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  • I'm a geographer at Middlebury College,

    我是米德爾伯里學院的地理學家。

  • and I use digital technologies

    我用數位科技重返過去。

  • to reimagine the past.

    今天想帶大家回到

  • I want to take you to Gettysburg, Pennsylvania,

    1863年7月1日的賓州蓋茨堡。

  • July 1, 1863,

    是「南北戰爭」如火如荼之際。

  • we're right in the middle of the Civil War.

    西北方是羅伯特‧E‧李將軍

  • >From the northwest,

    帶領的南方邦聯軍;

  • the Confederate forces

    東南方則有喬治‧米德

  • under Robert E. Lee,

    率領的北方聯邦軍。

  • and from the southeast,

    因緣巧合之下在此處交鋒。

  • the Union forces under George Meade,

    原先這裡不是預定的戰場,

  • converge at this place

    但「蓋茨堡之役」卻成了

  • more or less by chance.

    南北戰爭的重要轉捩點。

  • They didn't plan to fight here.

    羅伯特‧E‧李現在應該是

  • But the Battle of Gettysburg turns out

    美國最知名、備受尊崇的將軍。

  • to be the turning point of the Civil War.

    但在蓋茨堡時 他犯下一個致命錯誤,

  • Now, Robert E. Lee is probably

    影響往後的發展:

  • the most famous American general,

    下令發動「皮克特衝鋒」。

  • widely respected.

    今天要跟大家分享,

  • But at Gettysburg,

    我怎麼用古地圖和GIS,

  • he made some crucial mistakes,

    重新了解「皮克特衝鋒」。

  • probably the most important

    我主要用的地圖

  • was in ordering Pickett's Charge.

    寬12英尺長13英尺,

  • I'm going to show you

    是國家檔案局的館藏。

  • how I took a new look at Pickett's Charge

    你可以用照片裡我的學生,

  • with historical maps and GIS.

    當比例尺感覺一下大小。

  • My key map was this extraordinary thing,

    它被重新編譯成完整地圖,

  • 12 feet by 13 feet,

    一張大海報的大小。

  • in the vault of treasures at the National Archives.

    可以看到城鎮大略的輪廓,

  • Here are some of my students at Middlebury

    以及附近的地貌起伏。

  • to give you a sense of that scale.

    如果你再看仔細點,

  • It was recompiled into a finished map

    可以看見森林、果園、溪流和道路。

  • the size of a large poster.

    現在請大家注意這些細黑線。

  • You can see the layout of the town of Gettysburg,

    那就是「等高線」,

  • you see the undulating shape of the terrain.

    間隔4英尺的海拔差距。

  • If you look at other details,

    沒看過有人用這麼小的間距。

  • you can see forests and orchards and streams and roads.

    在我往下進行之前,

  • I want you to look at those very fine black lines.

    我要再解釋一下GIS。

  • Those are called contour lines,

    GIS的全名是「地理資訊系統」。

  • and they show the elevation at 4-foot intervals,

    是幾乎可以讓你畫出

  • the most detailed elevation I have ever seen.

    各種地圖的軟體,

  • Now, before I explain this image,

    也可以用它做地形分析。

  • I need to tell you a little about GIS.

    例如,你想蓋一座滑雪度假村,

  • It stands for Geographic Information Systems.

    想讓來玩的滑雪客一下纜車,

  • It's a kind of software

    就可以享受最棒的視野,

  • that allows you to map almost anything.

    你就要用「視域分析」。

  • You can also use it to do terrain analysis.

    你就會知道在某個點上,

  • For example, if you're building a ski resort,

    你能看到哪些地方。

  • and you want people to get off the lift

    透過這數位方法,我把我放在

  • and have the most spectacular view possible,

    羅伯特‧E‧李當初所在的位置,

  • you use viewshed analysis

    看看「他看見了什麼?」

  • that shows you what you can see

    還有「他沒看見什麼?」

  • from a certain point on the terrain.

