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  • Let's look at the basic joints in Unity.

    接下來介紹Unity的基本關節系統(Joints)

  • In this example we have fixed joints

    在這個範例內包括了固定關節(Fixed Joint) 和彈簧關節(Spring Joint)

  • and spring joints.

    利用這兩種關節組成這樣的破壞鍊球

  • This example forms a basic wrecking ball

    首先是固定關節 固定關節的原理很像階層裡的父子結構

  • that does this.

    關節會將物件鎖在一個世界座標 或鎖在一個連結的剛體

  • Firstly the fixed joint. Fixed joints

    範例中我們把第一個圓體物件放在天花板 然後加入一個固定關節

  • work in a similar way to parenting objects

    這樣一來它就會被鎖定在該座標

  • in the hierarchy.

    固定關節還可以設定斷裂力道(Break Force) 和斷裂扭力(Break Torque)

  • The joint simply locks a game object

    斷裂力道與斷裂扭力是破壞關節 所需要的最小力量

  • to the point in the world, or to a

    當關節被破壞時 遊戲物件就可以再次自由移動

  • connected rigidbody.

    鍊球其他的圓柱要設定彈簧關節

  • In this example we simply have placed the

    彈簧關節的原理是

  • first capsule in the chain up near

    關節會嘗試移動到目標座標 即物件在場景裡的座標

  • the ceiling and attached a fixed joint.

    而物件的剛體會將關節用一個連在錨點 的隱形彈簧將物件拖離目標位置

  • This locks it in place.

    如果彈簧關節有連結剛體 那它的目標座標

  • The other parameters of this fixed joint

    會指向剛體所屬的遊戲物件 而不是一個世界座標

  • are Break Force and Break Torque.

    舉例來說, 二號圓柱體的目標

  • This is the minimum amount of force required

    是一號圓柱體,而三號圓柱體

  • to break the joint.

    目標是二號圓柱體

  • When the joint is broken the game object

    開始移動時它們不是往原來位置移動 而是往那些圓體物件的錨點移動

  • can once again move freely.

    錨點(Anchor)是關節的支點

  • The other capsules in the chain have

    是彈簧連接遊戲物件的位置

  • spring joints. Spring joints work on the

    錨點在遊戲視圖內以橘色的圓點或方形來表示

  • principle that the game object is trying

    彈性(Spring)參數代表彈簧的韌度 數值越高代表彈簧越緊或堅固

  • to reach a target position. The target

    阻尼(Damper)設定關節動作放慢的速度 數值越高代表彈簧晃過頭的機會越小

  • position that it's trying to reach is the

    最小距離(Min Distance)和最大距離(Max Distance) 設定彈簧活動的一個區域,用來限制彈簧長度

  • position that it's set to in the scene view

    相同於固定關節 彈簧關節也有斷裂力道與斷裂扭力

  • and any rigid bodies that are attached to it

    你可以設定這些力道 來指定斷裂彈簧所需要的最小數值

  • will pull it away from this position

    最後是鉸鏈關節(Hinge Joints)

  • on an invisible spring attached

    鉸鏈關節適合用在門這類的物件

  • to the anchor point.

    鉸鏈關節跟彈簧關節有些參數相似 它的軸向就是旋轉軸向

  • If the spring joint has a connected rigidbody

    在這個範例裡

  • then the target point that the spring

    我們在門加上了鉸鏈關節 然後將錨點設定在X軸的1

  • is trying to reach is relative to that

    代表它的錨點從中心移到了邊緣

  • game object rather than to world space.

    同樣的, Unity的關節是以橘色來表示

  • So for example, the second capsule here

    你可以看到一條橘色的直線 而那就是鉸鏈關節的位置

  • is trying to reach capsule 1, and capsule 3

    這裡的軸向(Axis)代表關節以哪個軸向為支點

  • is trying to reach capsule 2.

    我們將支點設定到Y軸 這樣只要加上簡單的腳本它就會像是真的鉸鏈

  • As these move they will no longer be heading

    腳本裡我們讓門被點擊後 加入往Z軸後推的力量

  • towards the original positions, rather

    往後推的語法是 -transform.forward

  • they will be heading towards the anchor

    在AddForce的教學影片裡的範例 門的物件在加入力量後應該會飛出去

  • point of wherever those capsules happen to be.

    但現在門的物件有了鉸鏈關節

  • The anchor is the pivot point of the joint.

