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  • Hi. So I'd like to talk a little bit about the people

    大家好 我想稍微談一下

  • who make the things we use every day:

    一些生產我們每天使用的東西的人

  • our shoes, our handbags, our computers and cell phones.

    我們的鞋子, 皮包, 電腦還有手機

  • Now, this is a conversation that often calls up a lot of guilt.

    接下來這段對話經常是喚起一連串的罪疚感

  • Imagine the teenage farm girl who makes less than

    試想像一個從農村來的年輕女孩

  • a dollar an hour stitching your running shoes,

    以每小時少於1塊美金的工資,縫製你的跑步鞋

  • or the young Chinese man who jumps off a rooftop

    或者那個中國青年在加班組裝你的iPad後

  • after working overtime assembling your iPad.

    就從屋頂跳下去了

  • We, the beneficiaries of globalization, seem to exploit

    我們是全球化的得益者,然而我們進行的每一筆交易

  • these victims with every purchase we make,

    似乎都在剝削這些犧牲者

  • and the injustice

    這種不公義的感覺

  • feels embedded in the products themselves.

    也被移殖於產品之中

  • After all, what's wrong with a world in which a worker

    到底是這個世界出了甚麼問題呢?

  • on an iPhone assembly line can't even afford to buy one?

    為什麼在iPhone 生產線上的工人買不起他們生產的產品呢?

  • It's taken for granted that Chinese factories are oppressive,

    中國工廠壓迫工人被視為理所當然

  • and that it's our desire for cheap goods

    因為大家都追求便宜的產品

  • that makes them so.

    這也讓壓迫順理成章

  • So, this simple narrative equating Western demand

    所以, 西方世界的需求

  • and Chinese suffering is appealing,

    換來中國人的苦難, 似乎是一個簡單而準確的描述

  • especially at a time when many of us already feel guilty

    尤其是我們很多人已經

  • about our impact on the world,

    為自己對世界的影響感到愧疚

  • but it's also inaccurate and disrespectful.

    然而, 這也是不正確, 不尊重他人的

  • We must be peculiarly self-obsessed to imagine that we

    我們當下應該是自以為是地認為

  • have the power to drive tens of millions of people

    我們有力量操控在地球另一端的數千萬人口

  • on the other side of the world to migrate and suffer

    將苦難以惡劣的方式轉移到

  • in such terrible ways.

    他們身上

  • In fact, China makes goods for markets all over the world,

    事實上,中國為全球市場生產產品

  • including its own, thanks to a combination of factors:

    包括中國本身, 歸功於幾個綜合因素

  • its low costs, its large and educated workforce,

    低成本, 大量且受過教育的勞動力

  • and a flexible manufacturing system

    還有彈性的生產系統

  • that responds quickly to market demands.

    讓他們可以快速回應市場的需求

  • By focusing so much on ourselves and our gadgets,

    藉著聚焦在我們自己身上和我們的小玩意

  • we have rendered the individuals on the other end

    我們將地球另一端的個體

  • into invisibility, as tiny and interchangeable

    化作透明, 就像把他們當成

  • as the parts of a mobile phone.

    微不足道, 隨時可更換的手機零件一樣

  • Chinese workers are not forced into factories

    中國的工人並非因為我們對iPods難以滿足的需求

  • because of our insatiable desire for iPods.

    而被強迫到工廠工作

  • They choose to leave their homes in order to earn money,

    他們選擇離開家鄉是為了

  • to learn new skills, and to see the world.

    學習新的技能並且開眼界

  • In the ongoing debate about globalization, what's

    在大家如火如荼地辯論全球化時

  • been missing is the voices of the workers themselves.

    工人的聲音卻一直被忽略

  • Here are a few.

    這裡我有幾個例子

  • Bao Yongxiu: "My mother tells me to come home

    包詠秀(音譯): "我媽媽要我回家鄉結婚

  • and get married, but if I marry now, before I have fully

    但是如果我在還沒充實自己前就結婚

  • developed myself, I can only marry an ordinary worker,

    那我只能嫁個一般的工人

  • so I'm not in a rush."

    所以我現在還不急"

  • Chen Ying: "When I went home for the new year,

    陳英(音譯): "當我回家鄉過年時

  • everyone said I had changed. They asked me,

    大家都說我變了, 他們問我

  • what did you do that you have changed so much?

    "你做了甚麼, 為什麼改變這麼大呢?"

