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  • The brain is an amazing and complex organ.

    大腦,是個令人驚奇又複雜的器官。

  • And while many people are fascinated by the brain,

    雖然很多人對大腦深深著迷,

  • they can't really tell you that much

    但他們其實無法深入的告訴你

  • about the properties about how the brain works

    大腦運作時的詳細特性。

  • because we don't teach neuroscience in schools.

    因為學校教育裡並沒有 教我們神經科學。

  • And one of the reasons why is that the equipment

    原因之一, 是因為神經科學的儀器

  • is so complex and so expensive

    實在太複雜也太昂貴了,

  • that it's really only done at major universities and large institutions.

    所以只有在重點大學 和一些大型研究機構裡面才有。

  • And so in order to be able to access the brain,

    因此,若想接觸大腦,

  • you really need to dedicate your life

    你真的需要投注生命、

  • and spend six and a half years as a graduate student

    花上六年半的時間讀研究所

  • just to become a neuroscientist to get access to these tools.

    只為了成為神經科學家, 如此才能接觸這些儀器。

  • And that's a shame because one out of five of us,

    這樣很可惜, 因為我們平均五個人裡,就有一個

  • that's 20 percent of the entire world, will have a neurological disorder.

    患有某種神經方面的失調, 這大約佔了全球人口的 20%。

  • And there are zero cures for these diseases.

    目前這些疾病都無法完全治癒。

  • And so it seems that what we should be doing

    所以,我們似乎有個要務,

  • is reaching back earlier in the eduction process

    我們要設法在早期的教育裡 教導學生神經科學的知識,

  • and teaching students about neuroscience so that in the future,

    好讓「腦神經學家」成為 他們未來的人生選項之一。

  • they may be thinking about possibly becoming a brain scientist.

    我在讀研究所的時候, 我和我的實驗室夥伴Tim Marzullo決定:

  • When I was a graduate student, my lab mate Tim Marzullo and myself,

    我們何不以實驗室裡 一台研究腦部的精密儀器為藍圖,

  • decided that what if we took this complex equipment that we have

    把儀器簡化、讓它可以更便宜,

  • for studying the brain and made it simple enough and affordable enough

    好讓每個人,像是非專業的人、 或高中生,

  • that anyone that you know, an amateur or a high school student,

    可以學習、甚至參與 神經科學的發現過程?

  • could learn and actually participate in the discovery of neuroscience.

    因此我們付諸實踐了。

  • And so we did just that.

    幾年前,我們創立了一間公司, 名為「後院天才」(Backyard Brains)

  • A few years ago, we started a company called Backyard Brains

    我們自製了一些神經科學儀器, 今晚也帶了一些過來。

  • and we make DIY neuroscience equipment and I brought some here tonight,

    我要做一些展示。

  • and I want to do some demonstrations.

    你們想看嗎?

  • You guys want to see some?

    好,我需要一個志願者。

  • So I need a volunteer.

    好,在此之前......妳叫什麼名字? (掌聲)

  • So right before -- what is your name? (Applause)

    莎姆:莎姆。

  • Sam Kelly: Sam.

    葛雷格:好的,莎姆, 我現在要錄下妳的腦部訊號。

  • Greg Gage: All right, Sam, I'm going to record from your brain.

    妳做過這種事嗎?

  • Have you had this before?

    莎姆:沒有。

  • SK: No.

    葛雷格:請妳為了科學,伸出手吧,

  • GG: I need you to stick out your arm for science,

    袖子捲上來一點,

  • roll up your sleeve a bit,

    好,我現在要做的是, 我要在妳的手臂放上電極。

  • So what I'm going to do, I'm putting electrodes on your arm,

    妳現在可能在想,

  • and you're probably wondering,

    你剛剛不是說要錄下我的腦部訊號? 跟手臂有什麼關係?

  • I just said I'm going to record from your brain, what am I doing with your arm?

    事實上,妳的腦部大概有八百億個神經元,

  • Well, you have about 80 billion neurons inside your brain right now.

    它們負責傳遞電子訊號, 以及化學訊號,

  • They're sending electrical messages back and forth, and chemical messages.

