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  • This is a lot of ones and zeros.

    這裡有很多 1 和 0。

  • It's what we call binary information.

    就是所謂的二進制信息。

  • This is how computers talk.

    這是電腦溝通的方式。

  • It's how they store information.

    這是它們收集資料的方式。

  • It's how computers think.

    這是電腦的思考方式。

  • It's how computers do

    這就是電腦的運作

  • everything it is that computers do.

    會做的所有事情。

  • I'm a cybersecurity researcher,

    我是一個網路安全研究員,

  • which means my job is to sit down with this information

    我的工作就是研究該信息,

  • and try to make sense of it,

    和把該信息弄清楚,

  • to try to understand what all the ones and zeroes mean.

    嘗試去明白1和0的意思。

  • Unfortunately for me, we're not just talking

    不幸的是,我們不只討論

  • about the ones and zeros I have on the screen here.

    我這裡這個屏幕的1和0。

  • We're not just talking about a few pages of ones and zeros.

    我們不只是說著幾頁的1和0。

  • We're talking about billions and billions

    我們說的是上億個

  • of ones and zeros,

    1和0,

  • more than anyone could possibly comprehend.

    是超過任何人所能理解的。

  • Now, as exciting as that sounds,

    現在,令人感興趣的是

  • when I first started doing cyber

    當我剛開始做網路

  • (Laughter) —

    — (歡笑聲) —

  • when I first started doing cyber, I wasn't sure

    當我剛開始做網路, 我並不確定

  • that sifting through ones and zeros

    探討1和0

  • was what I wanted to do with the rest of my life,

    是我一辈子想做的事。

  • because in my mind, cyber

    因為在我的腦海裡,網路是在

  • was keeping viruses off of my grandma's computer,

    防止病毒侵略我奶奶的​​電腦,

  • it was keeping people's Myspace pages from being hacked,

    防止Myspace的網頁被駭客入侵,

  • and maybe, maybe on my most glorious day,

    也許在我最輝煌的日子,

  • it was keeping someone's credit card information from being stolen.

    它防止人們的信用卡資料被盜用。

  • Those are important things,

    這些都是重要的因素,

  • but that's not how I wanted to spend my life.

    但這不是我想度過我人生的方式。

  • But after 30 minutes of work

    但工作三十分鐘之後

  • as a defense contractor,

    作為一名國防承包商,

  • I soon found out that my idea of cyber

    我開始發現我的網路概念

  • was a little bit off.

    有點不對勁。

  • In fact, in terms of national security,

    事實上,在國防眼裡,

  • keeping viruses off of my grandma's computer

    防止病毒侵略我奶奶的​​電腦

  • was surprisingly low on their priority list.

    在他們的列表裡實在不重要。

  • And the reason for that is cyber

    原因是網路

  • is so much bigger than any one of those things.

    比任何上述事件還來得大。

  • Cyber is an integral part of all of our lives,

    網路是我們生活中不可或缺的東西,

  • because computers are an integral part of all of our lives,

    因為電腦是我們生活中不可或缺的東西

  • even if you don't own a computer.

    就算你沒擁有電腦。

  • Computers control everything in your car,

    電腦掌控你車上的一切,

  • from your GPS to your airbags.

    從全球定位系統到安全氣囊,

  • They control your phone.

    它控制你的電話。

  • They're the reason you can call 911

    你之所以能撥911

  • and get someone on the other line.

    與別人連線都因為它。

  • They control our nation's entire infrastructure.

    它掌控了國家的整個基礎建設,

  • They're the reason you have electricity,

    之所以你能使用電,

  • heat, clean water, food.

    使用熱能、飲用水、食物,

  • Computers control our military equipment,

    電腦也掌控了軍用設備,

  • everything from missile silos to satellites

    從飛彈基地到衛星

  • to nuclear defense networks.

    一直到核能防禦系統,

  • All of these things are made possible

    上述所有事情的運作

  • because of computers,

    都依賴著電腦,

  • and therefore because of cyber,

    所以網路極為重要

  • and when something goes wrong,

    當其中一個環節出錯,

  • cyber can make all of these things impossible.

    網路也能使所有事情無法運作。

  • But that's where I step in.

    但這就是我踏進網路世界的地方。

  • A big part of my job is defending all of these things,

    我工作的主要任務是保護全部的東西,

  • keeping them working,

    確保它們能運作,

  • but once in a while, part of my job is to break one of these things,

    但有些時候,我需要破壞其中的一些東西,

  • because cyber isn't just about defense,

    因為網路不光只有保護,

  • it's also about offense.