  • I told them that I studied and worked hard. If you tell them

    我告訴他們, "我很認真讀書, 也很認真工作, 即使你想告訴他們

  • more, they won't understand anyway."

    多一點, 他們也是不會理解的"

  • Wu Chunming: "Even if I make a lot of money,

    吳春明(音譯): "即使我賺很多錢

  • it won't satisfy me.

    也無法滿足我了

  • Just to make money is not enough meaning in life."

    生命的意義不只是在賺錢"

  • Xiao Jin: "Now, after I get off work, I study English,

    肖晶 (音譯): "現在, 我下班後就學習英文,

  • because in the future, our customers won't

    因為將來,我們客戶不單只有中國人

  • be only Chinese, so we must learn more languages."

    所以我們必須學習更多的語言"

  • All of these speakers, by the way, are young women,

    以上你所聽到的說話, 都出自年輕的女孩

  • 18 or 19 years old.

    18, 或者19歲

  • So I spent two years getting to know assembly line workers

    我花了兩年時間, 去認識一些組裝線上的工人

  • like these in the south China factory city called Dongguan.

    像這些在中國南方的工廠城市, 叫東莞

  • Certain subjects came up over and over:

    特定的話題一再被帶起

  • how much money they made,

    好像她們賺多少錢

  • what kind of husband they hoped to marry,

    希望嫁給甚麼樣的老公

  • whether they should jump to another factory

    是否應該跳槽到另一個工廠

  • or stay where they were.

    或是繼續待在原來的地方

  • Other subjects came up almost never, including

    另一些幾乎從來沒有被提出的話題,包括

  • living conditions that to me looked close to prison life:

    在我看起來很像監獄生活的居住環境

  • 10 or 15 workers in one room,

    10到15個工人擠在同一個房間

  • 50 people sharing a single bathroom,

    50個人共用一間浴室

  • days and nights ruled by the factory clock.

    從早到晚被工廠裏的時鐘操控著

  • Everyone they knew lived in similar circumstances,

    他們認識的每個人都居住在類似的環境

  • and it was still better than the dormitories and homes

    而這個環境比偏僻家鄉裡的

  • of rural China.

    宿舍和房子已經算優勝了

  • The workers rarely spoke about the products they made,

    這些工人很少談及他們所生產的產品

  • and they often had great difficulty explaining

    而且大部分都不知道如何解釋

  • what exactly they did.

    實際上她們的工作是甚麼

  • When I asked Lu Qingmin,

    當我問陸清敏 (音譯),

  • the young woman I got to know best,

    那個我最熟悉的年輕女孩,

  • what exactly she did on the factory floor,

    她到底在工作現場做甚麼時

  • she said something to me in Chinese that sounded like

    她用中文回答我, 聽起來像是

  • "qiu xi."

    "球西"

  • Only much later did I realize that she had been saying

    一直是到後來我才晃然大悟,原來她一直說的是

  • "QC," or quality control.

    "QC" 或者品質控制(quality control)

  • She couldn't even tell me what she did on the factory floor.

    她甚至無法告訴我她在工廠實在是做甚麼的

  • All she could do was parrot a garbled abbreviation

    她只是在機械式般模仿說些似是而非的英文縮寫

  • in a language she didn't even understand.

    而英語是她完全不了解的

  • Karl Marx saw this as the tragedy of capitalism,

    馬克思認為這是資本主義的悲劇

  • the alienation of the worker from the product of his labor.

    這種工人與他們所生產的產品之間的疏離

  • Unlike, say, a traditional maker of shoes or cabinets,

    不像, 譬如說, 傳統鞋匠或作櫥櫃的工人

  • the worker in an industrial factory has no control,

    這些工人在工廠沒有控制權

  • no pleasure, and no true satisfaction or understanding

    工作裡沒有娛樂, 在她的工作裏

  • in her own work.

    沒有真正的成功感或者對產品本身的認知

  • But like so many theories that Marx arrived at

    像很多馬克思

  • sitting in the reading room of the British Museum,

    坐在大英博物館的閱讀室想出來的理論一樣

  • he got this one wrong.

    他對這種情況的了解是錯的

  • Just because a person spends her time

    一個人花時間

  • making a piece of something does not mean

    生產出一件產品, 並不代表

  • that she becomes that, a piece of something.

