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  • Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is going to be for those of

    嗨,歡迎回到www.engvid.com,我是Adam。今天的課程是為那些要

  • you who are going to take the TOEFL or IELTS test. So just so you understand, I will be

    考托福或雅思的人所上,所以先讓你們知道,我會

  • speaking at a more natural speed. It will be a little bit faster than some of you are

    用正常的速度來講話,對於有些人來說可能會比平常習慣的

  • used to. But listen anyway, and watch. It's very good for listening practice, and it will

    快一點。但是總之試著去聽,或者看,這對於聽力是很好的練習,無論如何

  • be helpful regardless. So today's lesson is specifically about note taking skills. I'm

    都是有幫助的。所以今天的課程主要在「作筆記的技巧」。我會

  • going to concentrate on the TOEFL, but it is also very useful for the people taking

    把焦點放在托福考試,但是對於那些要考

  • an IELTS test. Now, if you've seen my time management class for IELTS, you will realize

    雅思的人來說也很有用。現在,如果你看過雅思「時間掌控」相關的課程,你就會知道

  • that in the listening section, it's very important to know how to take notes. You don't want

    在聽力部分,知道怎麼寫筆記真的很重要,你不會想要

  • to waste time concentrating on spelling and writing full words while the recording is playing

    在錄音播放時浪費時間在拚字或者寫下整個單字

  • because you have time at the end to transfer your answers. That's when you want to write

    因為你在結束時還會有時間轉換你的答案,那才是你該完美拼出答案還有

  • correctly spelled answers and everything. You want to just make sure during the listening

    一切的時候。你該確保在在聽力部分時你

  • section that you write enough to know what the word is. We're going to get into that

    記下了夠多的東西、讓你知道那個字是什麼意思。我們晚點會再

  • a little bit later. What I want to concentrate on mostly, though, is the TOEFL test, okay?

    談到那一塊。不過,我們在這邊主要針對托福考試,可以嗎?

  • Because in the TOEFL test, it is crucial that you know how to take notes. Why? You have

    因為在托福考試中,知道怎麼寫筆記真的非常關鍵,為什麼?因為你會面臨

  • a listening section; you have a speaking section; you have a writing section, all of which have

    一個聽力部分、一個口說部分、一個寫作部分,而它們每一部分都包含

  • a listening component. Remember; this is an integrated test. You're going to have to listen

    一段聽力的內容,要記得,這是一個複合型的考試,你在每個部分都會

  • in each one of these sections. Okay?

    包含一段聽力,懂?

  • In the listening section, what many people don't realize who haven't taken a test yet:

    在聽力部分,還沒實際考過試的人可能不知道的是,

  • You don't see anything. Okay? You don't see the questions as you're listening to the lectures

    你完全看不到任何東西,了解嗎?你在聽那段講演或任何東西時

  • or whatever you're listening to. So it's very, very important that you take notes as you're

    是不會看到題目的,所以邊聽邊記筆記就變得非常非常重要

  • listening so that when the questions do come, you have the information in front of you,

    因為在問題出現的時候,你才會準備好該有的資訊

  • you know how to answer it, okay?

    然後知道要怎麼回答,懂?

  • In the speaking section, you may be given a short conversation to listen to and then

    在口說部分,你可能需要聆聽一段短短的對話,然後要

  • be given a question, and you have to speak your answer. But if you don't remember what

    回答一個問題,你要把答案講出來,但假如說你根本不記得它們剛剛

  • they spoke about, then, you can't answer the question properly.

    講了什麼,你就可能答非所問。

  • In the writing section, you have -- in Task 1, you have to compare a reading section with

    在寫作部分,Task 1中,你需要比較一段文章和一段

  • a listening section. And then, you have to write an answer comparing the two. So if you

    聽力的段落,然後你必須要寫出比較兩者的答案,所以假如你

  • don't take notes during the listening component of Task 1, it's very difficult to write your

    在聽聽力的時候沒有做筆記,寫出你自己的答案就會非常困難,

  • answer. Okay? So note taking skills -- very important throughout the TOEFL test.