    它也包括破壞。

  • We're entering an age where we talk about

    我們現在來到了

  • cyberweapons.

    網路武器的時代。

  • In fact, so great is the potential for cyber offense

    事實上,訝異的是網路武器

  • that cyber is considered a new domain of warfare.

    的範疇已經擴大到了戰爭的地步。

  • Warfare.

    戰爭。

  • It's not necessarily a bad thing.

    它不一定是壞事。

  • On the one hand, it means we have whole new front

    在一方面,它意味著我們需要有

  • on which we need to defend ourselves,

    全新的戰線來保護自己,

  • but on the other hand,

    但另一方面,

  • it means we have a whole new way to attack,

    也表示我們有一種全新的攻擊方式,

  • a whole new way to stop evil people

    全新的辦法來阻止邪惡的人

  • from doing evil things.

    做邪惡的事情。

  • So let's consider an example of this

    讓我們用完全理論的例子

  • that's completely theoretical.

    來考慮這一點。

  • Suppose a terrorist wants to blow up a building,

    假設恐怖分子要炸毀一座建築物,

  • and he wants to do this again and again

    他想在未來一次又一次的

  • in the future.

    做到這一點。

  • So he doesn't want to be in that building when it explodes.

    所以在該建築物爆炸時他並不想在場。

  • He's going to use a cell phone

    他會使用手機

  • as a remote detonator.

    作為遙控引爆。

  • Now, it used to be the only way we had

    以往, 唯一制止

  • to stop this terrorist

    這種恐怖份子,

  • was with a hail of bullets and a car chase,

    便是我們必須槍林彈雨和汽車追逐,

  • but that's not necessarily true anymore.

    但現在這未必需要了。

  • We're entering an age where we can stop him

    我們正在進入這樣的一個時代,

  • with the press of a button

    按一個鈕阻止他

  • from 1,000 miles away,

    從1000英里外,

  • because whether he knew it or not,

    因為無論他知道與否,

  • as soon as he decided to use his cell phone,

    只要他決定用他的手機,

  • he stepped into the realm of cyber.

    他便走進網路的領域。

  • A well-crafted cyber attack could break into his phone,

    一個精心製作的網路攻擊可以侵略他的手機,

  • disable the overvoltage protections on his battery,

    對他的電池禁用過壓保護,

  • drastically overload the circuit,

    大幅度的電路超載,

  • cause the battery to overheat, and explode.

    導致電池過熱和爆炸。

  • No more phone, no more detonator,

    沒有手機,沒有引爆器,

  • maybe no more terrorist,

    也許恐怖分子都沒了,

  • all with the press of a button

    按一個按鈕

  • from a thousand miles away.

    全都是千里之外。

  • So how does this work?

    那麼這是如何運作呢?

  • It all comes back to those ones and zeros.

    這一切都回到那些1和0。

  • Binary information makes your phone work,

    二進制信息使你的手機的運作,

  • and used correctly, it can make your phone explode.

    正確使用它,可以讓你的手機爆炸。

  • So when you start to look at cyber from this perspective,

    因此,當你開始從這個角度來看網路,

  • spending your life sifting through binary information

    篩選二進制信息過生活

  • starts to seem kind of exciting.

    開始似乎有點剌激。

  • But here's the catch: This is hard,

    但這裡才是大問題:這是很艱苦的,

  • really, really hard,

    真的,真的很艱苦,

  • and here's why.

    原因如下。

  • Think about everything you have on your cell phone.

    想想你在手機裡擁有的一切。

  • You've got the pictures you've taken.

    你擁有你所拍攝的照片。

  • You've got the music you listen to.

    你擁有你聽的音樂。

  • You've got your contacts list,

    你擁有你的聯絡人清單,

  • your email, and probably 500 apps

    你的電子郵件,大概500個應用程序,

  • you've never used in your entire life,

    你在這一生從來沒有用過,

  • and behind all of this is the software, the code,

    這背後的一切是軟體,代碼,

  • that controls your phone,

    控制你的手機,

  • and somewhere, buried inside of that code,

    在某一處,埋藏裡面的代碼,

  • is a tiny piece that controls your battery,

    是控制你電池的一小片,

  • and that's what I'm really after,

    那就是我真正找的東西,

  • but all of this, just a bunch of ones and zeros,

    但這一切,只是一堆1和0,

  • and it's all just mixed together.

    而這全部都混在一起。

  • In cyber, we call this finding a needle in a stack of needles,

    在網路中,我們稱這是在一堆針裡找出一支針,

  • because everything pretty much looks alike.