    她就變成了這件產品或者這件產品的一部分

  • What she does with the money she earns,

    她用她所賺的錢所作的事

  • what she learns in that place, and how it changes her,

    從工作場所上學習到的知識, 這些知識如何改變她

  • these are the things that matter.

    這些事才是重要的

  • What a factory makes is never the point, and

    工廠製作怎麼樣的產品, 實際上並不是重點

  • the workers could not care less who buys their products.

    這些工人也不在意到底誰買了他們生產的產品

  • Journalistic coverage of Chinese factories,

    另外一方面, 新聞報導提及中國工廠時

  • on the other hand, plays up this relationship

    過於強調工人

  • between the workers and the products they make.

    和他們生產的產品之間的關係

  • Many articles calculate: How long would it take

    很多報導會計算:

  • for this worker to work in order to earn enough money

    一個工人需要工作多久才能

  • to buy what he's making?

    賺到一件他們所生產的產品

  • For example, an entry-level-line assembly line worker

    舉例來說,一個在中國iPhone工廠工作

  • in China in an iPhone plant would have to shell out

    的基層組裝工人要花兩個半月的薪水

  • two and a half months' wages for an iPhone.

    才可以負擔一部 iPhone

  • But how meaningful is this calculation, really?

    但是說實在的, 這樣的計算有何意義呢?

  • For example, I recently wrote an article

    例如, 我最近寫了一篇文章

  • in The New Yorker magazine,

    發表在紐約客雜誌 (New Yorker Magazine) 上

  • but I can't afford to buy an ad in it.

    但是我就負擔不了在雜誌裡刊登廣告

  • But, who cares? I don't want an ad in The New Yorker,

    但是, 誰在乎呢? 我並不想要在紐約客雜誌裡刊登廣告

  • and most of these workers don't really want iPhones.

    同樣的, 大部分的工人並不想要 iPhone

  • Their calculations are different.

    他們的盤算不一樣

  • How long should I stay in this factory?

    我在這家工廠應該待多久呢?

  • How much money can I save?

    可以存多少錢呢?

  • How much will it take to buy an apartment or a car,

    要儲多少錢才能買層樓或車子呢

  • to get married, or to put my child through school?

    才能結婚, 或是讓我的小孩受教育呢?

  • The workers I got to know had a curiously abstract

    我認識的這些工人裡

  • relationship with the product of their labor.

    與他們製造的產品中存在一種弔詭的關係

  • About a year after I met Lu Qingmin, or Min,

    大概在我認識陸清敏 (譯) -- 阿敏的一年後

  • she invited me home to her family village

    她邀請我到她一起回鄉

  • for the Chinese New Year.

    去過中國農曆春節

  • On the train home, she gave me a present:

    在火車途中, 她給我一件禮物:

  • a Coach brand change purse with brown leather trim.

    一個咖啡色皮邊的 Coach 零錢包,

  • I thanked her, assuming it was fake,

    我謝謝她, 心想這應該是仿的

  • like almost everything else for sale in Dongguan.

    就像大部分東莞所賣的東西一樣

  • After we got home, Min gave her mother another present:

    我們到她家後,她給了她媽媽另一件禮物

  • a pink Dooney & Bourke handbag,

    一個粉紅色 Dooney & Bourke 包包

  • and a few nights later, her sister was showing off

    幾天後, 她的姐姐也挽著

  • a maroon LeSportsac shoulder bag.

    她的褐紫色的 LeSportsac 肩包

  • Slowly it was dawning on me that these handbags

    慢慢的, 我才理出頭緒, 原來這些包包

  • were made by their factory,

    都是他們工廠生產的

  • and every single one of them was authentic.

    而且每一件都是正品

  • Min's sister said to her parents,

    阿敏的姊姊告訴她的父母

  • "In America, this bag sells for 320 dollars."

    "這個包包在美國要賣320美金"

  • Her parents, who are both farmers, looked on, speechless.

    她爸媽兩人都是農夫,看著這個皮包不發一語

  • "And that's not all -- Coach is coming out with a new line,

    "還不只這樣 -- Coach 即將推出一個新的系列

  • 2191," she said. "One bag will sell for 6,000."

    叫 2191, 每個要賣到6,000"

  • She paused and said, "I don't know if that's 6,000 yuan or

    她頓了一下繼續說: "我不知道是6,000

  • 6,000 American dollars, but anyway, it's 6,000." (Laughter)

    美金還是人民幣, 無所謂啦, 就是6,000 嘛" (笑聲)

  • Min's sister's boyfriend, who had traveled home with her

    阿敏姐姐的男朋友, 也跟她一起回到家鄉

  • for the new year, said,

    過新年, 他說

  • "It doesn't look like it's worth that much."

