比你我在美國各大都市發生車禍受傷, 被送到醫院接受急救還要快

  • That's the good news.

    這很不錯

  • The bad news is

    糟糕的是

  • if they've collected this person and he or she is missing an arm or

    若他們救回來的士兵, 斷了一條手臂

  • leg, part of the face, it's probably not coming back.

    斷了一條腿、 或毀容了,就很難回復到原來的狀況

  • So, they started giving me the statistics on how many of these kids had lost an arm.

    他們告訴我這些士兵斷掉手臂的統計數據

  • And then the surgeon pointed out, with a lot of anger,

    外科手術醫生則氣沖沖地說

  • he said, "Why is it?

    他說:為什麼?

  • At the end of the Civil War, they were shooting each other with muskets.

    在南北戰爭的時候, 大家用的是毛瑟槍

  • If somebody lost an arm,

    如果有人斷了手臂

  • we gave them a wooden stick with a hook on it.

    我們就幫他們裝上一支木棍,外加一個鈎子

  • Now we've got F18s and F22s, and if somebody loses an arm,

    我們現在都已經改用F18和F22戰機了,為什麼每當有人手臂斷掉時

  • we give them a plastic stick with a hook on it."

    我們還是只給他們一支塑膠棍子外加一個鈎子呢?

  • And they basically said, "This is unacceptable,"

    他們覺得這樣很不合理

  • and then the punchline:

    最後他們說

  • "So, Dean, we're here because you make medical stuff.

    迪恩, 我知道你有製作醫療器材

  • You're going to give us an arm."

    你一定要幫我們做出一支手臂來。

  • And I was waiting for the 500 pages of bureaucracy, paperwork and DODs.

    那時我想,或許他們會給我一份高達500頁的官樣文章

  • No, the guy says,

    結果沒有。局長說

  • "We're going to bring a guy into this conference room,

    我們會請一位斷了手臂的士兵來這裡

  • and wearing the arm you're going to give us,

    試戴你為我們設計的義肢

  • he or she is going to pick up a raisin or a grape off this table.

    他要能用那支義肢拿起桌上的葡萄乾或葡萄

  • If it's the grape, they won't break it."

    而不會把葡萄捏碎

  • Great he needs efferent, afferent, haptic response sensors.

    哦!他們要的就是要具備傳出、傳入的功能,還要有觸覺

  • "If it's the raisin, they won't drop it."

    而要不會把葡萄乾掉在地上

  • So he wants fine motor control:

    義肢要能控制細部動作

  • flex at the wrist, flex at the elbow, abduct and flex at the shoulder.

    手腕要能彎曲, 手肘要能彎曲,肩膀要能彎曲和伸展

  • Either way they were going to eat it.

    不管怎樣就是要把食物送進嘴裡就是了

  • "Oh, by the way Dean.

    對了,迪恩

  • It's going to fit on a 50th percentile female frame --

    我們要的是一般女人尺寸的義肢

  • namely 32 inches from the long finger -- and weigh less than nine pounds.

    也就是從肩膀到手指長約80公分,重量不超過4公斤的義肢

  • " 50th percentile female frame."

    也就是一般女人的尺寸,裡面要有所有的功能

  • "And it's going to be completely self contained including all its power.

    當然還要包含電力供應系統。

  • So, they finished that. And I, as you can tell, am a bashful guy.

    他們說完了。但我,你看得出來...我是個靦腆的人

  • I told them they're nuts.

    我告訴他們,他們瘋了

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • They've been watching too much "Terminator." (Laughter)

    他們大概看太多「魔鬼終結者」了 (笑聲)

  • Then, the surgeon says to me,

    接著,外科手術醫生告訴我

  • "Dean, you need to know more than two dozen of these kids have come back bilateral.