    因為所有東西都非常相似。

  • I'm looking for one key piece,

    我在尋找關鍵的一塊,

  • but it just blends in with everything else.

    但它混在其中。

  • So let's step back from this theoretical situation

    讓我們退後一步

  • of making a terrorist's phone explode,

    走出製造恐怖手機爆炸這類理論的情況,

  • and look at something that actually happened to me.

    看看真實發生在我身上的事。

  • Pretty much no matter what I do,

    幾乎不管我做什麼,

  • my job always starts with sitting down

    我的工作總是坐下來

  • with a whole bunch of binary information,

    從一大堆的二進制信息,

  • and I'm always looking for one key piece

    一直做一些具體的事情

  • to do something specific.

    尋找一個關鍵的部分。

  • In this case, I was looking for a very advanced,

    在這種情況下,我要尋找一種非常先進,

  • very high-tech piece of code

    非常高科技的一行代碼,

  • that I knew I could hack,

    我知道我能破解的代碼,

  • but it was somewhere buried

    但它埋藏在

  • inside of a billion ones and zeroes.

    十億個1和0的內部的某處。

  • Unfortunately for me, I didn't know

    不幸的是,我不知道

  • quite what I was looking for.

    我究竟在找什麼。

  • I didn't know quite what it would look like,

    我不知道它看起來像什麼,

  • which makes finding it really, really hard.

    這使得要發現它真的,真的很辛苦。

  • When I have to do that, what I have to do

    當我這樣做,

  • is basically look at various pieces

    我基本上是要看

  • of this binary information,

    各種二進制信息,

  • try to decipher each piece, and see if it might be

    嘗試破解每一行信息,看看這是否

  • what I'm after.

    是我要找的。

  • So after a while, I thought I had found the piece

    過了一段時間後,我想我已經找到了

  • I was looking for.

    一直在尋找的那一塊。

  • I thought maybe this was it.

    我想這也許是它。

  • It seemed to be about right, but I couldn't quite tell.

    這似乎是對的,但我也不太肯定。

  • I couldn't tell what those ones and zeros represented.

    我不知道這些1和0代表什麼。

  • So I spent some time trying to put this together,

    所以我花了一些時間,試圖把它解決,

  • but wasn't having a whole lot of luck,

    但沒運氣,

  • and finally I decided,

    最後我決定,

  • I'm going to get through this,

    我要克服它,

  • I'm going to come in on a weekend,

    我要在一個週末回來,

  • and I'm not going to leave

    我要搞清楚這代表什麼

  • until I figure out what this represents.

    才會離開。

  • So that's what I did. I came in on a Saturday morning,

    我就這樣做。我在一個星期六的早晨,

  • and about 10 hours in, I sort of had all the pieces to the puzzle.

    花約10小時,點滴匯集所有資料。

  • I just didn't know how they fit together.

    我只是不知道它們是如何結合在一起的。

  • I didn't know what these ones and zeros meant.

    我不知道這些1和0的意思。

  • At the 15-hour mark,

    整整歷經15小時,

  • I started to get a better picture of what was there,

    我開始更了解什麼在那裡,

  • but I had a creeping suspicion

    但我心存疑慮

  • that what I was looking at

    我一直在整理的資料

  • was not at all related to what I was looking for.

    實際上與我要找的無關。

  • By 20 hours, the pieces started to come together

    20小時後,進度開始

  • very slowly — (Laughter) —

    非常緩慢 —(笑聲) —

  • and I was pretty sure I was going down

    我敢肯定

  • the wrong path at this point,

    我走錯路,

  • but I wasn't going to give up.

    但我不會放棄。

  • After 30 hours in the lab,

    在實驗室30小時後,

  • I figured out exactly what I was looking at,

    我明白我一直在整理的是什麼,

  • and I was right, it wasn't what I was looking for.

    事實證明,我是對的,這並不是我所期待的。

  • I spent 30 hours piecing together

    我花了30小時拼湊

  • the ones and zeros that formed a picture of a kitten.

    這些1和0, 形成一張小貓的照片。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I wasted 30 hours of my life searching for this kitten

    我浪費我生命中30小時尋找這隻小貓,

  • that had nothing at all to do

    跟我試圖

  • with what I was trying to accomplish.

    完成的任務無關。

  • So I was frustrated, I was exhausted.

    我很沮喪,我精疲力竭。

  • After 30 hours in the lab, I probably smelled horrible.