    "實在看不出值那麼多錢"

  • Min's sister turned to him and said, "Some people actually

    阿敏的姐姐轉向他說:

  • understand these things. You don't understand shit."

    "有些人對這些事很了解, 你啊? 你懂個屁"

  • (Laughter) (Applause)

    (笑聲) (掌聲)

  • In Min's world, the Coach bags had a curious currency.

    在阿敏的世界裡, Coach 皮包有種奇妙詭異的價格基準

  • They weren't exactly worthless, but they were nothing

    這些包包不是完全沒有價值, 但是卻與它的實際價格

  • close to the actual value, because almost no one they knew

    差了十萬八千里, 因為幾乎他們認識的人裡面, 沒有人

  • wanted to buy one, or knew how much it was worth.

    想要花錢買一個, 或是知道它的真正售價

  • Once, when Min's older sister's friend got married,

    有次, 阿敏最大的姐姐有朋友結婚

  • she brought a handbag along as a wedding present.

    她給了那朋友一個包包當作結婚禮物

  • Another time, after Min had already left

    另外一次, 在阿敏離開

  • the handbag factory, her younger sister came to visit,

    皮包工廠後, 她的妹妹來探望她

  • bringing two Coach Signature handbags as gifts.

    並且帶了兩個 Coach 經典包當伴手禮

  • I looked in the zippered pocket of one,

    我翻了其中一個包包的拉鍊夾

  • and I found a printed card in English, which read,

    我看到一張有印有英文的卡片, 上面寫著

  • "An American classic.

    "美國經典, 創立於1941 年

  • In 1941, the burnished patina

    在 1941 年, 一個裝滿美式棒球手套

  • of an all-American baseball glove

    的光亮銅盤

  • inspired the founder of Coach to create

    啟發 Coach 的創辦人

  • a new collection of handbags from the same

    開發了一系列的手袋,

  • luxuriously soft gloved-hand leather.

    它們用上以製作棒球手套同樣奢華柔軟的皮革

  • Six skilled leatherworkers crafted 12 Signature handbags

    6個熟練的皮革工人縫製了12個經典皮包

  • with perfect proportions and a timeless flair.

    有著精準的比例, 快速的手藝

  • They were fresh, functional, and women everywhere

    這些皮件新穎, 多功能, 很多女仕

  • adored them. A new American classic was born."

    都心儀, 一個新的美國經典就此誕生了"

  • I wonder what Karl Marx would have made of Min

    我很好奇馬克思會對阿敏和她的姊妹們

  • and her sisters.

    會有甚麼的評價

  • Their relationship with the product of their labor

    她們跟她們所生產的產品之間的關係

  • was more complicated, surprising and funny

    當中既複雜, 驚喜而且很有娛樂性

  • than he could have imagined.

    這肯定遠大於馬克斯可以想像

  • And yet, his view of the world persists, and our tendency

    還有, 他對世界存續的看法和我們

  • to see the workers as faceless masses,

    視這些工人為匿名大眾的傾向

  • to imagine that we can know what they're really thinking.

    藉而令我們以為自己可以理解她們的真正想法

  • The first time I met Min, she had just turned 18

    我第一次遇到阿敏時,她剛剛18歲

  • and quit her first job on the assembly line

    當時她剛離開她第一份工作

  • of an electronics factory.

    那個在電子組裝工廠生產線上的崗位

  • Over the next two years, I watched as she switched jobs

    接下來的兩年中, 我看著她換了

  • five times, eventually landing a lucrative post

    五個工作, 最後被一家作硬體的工廠

  • in the purchasing department of a hardware factory.

    雇用於採購部門的肥缺

  • Later, she married a fellow migrant worker,

    後來, 她嫁給了一個外省工人

  • moved with him to his village,

    然後搬到他的村落

  • gave birth to two daughters,

    生了兩個女兒

  • and saved enough money to buy a secondhand Buick

    存了些錢, 買了一台二手別克轎車 (Buick) 給她自己

  • for herself and an apartment for her parents.