    迪恩,你必須知道, 有超過24個士兵 是雙臂全斷的

  • "Now, I cannot imagine -- I'm sorry, you may have a better

    我真的很難想像, 你們可能比我

  • imagination than I do -- I can't imagine losing my arm,

    更能想像吧... 我不能想像失去手臂的感覺

  • and typically at 22 years old.

    尤其是在22歲這麼年輕的時候

  • But compared to that, losing two?

    但失去一條手臂和失去雙臂比起來

  • Seems like that would be an inconvenience.

    似乎只是稍微有點不方便而已

  • Anyway, I went home that night. I thought about it. I literally could not sleep

    總之,我那晚回到家,我思考著這件事, 無法入眠

  • thinking about, "I wonder how you'd roll over with no shoulders."

    因為我在想,如果沒有肩膀,要怎麼翻身?

  • So, I decided we've got to do this.

    因此,我決定要開發這種義肢

  • And trust me, I've got a day job, I've got a lot of day jobs.

    相信我,我那時有白天的工作,有好幾個白天的工作

  • Most of my day job keeps me busy funding my fantasies like FIRST and water and power ....

    這些工作主要是為我手上的幾個專案籌募資金,像是創新專案和水電專案等

  • And I've got a lot of day jobs.

    雖然我已經有這麼多事要做

  • But I figured I gotta do this.

    但我想:「這件事一定要做。」

  • Did a little investigation, went down to Washington, told them

    我做了一些調查, 然後我跑到華盛頓去告訴他們

  • I still think they're nuts but we're going to do it.

    我還是覺得他們瘋了,但我們會盡力開發

  • And I told them I'd build them an arm.

    我告訴他們我會開發這種義肢

  • I told them it would probably take five years to get through the FDA,

    然後大概要等上五年FDA(食品藥物管理局)才會通過

  • and probably 10 years to be reasonably functional.

    我估計大概要十年才能讓義肢運作

  • Look what it takes to make things like iPods.

    你看看iPod花了多少時間才上市

  • "Great," he said, "You got two years."

    局長說:「很好,你只有二年時間。」

  • I said, "I'll tell you what.

    我說:這麼說吧

  • I'll build you an arm that's under nine pounds that has all that capability in one year.

    開發這個不到4公斤的義肢,裡面還要有這麼多功能,只需要一年時間

  • It will take the other nine to make it functional and useful.

    但要讓義肢變得好用並順利運作,得花另外九年的時間

  • " We sort of agreed to disagree.

    我們都瞭解彼此的看法了

  • I went back and I started putting a team together,

    我回去組了一個團隊

  • the best guys I could find with a passion to do this.

    團隊裡都是具有無比熱情的菁英份子

  • At the end of exactly one year we had a device with 14 degrees of freedom,

    在一年過去之後,我們開發出一個擁有14個自由度的義肢

  • all the sensors, all the microprocessors, all the stuff inside.

    裡面有好幾組感知器和微處理器, 還有各項必備零件

  • I could show you it with a cosmesis on it that's so real it's eerie,

    我可以給你們看包覆了人工皮膚之後的樣子, 看起來就像真的手臂一樣

  • but then you wouldn't see all this cool stuff.

    但你們就看不到裡面那些很酷的零件了

  • I then thought it would be years before we'd

    我接著想到或許還要好幾年

  • be able to make it really, really useful.

    才能把這種義肢修正到真正好用的狀況

  • It turned out, as I think you could see in Aimee's capabilities and attitudes,

    但後來,從艾美(Aimee Mullins)的能力和態度 我想你們也看得到

  • people with a desire to do something are quite remarkable and nature is quite adaptable.

    只要有心就能把事情做得很棒, 人們有很強的適應力

  • Anyway, with less than 10 hours of use, two guys -- one that's bilateral.

    總之,有二個人試用了不到十小時, 其中一個人雙臂斷掉

  • He's literally, he's got no shoulder on one side,

    有一邊連肩膀也沒有

  • and he's high trans-humeral on the other. And that's Chuck and Randy together,

    另一邊則齊肩斷掉。 這二位是恰克和藍迪

  • after 10 hours -- were playing in our office.