    因此影響了他的調度指揮。

  • I used that to place myself digitally

    現在回到等高線。

  • in the footsteps of Robert E. Lee,

    這是我能找到最好的海拔資料。

  • to ask, 'What could he see?'

    我找出所有的線,

  • and 'What could he not see?'

    用黑色和白色標出其中某些,

  • that might have influenced his command decisions.

    把它們連在一起,

  • Now, back to these contour lines.

    定出海拔高度;

  • This is the best elevation data that I could find.

    然後再用GIS把它們變成

  • I traced all of the lines,

    連續的地形圖。

  • you see in the black and white drawings,

    這是戰場的模擬圖。

  • some of those lines,

    現在我準備要變成李將軍,

  • stitched them together,

    看看他看到什麼。

  • gave them elevation values,

    我特別想專注在

  • and then transformed it, within the GIS program,

    我剛剛提過的「皮克特衝鋒」。

  • into a continuous terrain.

    那是李將軍在第3天早上,

  • This is a simulation of the ground of the battlefield.

    做出的一個重要決定。

  • Now, I'm ready to place myself in Lee's boots

    時間是1863年7月3日,

  • and ask what he could see.

    前兩天的廝殺很慘烈,

  • The particular moment I want to look at

    戰況反反覆覆,

  • is that battle I mentioned, Pickett's Charge.

    沒有任何一方佔上風。

  • Lee makes a crucial decision

    李將軍走進戰場,

  • on the morning of the third day,

    歷史都有讀過。

  • this is July 3rd, 1863,

    我的地圖又要登場了,

  • the fighting on the previous two days has been fierce.

    看那個紅色圈圈。

  • It's gone back and forth,

    他在早上8點左右,

  • neither side has a clear advantage.

    走到戰場的南端。

  • Lee goes down to the bottom of the field,

    用他的望遠鏡仔細觀察,

  • we know this,

    想找出北方聯邦

  • here's my gorgeous source map again

    最容易被攻破的地點。

  • and watch the red circle appear.

    下一張圖,

  • He goes to the southern end of the battlefield

    我就要用GIS系統的視域分析,

  • at about 8:00 in the morning

    模擬李將軍的視線。

  • with his binoculars

    紅色的區域

  • and looks through them

    就是我們認為他在看的方向。

  • to figure out where to attack the Union line,

    視域分析會指出在特定位置,

  • where are they most vulnerable.

    哪些景觀看得到、哪些看不到。

  • Now, in this next image,

    所以這張圖中,

  • I'm going to show you the GIS process

    灰色的部分是他看不到的。

  • called viewshed analysis,

    而在圖中比較亮的,

  • along with Lee's line of sight

    是他應該要看得見的地方。

  • in that sort of reddish cone

    有發現右邊幾乎都是灰的嗎?

  • is the direction we think he was looking.

    現在我們再多加一筆資料。

  • Viewshed analysis, remember, tells me what I can see

    來自新罕布夏州的

  • and what I can't see

    風景畫家約翰‧白徹爾德,

  • from a certain point,

    剛好來到交戰地點附近。

  • so in this map,

    一聽說附近在打仗,

  • the grey area is what Lee couldn't see.

    一方面想記錄軍隊的去向,

  • The clear area, where you see that historic map coming through,

    想畫下戰爭的場景;

  • is what he could've definitely seen.

    他從眾議院領到1萬美金,

  • Notice how much of the right side of the map is in grey.

    幫忙紀錄每半小時的軍隊位置。

  • Now, we add another crucial piece of information.

    他畫了24張地圖,

  • Someone named John Bachelder,

    我們把它全部數位化,

  • a landscape painter from New Hampshire,

    匯入GIS系統。

  • went down to the battlefield

    這張圖顯示了軍隊位置,

  • as soon as he heard about the fight,

    是我們這次了解李將軍

  • in order to document where troops had been

    知道什麼、不知道什麼的關鍵。

  • and to try to paint the battle.