    30小時在實驗室後,我聞起來可能滿身汗臭。

  • But instead of just going home

    但我沒有放棄而回家,

  • and calling it quits, I took a step back

    而是後退了一步,

  • and asked myself, what went wrong here?

    問自己,哪裡出了問題呢?

  • How could I make such a stupid mistake?

    我怎麼會犯這樣一個愚蠢的錯誤?

  • I'm really pretty good at this.

    我在這方面很能幹。

  • I do this for a living.

    我靠這個謀生。

  • So what happened?

    到底發生什麼事?

  • Well I thought, when you're looking at information at this level,

    嗯,我想,當你在這個層面上看信息,

  • it's so easy to lose track of what you're doing.

    是很容易迷失軌跡的。

  • It's easy to not see the forest through the trees.

    當你在樹林之中是不容易見到森林的。

  • It's easy to go down the wrong rabbit hole

    很容易就會不小心偏離正軌。

  • and waste a tremendous amount of time

    而浪費大量時間

  • doing the wrong thing.

    做著錯誤的事情。

  • But I had this epiphany.

    不過,我有這個頓悟。

  • We were looking at the data completely incorrectly

    我們從第一天開始已經

  • since day one.

    完全不正確地看數據。

  • This is how computers think, ones and zeros.

    電腦就是這樣思考的,1和0。

  • It's not how people think,

    這不是人的思考方式,

  • but we've been trying to adapt our minds

    但我們一直在努力地適應我們的頭腦

  • to think more like computers

    像電腦一樣思考,

  • so that we can understand this information.

    這樣我們就可以理解這些信息。

  • Instead of trying to make our minds fit the problem,

    我們不應該試圖讓頭腦適應問題,

  • we should have been making the problem

    而是應該使問題

  • fit our minds,

    符合我們的頭腦,

  • because our brains have a tremendous potential

    因為大腦有着巨大的潛力

  • for analyzing huge amounts of information,

    分析大量的信息,

  • just not like this.

    但不是這樣。

  • So what if we could unlock that potential

    如果我們能夠將這類信息

  • just by translating this

    做正確的翻譯

  • to the right kind of information?

    而發掘潛能呢?

  • So with these ideas in mind,

    抱著這些想法,

  • I sprinted out of my basement lab at work

    我從工作的地下室實驗室

  • to my basement lab at home,

    衝到了我家裡的實驗室,

  • which looked pretty much the same.

    實際上看起來幾乎是一樣。

  • The main difference is, at work,

    主要的區別是,在工作時,

  • I'm surrounded by cyber materials,

    我被網路上的材料包圍,

  • and cyber seemed to be the problem in this situation.

    而這種情況下網路似乎是一個問題。

  • At home, I'm surrounded by everything else I've ever learned.

    在家裡,我卻是被我所學到一切包圍。

  • So I poured through every book I could find,

    所以,我翻遍每一本我能找到的書,

  • every idea I'd ever encountered,

    每一個我曾有過的想法,

  • to see how could we translate a problem

    看看我們如何才能將問題轉域

  • from one domain to something completely different?

    換到完全不同的東西?

  • The biggest question was,

    最大的問題是,

  • what do we want to translate it to?

    我們想將它翻譯成什麼?

  • What do our brains do perfectly naturally

    有什麼是我們的大腦

  • that we could exploit?

    能夠自然的利用?

  • My answer was vision.

    我的答案是視像。

  • We have a tremendous capability to analyze visual information.

    我們有巨大的能力來分析視覺信息。

  • We can combine color gradients, depth cues,

    我們可以將顏色色層,深度線索,

  • all sorts of these different signals

    這些種種不同的信號到我們周圍的世界

  • into one coherent picture of the world around us.

    成為一個連貫的畫面。

  • That's incredible.

    實在是難以置信。

  • So if we could find a way to translate

    因此,如果我們能找到一種方法

  • these binary patterns to visual signals,

    把這些二進制模式轉換為視覺信號,

  • we could really unlock the power of our brains

    我們才能真正解開我們的大腦功能

  • to process this stuff.

    來處理這些東西。

  • So I started looking at the binary information,

    於是我開始看看這些二進制信息,

  • and I asked myself, what do I do

    我問自己,當我第一次

  • when I first encounter something like this?

    遇到這樣的事情我會怎麼辦?

  • And the very first thing I want to do,

    我想要做的第一件事,

  • the very first question I want to answer,

    我要回答的第一個問題的是,

  • is what is this?

    這是什麼?

  • I don't care what it does, how it works.

    我不在乎它做什麼,它是如何運作。

  • All I want to know is, what is this?

    我所想知道的是,它是什麼?