    十個小時之後,他們就在我們的辦公室玩起來了

  • And we took some pretty cruddy home movies.

    於是我們幫他們錄下了一些可愛的片段

  • At the end of the one I'm going to show,

    在這部接下來要播的影片的最後

  • it's only about a minute and a couple of seconds long,

    我要播放的影片大概只有一分多鐘

  • Chuck does something that to this day I'm jealous of, I can't do it.

    恰克做了一件讓我到現在都還很嫉妒的事,因為我做不到

  • He picks up a spoon, picks it up,

    他把一支湯匙拿起來

  • scoops out some Shredded Wheat and milk,

    挖出一些燕麥糊

  • holds the spoon level as he translates it, moving all these joints simultaneously, to his mouth,

    把湯匙放平,然後想辦法同時移動所有的關節, 把東西送進嘴裡

  • and he doesn't drop any milk.

    連一滴燕麥糊也沒有掉下來

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I cannot do that.

    我就做不到

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • His wife was standing behind me.

    他太太那時站在我後面

  • She's standing behind me at the time and she says, "Dean,

    就站在我後面, 她說:迪恩

  • Chuck hasn't fed himself in 19 years.

    恰克已經有19年沒有自己吃東西了

  • So, you've got a choice:

    所以你有兩個選擇

  • We keep the arm, or you keep Chuck."

    把義肢交給我們,或是我們把恰克留給你 (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    (掌聲)

  • (Applause)

    現在可以看影片了嗎?

  • So, can we see that?

    現在恰克在示範如何同時控制所有的關節

  • This is Chuck showing simultaneous control of all the joints.

    他在對我們的控制工程師出拳

  • He's punching our controls guy.

    在他身後的人是我們的工程師兼外科醫生

  • The guy behind him is our engineer/surgeon,

    有他在身邊我們比較放心

  • which is a convenient guy to have around.

    這是藍迪,他們二個在互傳一個橡膠球

  • There's Randy, these guys are passing a rubber little puck between them.

    就如同我旗下的創新基金會的成立宗旨一樣, 這具有高尚、專業的精神,他們很自豪

  • And just as in the spirit of FIRST, gracious professionalism, they are quite proud of this,

    所以決定來喝一杯

  • so they decide to share a drink.

    這可不是一件簡單的事

  • This is a non-trivial thing to do, by the way.

    想像一下,如果你的義肢是一枝木棍外加一個鈎子,你能做到這些事嗎?

  • Imagine doing that with a wooden stick and a hook on the end of it, doing either of those.

    現在,恰克要做一件了不起的事

  • Now Chuck is doing something quite extraordinary,

    而我從來都做不來這件事

  • at least for my limited physical skill.

    現在,他要做的是國防部要求我要做到的

  • And now he's going to do what DARPA asked me for.

    就是要拿起一顆葡萄,他沒有落掉那顆葡萄, 也沒有捏碎它, 他要把它放進嘴裡了

  • He's going to pick up a grape -- he didn't drop it, he didn't break it -- and he's going to eat it.

    這就是我們開發了15個月的成果

  • So, that's where we were at the end of about 15 months.

    (掌聲)

  • (Applause)

    但是,我從理察那裡知道

  • But, as I've learned from Richard,

    技術、處理器、感知器和馬達這一類的東西,全都不重要

  • the technology, the processors, the sensors, the motors, is not the story.

    我還沒見識過整個醫療體系的厲害呢!

  • I hadn't dealt with this kind of problem or frankly,

    我還沒見識過整個醫療體系的厲害呢!

  • this whole segment of the medical world.

    我來告訴各位一些我們在開發過程中,所遇到的各種令人驚訝的事

  • I'll give you some astounding things that have happened as we started this.