    現在如果你仔細看,

  • He ended up getting $10,000 from Congress

    你可以看到中間白色的地方

  • in order to document troop positions

    被外面一圈橢圓形陰影包圍。

  • down to the half hour.

    藍色是北方聯邦的軍隊,

  • He produced 24 maps

    我相信李將軍可以看到中間那些。

  • that we also digitized

    但在右邊的陰影裡,

  • and brought into the GIS.

    你可以看到更多藍色標記。

  • And this next map shows that troop position information;

    那是埋伏在暗處的北方軍。

  • it's crucial for understanding

    我們都知道李將軍 親自偵查的前一晚,

  • what Lee could and what he couldn't see.

    也就是7月2日晚上, 他有派出探子。

  • Now, if you look closely at this map,

    因為他想知道敵軍在哪裡。

  • you might be able to see

    但結果出乎意料,

  • kind of the middle

    我們也不知道為什麼。

  • is a black oval around an area that's relatively clear.

    探子回來後說:

  • The blue markings in that black oval

    「將軍不必擔心,

  • are Union troops that I'm definitely sure that Lee could see.

    東方『圓頂山』一帶的山丘,」

  • But if you look to the right of that,

    也就是我們看到的右邊,

  • you'll see an awful lot of blue markings.

    「沒有發現敵軍蹤跡。」

  • Those are Union troops in the shadows.

    不知道他們是喝醉還是打瞌睡,

  • Now, we know that on the night before Lee's reconnaissance

    但他們忽略了1/3的北方聯邦軍隊。

  • so, the night of July 2nd, he sent out scouts.

    李將軍除了被自己的探子蒙蔽,

  • Of course, he wanted to know where the federal troops were.

    他也被地形蒙蔽。

  • But quite astonishingly,

    所以他下令攻擊他認為

  • we have no explanation for this.

    聯邦陣線最脆弱的地方,

  • The scouts came back saying,

    卻不知道其他聯邦軍的佈署。

  • 'Don't worry, General Lee.

    所以在圖中央可以看到,

  • We didn't see any troops to the east,'

    聯邦軍之間有很大的空隙。

  • in your map to the right,

    代表士兵的藍色分布在

  • 'of the Roundtops, some really big hills.'

    戰場的南北兩端。

  • We don't know if they got drunk or fell asleep,

    所以我現在來演練一下,

  • but they didn't see almost a third of the Union army.

    皮克特衝鋒時,

  • So Lee is blind from his scouts,

    軍隊的位置。

  • and from his viewpoint, he's also blind.

    南方軍隊都列隊在

  • He decides to attack

    戰場的西側,

  • what he thinks is the weak middle of the Union line,

    等在樹下。

  • not knowing about where the rest of the troops are.

    1萬8千名士兵從走、小跑步,

  • So if you look in the middle of this image,

    最後衝過開放的田園,

  • there's a gap in the Union line

    手裡的步槍對準敵軍。

  • from where the blue soldiers

    現在北方軍有15到20分鐘應對。

  • are at the north of the battlefield and at the south.

    他們看到敵軍

  • So let me now play out,

    往陣線的中間進攻,

  • using these troop positions,

    要怎麼辦呢?

  • Pickett's Charge.

    藍色的箭頭是北方軍行進方向,

  • The Confederate soldiers are lined up

    他們往守備較弱的中心回防。

  • on the west side of the battlefield,

    我讓各位看看

  • standing under the trees.

    他們怎麼在這麼短的 時間內快速動員,

  • 18,000 men who first begin to walk and then trot

    李將軍完全沒料到他們會這麼快。

  • and then run across open farm fields

    一開始他們好像靜止不動,

  • with their rifles leveled at the federal line.

    準備抵抗南方軍來襲,

  • Now, the Union army has about 15-20 minutes to organize itself.

    約莫是在下午1點半 到2點、2點半之間。

  • They see that the Confederates are converging

    這邊有一場慘烈異常的廝殺、

  • on the middle of their line,

    徒手對決。

  • and what do they do?