    OK嗎?所以作筆記的技巧對於整個托福考試來說真的超級重要。

  • So first of all, before we look at how to do it, let's look at what you need to concentrate

    首先,在我們了解要怎麼做之前,先來看看在聽的時候應該要特別專心在哪些

  • on as you're listening. Okay? Now, another thing to remember before I even start: This

    東西上面好嗎?現在,在我們正式開始前還有另外一件事你必須好好記住:這

  • takes practice. This is a skill that you have to sharpen, that you have to practice with

    需要練習。這是一項你必須不斷不斷磨練的技巧,你得在正式考試之前

  • every day before you go out to take your test.

    每天都好好練習。

  • Okay. Now, the first mistake people make is they think -- they try to write down every

    現在,人們首先常犯的錯誤,就是他們想....他們試著要把他們聽到的每一個字

  • word they hear. Impossible. Okay? Unless you're a stenographer -- that's a person who works

    都寫下來,不 可 能 的,好嗎?除非你是個速寫員-就是那些在

  • in court and writes down every word that the people in the courtroom are saying, lawyers,

    法庭工作、負責寫下律師啊、法官啊、被告或者證人在法庭上說過的

  • judges, defendants, etc., witnesses -- you cannot write every word. Don't try. You don't

    每個字的人,你沒有辦法寫下每個字的,試都不要試,你也沒有必要

  • need to write every word. You need to concentrate on the details that are important, on the

    真的寫下每一個字,你只需要專心在重要的細節、

  • information that is important.

    重要的資訊上面就好。

  • Now, what you need to focus on are the big, general ideas. You need to understand generally

    現在,你所需要集中注意力的,就是「大意」,你要了解它到底大致在講什麼、

  • what is being spoken about, what is the topic, what is the subject. For example, is it science?

    主旨是什麼、主題又是什麼。舉個例,去聽它是在講科學?

  • Is it history? Is it arts? You need to understand the general ideas because they're not going

    在講歷史?還是藝術?你要去了解整體的大意,因為他們不會去問你

  • to ask you very, very specific questions, right? And if they do, they're going to give

    非常非常特定的問題,對吧?而如果他們真的這麼做了,他們會給你一些

  • you some information. They're going to give you something to listen to again. Or they're

    資訊的,他們會讓你有機會可以再把它聽一遍,或者他們就會

  • going to give you a very specific word.

    直接給你非常特定的字去聽。

  • So, details. Do you need to concentrate on every little detail? No. You'll be writing

    所以,細節。你需要去關注每一個小細節嗎?不用,這樣你會每分每秒都在

  • all the time, not listening. Stick to the big ideas. But -- okay, sorry. Having said

    寫東西,根本不能專心聽。請專注於「大的概念」,但是,好sorry我正要講到......

  • that, technical words -- if they give you some scientific word or some technological

    專業詞彙,如果你被他們丟了一些科學相關單字或者特定背景的專業詞彙,

  • word, do you need to know it? No. They will give it to you in the question. You will see

    你需要知道它們是啥嗎?不用,它們會在問題裡面附給你,你會在問題裡面直接

  • it in the question, and you'll remember, "Oh, yeah. This is the technical word." There will

    看到它,你就會想起:「喔對那就是那個專業詞彙。」有時候會出現

  • be technical words that even native speakers have no idea how to write or what they mean

    一些連英文母語人士都不知道怎麼寫、不知道什麼意思的

  • or what they are. You don't need to either. What you need to listen to is the explanation

    專業詞彙,你也不需要知道。你需要聽的是專業詞彙的「解釋」

  • of what the technical word refers to or means because the word itself, they will give you

    或者它指的是什麼意思,因為專業詞彙本身,它們就會在題目裡面

  • in the questions.

    給你了。

  • Headings, divisions, lists: These are the most important things you're listening for.