    在我們以為自己的設計沒什麼問題之後

  • After we were pretty much convinced we had a good design,

    我們做了許多工程上的標準取捨程序

  • and we'd have to make all the standard engineering trade-offs you always make --

    也就是在四種東西裡面選出三種好的

  • you can always get three out of four

    像是在重量、大小、成本和功能之中進行挑選

  • of anything you want; the weight, the size, the cost, the functionality --

    我把大家都送上我的飛機, 然後告訴他們

  • I put a bunch of guys in my plane and I said,

    我們要飛到華特里德醫院,和那些受傷的士兵訪談

  • "We're flying down to Walter Reed, and we're going talk to these kids,

    老實說,我們喜不喜歡那些義肢並不重要

  • because frankly it doesn't matter whether we like this arm.

    國防部喜不喜歡也不重要

  • It doesn't matter whether the Department of Defense likes this arm.

    當然,當我告訴國防部這個事實時,他們並不高興

  • "When I told them that they weren't entirely enthusiastic, but

    但我告訴他們,他們的意見並不重要

  • I told them, "It really doesn't matter what their opinion is.

    我們只重視一種意見,就是那些受傷士兵的意見,他們想不想用才重要

  • There is only one opinion that matters, the kids that are either going to use it or not."

    我告訴我們的工程師:「我們現在要去華特里德醫院

  • I told a bunch of my engineers, "Look we're going to walk into Walter Reed,

    你們會看到很多失去手腳的人

  • and you're going to see people, lots of them, missing major body parts.

    他們可能會很生氣、憤怒或沮喪

  • They're probably going to be angry, depressed, frustrated.

    我們應該要支持他們,給他們鼓勵

  • We're probably going to have to give them support, encouragement.

    但我們要從他們那裡知道我們到底做得對不對。」

  • But we've got to extract from them enough information to make sure we're doing the right thing."

    當我們走進華特里德醫院之後,我才發現我大錯特錯

  • We walked into Walter Reed and I could not have been more wrong.

    我們確實看到很多人,很多失去手腳的人

  • We did see a bunch of people, a lot of them missing a lot of body parts,

    有人殘餘的肢體有燒傷的痕跡,有人半邊臉不見了,有人的耳朵被燒掉了

  • and parts they had left were burned; half a face gone, an ear burned off.

    他們都圍坐在一張桌子邊

  • They were sitting at a table.

    他們是為我們的到訪而聚集在那裡

  • They were brought together for us.

    所以我們開始問他們問題

  • And we started asking them all questions.

    像是:「我們還沒辦法做到跟天生的肢體一樣

  • "Look," I'd say to them, "We're not quite as good as nature yet.

    但我可以讓你做到細部動作控制,或是讓你拿起20公斤重的東西

  • I could give you fine motor control, or I could let you curl 40 pounds;

    但沒辦法同時做這二件事

  • I probably can't do both.

    我可以用低耗損率的齒輪讓你快速控制你的義肢

  • I can give you fast control with low reduction ratios in these gears,

    或是讓你產生力量,但沒辦法同時做到這二者

  • or I can give you power; I can't give you both.

    我們希望他們全都能幫我們瞭解他們的需求

  • And we were trying to get them to all help us know what to give them.

    但他們表現得太積極了,他們不斷地想

  • Not only were they enthusiastic, they kept thinking

    有什麼可以幫助我們的

  • they're there to help us.

    「嗯,如果我這樣做,可以幫到你們嗎?」

  • "Well, would it help if I ..."

    各位,你們給的夠多了

  • "Guys, and woman, you've given enough.

    我們是來幫助你們的,我們需要你們提供資料,我們要知道你們想要什麼

  • We're here to help you. We need data. We need to know what you need."

    經過一個半小時之後,有個坐在桌子另一頭的人, 他一直沒有說太多話

  • After a half an hour, maybe, there was one guy at the far end of the table who wasn't saying much.

    他斷了一條手臂

  • You could see he was missing an arm.