    但其中有一些 運動皮質區的神經元,

  • But some of your neurons right here in your motor cortex

    會在妳運動手臂時, 送出訊號,

  • are going to send messages down when you move your arm like this.

    這些訊號從妳的胼胝體傳下來,

  • They're going to go down across your corpus callosum,

    經過妳的脊髓, 下達到運動神經元,

  • down onto your spinal cord to your lower motor neuron

    再傳到妳這裡的肌肉。

  • out to your muscles here,

    而這些電子訊號 會被妳手臂上的電極捕捉到。

  • and that electrical discharge is going to be picked up

    所以我們可以聽到

  • by these electrodes right here

    妳的腦部所發出的指令。

  • and we're going to be able to listen

    好,我現在開機一下。

  • to exactly what your brain is going to be doing.

    妳曾經聽過腦部發出的聲音嗎?

  • So I'm going to turn this on for a second.

    莎姆:沒有。

  • Have you ever heard what your brain sounds like?

    葛雷格:沒關係,我們試試看。 現在妳手用力。

  • SK: No.

    (聲響)

  • GG: Let's try it out. So go ahead and squeeze your hand.

    所以現在你們聽到的是

  • (Rumbling)

    妳這裡運動神經元所接收到的訊號。

  • So what you're listening to,

    我們也可以看到這些訊號。

  • so this is your motor units happening right here.

    我現在要站到這裡來,

  • Let's take a look at it as well.

    打開我的應用程式。

  • So I'm going to stand over here,

    好,現在手用力。

  • and I'm going to open up our app here.

    (聲響)

  • So now I want you to squeeze.

    現在看到的這個, 就是運動神經元的訊號,

  • (Rumbling)

    訊號是從她的脊髓 傳遞到她這邊的肌肉,

  • So right here, these are the motor units that are happening

    所以當她做動作的時候,

  • from her spinal cord out to her muscle right here,

    妳可以看到其中的 電流活動。

  • and as she's doing it,

    你還可以點選其中一個波段來細看。

  • you're seeing the electrical activity that's happening here.

    所以請繼續用力握。

  • You can even click here and try to see one of them.

    好,我們現在停在

  • So keep doing it really hard.

    妳的腦部裡面其中一個訊號 正要觸發動作的時刻。

  • So now we've paused

    你們想看多一點嗎?

  • on one motor action potential that's happening right now inside of your brain.

    (掌聲)

  • Do you guys want to see some more?

    剛剛很有趣, 不過我們來點更棒的。

  • (Applause)

    我需要另一名志願者。

  • That's interesting, but let's get it better.

    好的。先生,你叫甚麼名字?

  • I need one more volunteer.

    米格爾:米格爾。

  • What is your name, sir?

    葛雷格:米格爾,很好。

  • Miguel Goncalves: Miguel.

    請你站在這裡。

  • GG: Miguel, all right.

    好,所以,當妳這樣動妳的手時,

  • You're going to stand right here.

    妳的腦會送訊息到 妳這裡的肌肉。

  • So when you're moving your arm like this,

    我要請你也移動你的手。

  • your brain is sending a signal down to your muscles right here.

    好,所以你的大腦也會送訊息到你的肌肉。

  • I want you to move your arm as well.

    很碰巧的,在這裡, 有一條神經

  • So your brain is going to send a signal down to your muscles.

    它會牽動你的 這三根手指,

  • And so it turns out that there is a nerve that's right here

    而這條神經離皮膚非常的近, 所以我們可能可以

  • that runs up here that innervates these three fingers,

    直接刺激這條神經。 因此,我們可以

  • and it's close enough to the skin that we might be able

    複製妳腦部要送到妳手臂的訊號

  • to stimulate that so that what we can do

    然後注入他的手臂,

  • is copy your brain signals going out to your hand

    所以你的手,會在她的大腦命令 她的手運動時,跟著一起運動。

  • and inject it into your hand,

    也就是說,她會奪走你的自由意志,

  • so that your hand will move when your brain tells your hand to move.

    你不再能掌握你自己的這隻手。好嗎?

  • So in a sense, she will take away your free will

    你們聽懂了嗎?