    這些藍線

  • The blue arrow here, representing movement of the Union troops,

    在下午2點到2點半之間進入,

  • they pull their troops toward that weak center,

    將更多後備軍和支援,

  • and let me show you how they were able

    帶到北方軍較弱的中段。

  • to concentrate those men in a remarkably short period of time.

    結果呢?

  • Lee didn't know that the Union could've done this.

    北方軍擊敗南方軍,

  • You see now, they're standing like a wall,

    李將軍在下午3點 跳上馬背指揮撤退,

  • ready to receive the Confederate assault,

    一邊說「對不起!都是我的錯!」

  • which happens between 1:30 and about 2:00, 2:30 in the afternoon.

    這個關於「視線」的故事,

  • There is tremendously fierce fighting,

    是蓋茨堡之役中, 沒人注意過的地方。

  • hand-to-hand combat.

    結果南方軍撤退了。

  • Now these blue lines,

    歷史學者之前都沒能知道

  • coming in between 2-2:30 in the afternoon,

    李將軍看得到或看不到什麼。

  • are pulling more reserves, more reinforcements,

    而我覺得這才是關鍵。

  • to that weak center of the Union line.

    為什麼? 因為從他的位置看,

  • What happens?

    北方軍不堪一擊。

  • The Union soliders drive the Confederates off.

    他的出兵很合理,

  • Lee rides out, among his men, at 3:00 in the afternoon,

    但情報不齊全,

  • saying, 'I'm sorry. It's my fault. It's my fault.'

    把自己的士兵推向地獄。

  • This story of sight has been a missing part

    現在還有另一個小插曲。

  • of the Battle of Gettysburg.

    去年夏天是蓋茨堡之役

  • Here's their retreat.

    150週年。

  • Historians have not been previously able

    我有幸跟一名3D動畫師合作,

  • to figure out what he could and couldn't see.

    用GIS系統重現

  • I think it helps explain his decision.

    如各位所見的地形樣貌。

  • Why? Because from his point of view,

    我的結論是「視野」幫了北方軍。

  • the federals were very weak.

    北方軍的將領G‧K‧華倫,

  • He was attacking at the logical place,

    站在看得見這幅全景圖的地方,

  • but without full knowledge,

    環視戰場。

  • he set his men out for a dreadful defeat.

    就在第二天的關鍵時刻,

  • Now, there's one more piece to this story.

    他剛好看見遠方地平線,

  • Last summer was the 150th anniversary

    南方軍隊從樹林間湧現,

  • of the Battle of Gettysburg.

    目標攻佔「小圓頂」。

  • And I was able to work with a 3D animator,

    他及時召來援軍,

  • so we were able to use the GIS information

    救了北方軍,

  • to render the terrain issue as you see it here.

    幾乎奠定了第三天北方軍的勝利。

  • And my closing story is about how sight helped the other side.

    所以我希望同樣受惠於

  • A federal general named GK Warren

    數位科技的各位,

  • stood in the spot that this panoramic view is showing you,

    會開始思考怎麼將它們運用在歷史。

  • looking out over the battlefield.

    會有意想不到的結果。

  • And at a key moment on day two,

    謝謝!

  • he was able to see on the far horizon

  • Confederate soldiers emerging out of the trees

  • who were about to attack Little Roundtop.

  • He called in reinforcements just in time

  • and saved the day for the Union,

  • setting the stage for the Union almost-victory on day three.

  • So, I hope that all of you who are so gifted

  • with digital technologies

  • will begin to think about how you can use them for history.

  • It can be amazing.

  • Thank you.

I'm a geographer at Middlebury College,

我是米德爾伯里學院的地理學家。

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 將軍 軍隊 戰場 地圖 位置

TED-Ed】葛底斯堡的數字重塑--安妮-諾爾斯。 (【TED-Ed】A digital reimagining of Gettysburg - Anne Knowles)

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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