    就用另一條手臂撐著

  • He was leaning on his other arm.

    我對著桌子另一頭說

  • I called down to the end,

    「嘿,你沒有說什麼話耶, 有沒有什麼是你需要的?」

  • "Hey, you haven't said much.

    「嘿,你沒有說什麼話耶, 有沒有什麼是你需要的?」

  • If we needed this or this, what would you want?"

    他說:「你知道嗎? 我算是這裡面幸運的了

  • And he said, "You know, I'm the lucky guy at this table.

    我斷的是右手, 還好我是左撇子。」

  • I lost my right arm, but I'm a lefty."

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    所以,他沒有什麼好說的

  • So, he wouldn't say much.

    他的態度很令人敬佩,就像其他人一樣令人敬佩

  • He had a great spirit, like all the rest of them had great spirits.

    他後來發表了一些評論

  • And he made a few comments.

    然後會議就結束了

  • And then the meeting ended.

    我們和這些人一一道別

  • We said goodbye to all these guys.

    那個人則把自己從椅子上推離開桌子,我們才發現他沒有雙腳

  • And that guy pushed himself back from the table ... he has no legs.

    我們離開了那裡

  • So, we left.

    我那時在想

  • And I was thinking,

    我們一點也沒有給予他們支持,也沒有鼓勵他們

  • "We didn't give them support and encouragement;

    反而是他們鼓勵了我們

  • they gave it to us.

    他們還不斷地提供我們意見

  • They're not finished giving yet."

    這真是太驚人了!

  • It was astounding.

    所以,我們回到實驗室

  • So, we went back.

    工作得更加勤奮、更加快速

  • And I started working harder, faster.

    接下來我們去拜訪了布魯克軍人醫院

  • Then we went out to Brooke Army Medical Center.

    我們也看到許多年輕的士兵

  • And we saw lots of these kids,

    很令人吃驚 ...

  • lots of them. And it was astounding

    他們的態度真的很令人敬佩

  • how positive they are.

    我們又回到了實驗室

  • So, we went back,

    我們又工作得更加勤奮

  • and we've been working harder yet.

    現在我們在進行臨床實驗,有五個人參與實驗

  • We're in clinical trials, we've got five of them on people.

    一路走來有不斷的驚喜

  • We're screaming along.

    我接到一通電話, 所以我們就去了華盛頓

  • And I get a call and we go back to Washington.

    回到華特里德醫院

  • We go back to Walter Reed,

    那裡有一個年輕士兵

  • and a kid, literally,

    在二十多天前被炸傷了

  • 20 some-odd days before that was blown up.

    他被送往德國

  • And they shipped him to Germany

    然後在24小時之後,又從德國被送回 華特里德醫院

  • and 24 hours later they shipped him from Germany to Walter Reed.

    他就在那裡

  • And he was there,

    他們說我們一定得來這一趟

  • and they said we needed to come.

    所以我就去了。 他們把他送進一間病房

  • And I went down and they rolled him into a room.

    他失去了雙腳

  • He's got no legs.

    也失去了二條手臂

  • He's got no arms.

    只有一邊還有殘餘的一小截肢體

  • He's got a small residual limb on one side.

    他有半邊臉不見了

  • Half of his face is gone,

    但他們說他的視力正在恢復

  • but they said his vision is coming back.

    他還有一隻好的眼睛

  • He had one good eye.

    他的名字是布蘭登.莫洛克

  • His name is Brandon Marrocco.

    他說

  • And he said,

    「我需要你們的義肢, 而且我要訂二個。」

  • "I need your arms, but I need two of them."

    我會給你的

  • "You'll get them."

    這個年輕士兵來自史丹頓島

  • This kid was from Staten Island.

    他說

  • And he said,

    在我從軍之前, 我有一輛卡車, 是手排車,

  • "I had a truck, before I went over there, and it had a stick.

    你覺得我還能開嗎?

  • You think I'll be able to drive it?"

    當然!