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  • Every year some countries move their clocks forward in the spring only to move them back

    每一年春天都有一些國家會將時間往前移,只有到了秋天才移回來

  • in the autumn. To the vast majority of the world who doesn’t

    對世界上大部分沒有

  • participate in this odd clock fiddlingit seems a baffling thing to do. So what’s

    加入這奇怪的時鐘微調機制的國家 — 這種行為似乎有點莫名其妙

  • the reason behind it? The original idea, proposed by George Hudson,

    所以這背後究竟有什麼玄機呢?最初是由 George·Hudson 提議的

  • was to give people more sunlight in the summer. Of course, it’s important to note that changing

    為了讓人們在夏天享受更多陽光。當然,很重要的是我們要知道

  • a clock doesn’t actually make more sunlightthat’s not how physics works.

    改變時鐘並不能實質地製造更多陽光 — 物理現象不是這樣運作的

  • But, by moving the clocks forward an hour, compared to all other human activity, the

    但,透過把時鐘往前移一個小時,跟所有人類活動比起來

  • sun will seem to both rise and set later. The time when the clocks are moved forward

    太陽看起來就像是晚一點上昇、落下。當我們把時鐘往前移

  • is called Daylight Saving Time and the rest of the year is called Standard Time.

    這段時間就叫日光節約時間,而一年中的其他時間就是標準時間

  • This switch effectively gives people more time to enjoy the sunshine and nice summer

    這樣的變動實際上給人們在工作結束後可以有更多的時間享受陽光

  • weather after work. Hudson, in particular, wanted more sunlight so he could spend more

    與美好的夏日氣候,尤其是 Hudson,他想要擁有更多陽光,如此一來他就能

  • time adding to his insect collection. When winter is coming the clocks move back,

    花更多時間在增加昆蟲標本收藏上。當冬天來臨,時鐘會往後移

  • presumably because people won’t want to go outside anymore.

    推測是因為人們不會想要出門去

  • But, winter doesn’t have this affect on everyone.

    但,並不是所有人都會被冬天影響

  • If you live in a tropical place like Hawaii, you don’t really have to worry about seasons

    如果你住在熱帶氣候,像夏威夷,你不需要擔心季節轉換

  • because they pretty much don’t happen. Every day, all year is sunny and beautiful

    因為季節的差別在這裡不明顯。一整年裡每一天都是陽光充沛的美好氣候

  • so christmas is just as good of a day to hit the beach as any other. As so, Hawaii is one

    所以聖誕節也跟其他日子一樣是個到沙灘玩耍的好日子。因此,夏威夷是

  • of two states in the Union that ignore daylight saving time.

    美國兩個不採取日光節約時間的州之一

  • But, the further you travel from the equator in either direction the more the seasons assert

    但,當你離赤道越遠,不論南或北,季節特性會越鮮明

  • themselves and you get colder and darker winters, making summer time much more valuable to the

    而且冬天會越冷、越暗,使夏季時光對當地愈加珍貴

  • locals. So it’s no surprise that the further a country is from the equator the more likely

    所以不意外地,當一個國家離赤道越遠

  • it uses daylight saving time. Hudson proposed his idea in Wellington in

    越有可能使用日光節約時間。西元 1895 年 Hudson 在 Wellington 提出他的想法

  • 1895 – but it wasn’t well received and it took until 1916 for Germany to be the first

    但並未受到好評,直到西元 1916 年德國才成為第一個

  • country to put it into practice. Though, the uber-industrious Germans were

    實施的國家。雖然超級勤奮的德國人

  • less concerned with catching butterflies on a fine summer evening than they were with

    關心的不是在舒適的夏日午後可以抓抓蝴蝶,他們關心的是

  • saving coal to feed the war machine. The Germans thought daylight saving time would

    要節省煤炭來供給戰爭機械使用。德國人想日光節約時間可以

  • conserve energy. The reasoning goes that it encourages people to stay out later in the

    保存能源。原因是它可以鼓勵人們夏天時在戶外待久一點

  • summer and thus use less artificial lighting. This sounds logical, and it may have worked

    如此就能減少人工照明。這聽起來很合邏輯,在一百多年前嚴格管制的社會中

  • back in the more regimented society of a hundred years ago, but does it still work in the modern

    這或許管用,但現代社會也有用嗎?

  • world? That turns out to be a surprisingly difficult

    結果這是個很難回答的問題

  • question to answer. For example, take mankind’s greatest invention:

    以人類最偉大的發明為例

  • AIR CONDITIONING. The magic box of cool that makes otherwise uninhabitable sections of

    冷氣空調設備。這個神奇的涼爽盒子讓世界上其他不適合人類居住的地方

  • the world quite tolerable places to live. But, pumping heat out of your house isn’t

    變成適合居住的場所。但,把熱氣從屋子裡抽出來並不便宜

  • cheap and turning on one air conditioner is the same as running dozens of tungsten light

    而且運作一部冷氣機就跟點亮一堆鎢絲燈泡一樣耗費能源。

  • bulbs. If people get more sunshine, but don’t use

    如果人們有更多陽光,但並不出門使用

  • it to go outside then Daylight Saving Time might actually cost electricity, not save

    那麼日光節約時間事實上可能更耗電力。而非節省電力

  • it. This is particularly true in a place like

    像在鳳凰城這樣的地方尤其正確

  • Phoenix: where the average summer high is 107 degrees and the record is 122.