  • and you will no longer have any control over this hand.

    所以我要幫你們連線了。

  • You with me?

    (笑聲)

  • So I just need to hook you up.

    我要找一下你的尺骨神經,

  • (Laughter)

    大概在這裡吧。

  • So I'm going to find your ulnar nerve,

    你上台時不知道我會這樣玩你吧。

  • which is probably right around here.

    好,現在我要站到一邊去,

  • You don't know what you're signing up for

    啟動我們的「人傳人」的界面。

  • when you come up.

    好的,那麼......莎姆,請妳再握緊妳的手。

  • So now I'm going to move away and we're going to plug it in

    再握一次。好,很好。

  • to our human-to-human interface over here.

    好,我現在要把你跟莎姆連線了, 你將會......

  • Okay, so Sam, I want you to squeeze your hand again.

    一開始感覺會有點怪,

  • Do it again. Perfect.

    感覺會有點像...... (笑聲)

  • So now I'm going to hook you up over here so that you get the --

    你知道,如果你失去了自由意志, 而別人反而變成主宰,

  • It's going to feel a little bit weird at first,

    那種感覺真的怪怪的。

  • this is going to feel like a -- (Laughter)

    現在,請你放鬆你的手。

  • You know, when you lose your free will, and someone else becomes your agent,

    莎姆,妳有跟上嗎?

  • it does feel a bit strange.

    好,請妳手用力。

  • Now I want you to relax your hand.

    我現在還沒打開連線, 所以儘量用力。

  • Sam, you're with me?

    好,米格爾,你準備好了嗎?

  • So you're going to squeeze.

    米格爾:好了,再好不過。

  • I'm not going to turn it on yet, so go ahead and give it a squeeze.

    葛雷格:我現在打開了, 請轉動你的手。

  • So now, are you ready, Miguel?

    有感覺到了嗎? 米格爾:沒。

  • MG: Ready as I'll ever be.

    葛雷格:OK,再試試看? 米格爾:有一點。

  • GG: I've turned it on, so go ahead and turn your hand.

    葛雷格:有一點? (笑聲)

  • Do you feel that a little bit? MG: Nope.

    放輕鬆⋯

  • GG: Okay, do it again? MG: A little bit.

    再試試看。

  • GG: A little bit? (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So relax.

    噢,太棒了,太棒了。

  • So hit it again.

    好,放鬆,再試試看。

  • (Laughter)

    好了。所以現在⋯⋯

  • Oh, perfect, perfect.

    所以現在:妳的腦控制著妳的手臂, 而且也控制著他的手臂,

  • So relax, do it again.

    所以妳再用力一次試試看。

  • All right, so right now,

    好了,非常完美。 (笑聲)

  • your brain is controlling your arm and it's also controlling his arm,

    所以現在,如果是 由我來控制妳的這隻手呢?

  • so go ahead and just do it one more time.

    好,妳手放鬆。

  • All right, so it's perfect. (Laughter)

    現在怎麼樣?

  • So now, what would happen if I took over my control of your hand?

    啊~沒反應。

  • And so, just relax your hand.

    為什麼?

  • What happens?

    因為必須要由腦來控制才有用。

  • Ah, nothing.

    所以再試一次。

  • Why not?

    好了,很完美。

  • Because the brain has to do it.

    感謝兩位, 讓大家有愉快時光。

  • So you do it again.

    這是全世界都在發生的事——

  • All right, that's perfect.

    電流生理學!

  • Thank you guys for being such a good sport.

    我們要準備掀起 神經元革命了。

  • This is what's happening all across the world --

    感謝各位。

  • electrophysiology!

    (掌聲)

  • We're going to bring on the neuro-revolution.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

The brain is an amazing and complex organ.

大腦,是個令人驚奇又複雜的器官。

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A2 初級 中文 美國腔 TED 訊號 神經 腦部 手臂 神經元

【TED】Greg Gage:如何用大腦控制別人的手臂(How to control someone else's arm with your brain | Greg Gage)。 (【TED】Greg Gage: How to control someone else's arm with your brain (How to control someone else's arm with your brain | Greg Gage))

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    CUChou 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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