    並買了一間公寓給她爸媽

  • She recently returned to Dongguan on her own

    她最近獨自回到東莞

  • to take a job in a factory that makes construction cranes,

    並在作起重機的工廠找到了一份工作

  • temporarily leaving her husband and children

    暫時留她的先生和小孩

  • back in the village.

    在村落裡

  • In a recent email to me, she explained,

    不久前她寫了個郵件給我, 她說

  • "A person should have some ambition while she is young

    "人應該在年輕時有雄心壯志,

  • so that in old age she can look back on her life

    以致到年老的時候再回頭看

  • and feel that it was not lived to no purpose."

    才會感到沒有白活一場"

  • Across China, there are 150 million workers like her,

    遍及中國, 有1.5 億的勞動人口跟她一樣

  • one third of them women, who have left their villages

    當中三分之一是女性, 她們離開家鄉

  • to work in the factories, the hotels, the restaurants

    到工廠, 飯店和餐廳裡

  • and the construction sites of the big cities.

    或是大城市的工地打工

  • Together, they make up the largest migration in history,

    總合起來, 她們構成歷史上最大的移民潮

  • and it is globalization, this chain that begins

    而且這是全球化的一種體現, 連鎖反應開始於

  • in a Chinese farming village

    一個中國的農村

  • and ends with iPhones in our pockets and Nikes on our feet

    最後到了我們口袋裡的 iPhone, 我們腳上的Nike

  • and Coach handbags on our arms

    和我們手上拿著的 Coach 包

  • that has changed the way these millions of people

    這樣的過程改變了以億計的人

  • work and marry and live and think.

    她們的工作、婚姻、生活和想法

  • Very few of them would want to go back

    其中只有少數人

  • to the way things used to be.

    想要回到以前的生活方式

  • When I first went to Dongguan, I worried that

    當我剛到東莞時, 我很擔心

  • it would be depressing to spend so much time with workers.

    長時間與這些工人一起會令人沮喪

  • I also worried that nothing would ever happen to them,

    另外我也擔心, 不會有甚麼新鮮事發生在她們身上

  • or that they would have nothing to say to me.

    或是她們也沒有甚麼好跟我分享的

  • Instead, I found young women who were smart and funny

    相反的, 我發現這些年輕女孩們倒是非常聰明而且有趣

  • and brave and generous.

    非常勇敢, 大方

  • By opening up their lives to me,

    藉著向我敘述她們的生活

  • they taught me so much about factories

    她們教會我很多有關工廠

  • and about China and about how to live in the world.

    及中國的事, 並且讓我了解到如何在這個世界生存

  • This is the Coach purse that Min gave me

    這是阿敏給我的 Coach 包

  • on the train home to visit her family.

    就是坐火車去她家鄉拜訪時, 她給我的那個

  • I keep it with me to remind me of the ties that tie me

    我隨時帶著這個包來提醒我

  • to the young women I wrote about,

    我與我文章裡的這個女孩的連結

  • ties that are not economic but personal in nature,

    不是經濟上的, 而是在人的本質上的連結

  • measured not in money but in memories.

    只能用記憶而非金錢上來測量

  • This purse is also a reminder that the things that you imagine,

    這個包包也提醒我

  • sitting in your office or in the library,

    很多你坐在辦公室 或圖書館 憑空想像的事情

  • are not how you find them when you actually go out

    不見得會跟你真正走出去

  • into the world.

    所體驗到的世界是一樣

  • Thank you. (Applause)

    謝謝 (掌聲)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Chris Anderson: Thank you, Leslie, that was an insight

    基斯.安達臣: 謝謝, 萊斯利 (張彤禾的英文名), 你這見解

  • that a lot of us haven't had before.

    是我們很多人從來沒有想過的

  • But I'm curious. If you had a minute, say,

    但我很好奇, 如果你有一分鐘

  • with Apple's head of manufacturing,

    可以跟蘋果公司的生產部主管談話

  • what would you say?

    你想說甚麼?

  • Leslie Chang: One minute?

    張彤禾: 一分鐘?

  • CA: One minute. (Laughter)

    基斯.安達臣: 一分鐘. (笑聲)

  • LC: You know, what really impressed me about the workers

    張彤禾: 你知道嗎, 真正讓我感動的是

  • is how much they're self-motivated, self-driven,

    這些工人的積極性、自發性、

  • resourceful, and the thing that struck me,

    隨機應變的能力, 而讓我印象最深刻的是

  • what they want most is education, to learn,

    她們最想要的是