    鳳凰城夏天溫度平均高達華氏 107 度,最高記錄是華氏 122度

  • If you suggest to an Arizonian to change their clocks in the summer to get more sunshine,

    如果你建議一位亞利桑那州居民調整時鐘來獲得更多陽光

  • they laugh in your face. More sun and higher electricity bills are not what they want which

    他會當著你的面大笑。更多的陽光與更高的電費帳單不是他們想要的

  • is why Arizona is the second state that never changes their clocks.

    這也是為什麼亞利桑那州是第二個從不調整時鐘的行政區

  • Another problem when trying to study daylight saving time is rapid changes in technology

    當我們試著研究日光節約時間時發現的另一個問題是,科技與電力使用的急遽變化

  • and electrical use. And as technology gets better and better and

    當科技進步再進步,日新月異時

  • better more electricity is dedicated to things that aren’t light bulbs.

    更多的電力使用其他物品上,而非點亮燈泡

  • And the lure of a hot, sweaty, mosquito-filled day outside is less appealing than technological

    一個炎熱、汗流浹背、蚊蟲飛舞的日間戶外誘惑可比不上高科技娛樂設備

  • entertainments and climate-controlled comfort inside.

    與溫度控管的舒適室內來得吸引人

  • Also the horrifically energy in-efficient tungsten light bulbs that have remained unchanged

    還有已經存在一世紀沒有改變、能源效能奇低的鎢絲燈泡

  • for a century are giving way to CFLs and LEDsgreatly reducing the amount of energy

    也要讓位給省電燈泡 (Compact fluorescent lamp,CFL) 與 LED燈了 — 大幅減少

  • required to light a room. So, even assuming that DST is effective,

    點亮一間房間所需的能源。所以,即使我們假設日光節約時間是有效的

  • it’s probably less effective with every passing year.

    也可能每過一年效果就降低一點

  • The bottom line is while some studies say DST costs more electricity and others say

    結果是雖然有些研究說日光節約時間消耗更多電力,也有研究指出

  • it saves electricity, the one thing they agree on is the effect size: not 20% or 10% but

    它節省了電力,唯一他們一致同意的是影響程度大小:不是 20% 或 10%

  • 1% or less, which, in the United States, works out to be about $4 per household.

    而是 1% 甚至更少,在美國,研究結果是大約每戶 4 美元

  • $4 saved or spent on electricity over an entire year is not really a huge deal either way.

    一整年時間才省下或多花 4 美元,不管怎樣真的不是什麼大事

  • So the question now becomes is the hassle of switching the clocks twice a year worth it?

    所以現在爭辯的問題點變成,每年調整兩次時鐘值得嗎?

  • The most obvious trouble comes from sleep depravation

    最明顯的麻煩來自睡眠剝奪

  • an already common problem in the western world that DST makes measurably

    一個在西方世界早已見怪不怪的問題,日光節約時間讓它變得更糟

  • worse. With time-tracking software we can actually

    透過時間追蹤軟體,我們可以實際看到

  • see that people are less productive the week after the clock changes. This comes with huge

    在時鐘調整後的一週,人們的生產力是比較差的。這連帶的造成巨大成本損失

  • associated costs. To make things worse, most countries take

    讓狀況更糟的是,許多國家

  • away that hour of sleep on a Monday morning. Sleep depravation can lead to heart attacks

    將星期一早上的睡眠時間抽走了一小時。睡眠剝奪會導致心臟疾病與自殺

  • and suicides and the Daylight Saving Time Monday has a higher than normal spike in both.

    日光節約時間後的星期一,兩者發生的機率都比平常高

  • Other troubles come from scheduling meetings across time zones.

    其他麻煩來自跨時區的會議時間安排

  • Let’s say that your trying to plan a three-way conference between New York, London and Sydney

    比方說你計畫要安排一個紐約、倫敦與雪梨間的三方會議

  • not an easy thing to do under the best of circumstances but made extra difficult

    在最佳情況下,這也不是件簡單的事

  • when they don’t agree on when daylight saving time should start and end.

    但當他們無法一致同意日光節約時間何時開始與結束時,就變得更加困難了

  • In the spring, Sydney is 11 hours ahead of London and New York is five hours behind.