    當我我們對門施加力量 他就會以支點為軸心進行旋轉

  • You should consider it as where the spring is

    所以不管我們對門施加幾次力量 它都不會壞掉

  • attached to the game object.

    就像彈簧關節一樣 我們可以加入一些彈簧的特徵

  • This is shown in the scene view by

    首先將使用彈簧選項(Use Spring)打勾 然後設定彈簧的彈性, 阻尼和目標位置即可

  • an orange dot or box.

    有別於彈簧關節

  • The spring parameter is a measure of how

    鉸鏈關節還有馬達(motor)和限制(limits)設定

  • strong the spring is. The higher the

    馬達設定讓你的關節可以加上速度 就像旋轉門一樣

  • value the tighter or stronger the

    目標速度(Target Velocity)設定關節的旋轉速度

  • spring becomes. The damper parameter

    力道(Force)是要達到目標速度的值

  • is how much the joint will slow down

    假如你勾選了自由選轉(Free Spin) 力道只會用來幫關節加速而不會減速

  • under motion. The higher the number, the

    限制設定是用來限制關節的動態 比如一般的門

  • less the spring will overshoot.

    最小(Min)與最大(Max) 是用來設定關節可以移動的旋轉角度

  • The min and max distances are for setting

    最小回饋(Min Bounce)與最大回饋(Max Bounce)

  • up a sort of dead zone for where the

    用來設定當關節轉到限制角度時所作的反應

  • spring isn't active. They effectively restrict

    跟其他關節一樣 鉸鏈關節也有斷裂力道與斷裂扭力

  • the length of the spring.

    舉例來說, 如果我們在斷裂力道 設定了一個較低的值

  • Similar to the fixed joint, the spring

    當我們在門上施加力量時 就會使鉸鏈關節斷裂

  • also has a break force and a break torque,

    注意到門並非直接向後飛去

  • which you can set to a certain amount in order

    而是從鉸鏈關節點被扯斷

  • to find the minimum force required to

  • break that joint.

  • Finally, Hinge Joints.

  • Hinge joints are ideal for things like

  • doors and share some properties with

  • spring joints. The axis of the hinge

  • is the one that it rotates around.

  • In this example our physics door

  • has the hinge joint attached. The anchor

  • is set to 1 in the X axis,

  • which moves it from it's center to it's edge.

  • Again the joint is represented in

  • orange in Unity and you can see a small line

  • showing you where the hinge is currently located.

  • The axis then allows us to specify

  • around which axis the hinge will pivot.

  • We've set this to the Y axis so it will

  • react like a real hinge with a simple script

  • we're applying a force to the door

  • when we click on it, which pushes it

  • backwards in it's Z axis

  • using the shortcut minus transform.forward.

  • In the Add Force lesson you may have seen

  • that this fires the door straight out of the frame.

  • But now that we have a hinge,

  • when we apply the force to the door

  • it simply pivots around that point.

  • and no matter how many times we add force

  • to it, it doesn't break.

  • In a similar manner to our spring joint

  • we can apply spring-like characterises

  • by using the Use Spring checkbox

  • and using the values underneath the spring settings.

  • The other differences between hinge joints

  • and spring joints are motors and limits.

  • Motors are for introducing a velocity

  • to your joint, for example a revolving door.

  • The Target Velocity is the velocity the

  • joint is trying to rotate at and the

  • force is used to try and attain that velocity.

  • If Free Spin is checked then the force will

  • only be used to try and accelerate

  • the joint and not to decelerate it.

  • Limits can be used if you wish to constrain

  • the motion of your joint, like with the

  • normal door. The minimum and maximum

  • are the angles between which the joint

  • can move. Min and Max Bounce are the amount

  • by which the joint will bounce when it reaches

  • one of it's limits. And similar to our

  • spring joint, yet again we have break

  • forces and torques.

  • For example, if we add in a reasonably low

  • number into the break force property,

  • we can break the door off of the hinge

  • when adding a force. You should note that

  • when doing this the door doesn't fly directly

  • backwards but is instead pulled away from it's hinge.

Let's look at the basic joints in Unity.

接下來介紹Unity的基本關節系統(Joints)

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B1 中級 中文 英國腔 關節 彈簧 鉸鏈 斷裂 設定 物件

接頭 - Unity官方教程 (Joints - Unity Official Tutorials)

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    朱瑛 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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