    在春天,雪梨比倫敦快 11 個小時,紐約則比倫敦慢 5 個小時

  • But then New York is the first to enter Daylight Saving Time and moves its clock forward an

    但,紐約是第一個進入日光節約時間,所以他們的時鐘要往前調一個小時

  • hour. Two weeks later London does the same. In one more week, Sydney, being on the opposite

    兩週後,倫敦也這麼做了。再過一週,雪梨在世界的另一端

  • side of the world, leaves daylight saving time and moves its clock back an hour.

    結束日光節約時間,並把時鐘往後調一小時

  • So in the space of three weeks New York is five hours behind London, then four hours

    所以在這三週內,紐約先比倫敦晚了 5 小時,然後 4 小時

  • and then five hours again. And Sydney is either 11, 10 or 9 hours from London and 16,

    然後又再次 5 小時。而雪梨要不是比倫敦早了 11、10 或 9小時,不然就是比

  • 15 or 14 hours from New York. And this whole crazy thing happens again in

    紐約早了 16、15 或 14小時。這整件瘋狂的事在六個月後又會反轉過來再次發生

  • reverse six months later. Back in the dark ages, this might not have

    如果在黑暗時期,這或許不是很重要

  • mattered so much but in the modern, interconnected world planning international meetings happens

    但在現代,這個相互連結密切的世界,規劃國際會議

  • 1,000s and 1,000s of times dailyshifting and inconsistent time zones isn’t doing

    每天都會發生數千次 — 不斷轉換與不一致的時區沒辦法

  • netizens any favors. And, countries aren’t

    給網友任何幫助。還有,許多國家

  • even consistent about daylight saving time within their own borders.

    在自己國家境內也無法統一日光節約時間

  • Brazil has daylight saving time, but only if you live in the south. Canada has it too,

    巴西有日光節約時間,但僅侷限於南方的行政區,加拿大也有

  • but not Saskatchewan. Most of Oz does DST, but not Western Australia, The Northern Territory

    但 Saskatchewan 省沒有。澳洲大部分地方使用日光節約時間,但西澳、北領地

  • or Queensland. And, of course, the United States does have

    或昆士蘭沒有,還有,當然,美國有日光節約時間

  • DST, unless you live in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern

    除非你住在波多黎各、維京群島、美屬薩摩亞、關島、北馬利安納群島

  • Marianas Islands or, as mentioned before Hawaii and Arizona.

    或是剛剛提到的,夏威夷與亞利桑那州

  • But Arizona isn’t even consistent within itself.

    但亞利桑那州內部也沒有統一

  • While Arizona ignores DST, the Navaho Nation inside of Arizona follows it.

    雖然亞利桑那州忽略日光節約時間,亞利桑那州境內的 Navaho Nation 卻遵循它

  • Inside of the Navaho Nation is the Hopi Reservation which, like Arizona, ignores daylight saving

    Navaho Nation 裡的 Hopi 原住民保留區就跟亞利桑那州一樣,無視日光節約時間

  • time. Going deeper, inside of the Hopi Reservation

    在更深入一點,Hopi 原住民保留區裡

  • is another part of the Navaho Nation which does follow daylight saving time.

    有另一部分 Navaho Nation 的土地同樣遵循日光節約時間

  • And finally there is also part of the Hopi Reservation elsewhere in the Navaho Nation

    最後,Navaho Nation 境內還有另一塊 Hopi 原住民保留區的土地

  • which doesn’t. So driving across this hundred-mile stretch

    它也同樣無視日光節約時間。所以當你開車經過這一百哩長的距離時

  • would technically necessitate seven clock changes which is insane.

    需要進行七次時鐘調整,這是很瘋狂的事

  • While this is an unusual local oddity here is a map showing the different daylight saving

    儘管這是個不正常的地方怪事,這裡有一張地圖,從他們的豐功偉業中可看出不同的日光節約時間

  • and time zone rules in all their complicated gloryit’s a huge mess and constantly

    與時區的規則 — 完全亂七八糟,且時常需要更新

  • needs updating as countries change their laws. Which is why it shouldn’t be surprising

    當那些國家更動他們的法律時。這也是為什麼

  • that even our digital gadgets can’t keep the time straight occasionally.

    即使我們的數位小工具無法配合時間變換,我們也不感到意外

  • So to review: daylight saving time gives more sunlight in the summer after work, which,

    所以我們來複習一下:日光節約時間讓我們在夏天下班後可以享受更多陽光

  • depending on where you live might be an advantageor not.

    這也取決於你居住的地方,它可能是好處,也可能不是

  • And it may (or may not) save electricity but one thing is for sure, it’s guaranteed to

    而且它或許會 (或許不會) 節省能源,但有一件事是確定的,它當然把

  • make something that should be simple, keeping track of time, quite complicated

    原本應該是簡單的事,能持續掌控的時間,變得複雜了

  • which is why when it comes time to change the clocks is always a debate about whether or not we should.

    這就是為什麼當又到調整時鐘的時候,總是會有我們到底該不該這麼做的爭論

Every year some countries move their clocks forward in the spring only to move them back

每一年春天都有一些國家會將時間往前移,只有到了秋天才移回來

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