    標題、類別、清單:這些是你要專心去聽到的、最最重要的東西。

  • For example, you're listening to a lecture in a university classroom, and the professor

    比如說,你在聽的是大學課堂上的演講,然後教授

  • says, "So today, we're going to look at three reasons why fracking is bad." "Fracking" -- you

    說:「今天我們要看看fracking會造成不良影響的3個理由。」"fracking"---你

  • don't need to know. From a general idea -- you will have an idea what "fracking" means. But

    不用知道那是什麼意思。從大意來看,你會知道"fracking"代表什麼,但是

  • "fracking" spelling? You don't need to know. Specifically, the details of how fracking

    fracking怎麼拼?你不用知道。fracking怎麼運作的超級細節,

  • works, you don't need to know. What you do need to listen to are the three reasons. So

    你不用知道。你需要聽的就是那3個理由,所以

  • he's dividing the lecture into three topics. Make sure that you create a heading for each reason.

    他就會把這個演講分成3個小主題,確定你自己有幫每個小主題都記下一個小標題。

  • So the first reason is pollution. Write down "pollution". And then you can take notes under

    所以第一個理由是「汙染」,把"pollution"寫下來,然後如果需要的話就在下面做筆記,

  • it if you need to. The second reason is expense. Write down "expense" and whatever information

    第二個理由是「花費」, 把"expense"還有那些後來聽到的重要資訊記下來,

  • comes after that. The third reason -- whatever. You get the gist, I think. By the way, I hope

    第三個理由......隨便,我想你應該抓到要點了。哦對了,希望

  • you know this word, "gist". "Gist" is the general idea. That's what you're listening for.

    你知道這個字,"gist",表示主旨、要點,那就是你該聽的東西。

  • If they're about to present a list, try to write down the list because this is

    如果他們打算列出一個清單,試著把清單跟著寫出來,因為這很有可能

  • probably important, okay?

    很重要,OK?

  • So in the listening section, don't sit there with your eyes closed and try to remember

    在聽力部分,不要就閉上眼睛、坐在那邊,然後嘗試去

  • everything you hear. You cannot do it. There will be quite a few questions for each listening section.

    記下你聽到的每件事,你做不到的,每段聽力都會出滿多題目,

  • You need to make sure that you have the information on a piece of paper in front of you.

    你必須確保你在面前的紙上面留下了那些資訊,

  • When you go to the TOEFL center, they will give you paper. They will give you a

    當你去考托福的時候,他們會給你紙,也會給你一枝鉛筆,

  • pencil. That's what it is for: to take notes. Use it.

    這就是它們的用途:寫筆記!好好利用它們。

  • Next. In the speaking section, much shorter listening sections, but very important. What

    接下來,在口說部分,相較起來比聽力部分短很多,但還是很重要,

  • are you listening for? You're listening for dates and times. For example, "Oh, yeah. Let's

    你要聽什麼東西?你要去聽日期跟時間。舉例來說,"Oh, yeah. Let's

  • meet next Tuesday." The "next Tuesday", you have to be careful; it's not "this Tuesday",

    meet next Tuesday.",這個"next Tuesday"就是你要注意的東西,不是 "this Tuesday"。

  • for example. Times, a.m., p.m. -- you don't need specifically 5:14; you need to understand

    再舉個例,時間,上午?下午?你不用超級精確,像是5:14,但是你得搞懂到底是

  • afternoon, morning, evening, etc.

    下午、早上、晚上等等。

  • If people are making plans, make sure you understand what the plans are. Meet here,

    如果裡面有人在規劃行程,確認你聽懂那些行程在幹嘛:在哪裡碰面、

  • do this with these people. That's the information you want to write down. If somebody agrees

    要跟誰做什麼事情。這就是你必須寫下來的資訊。如果有誰同意

  • or disagrees with something, write that down. If somebody makes an excuse -- "Do you want

    或是不同意了什麼事情,也寫下來。如果有人提出一個藉口,像是"Do you want

  • to come to my party next week?" "No, I can't. I have to take my mother shopping." Write

    to come to my party next week?" "No, I can't. I have to take my mother shopping.",

  • that down, "mother, shopping". You don't have to write, "He has to take his mother shopping."

    寫下"mother, shopping",你不用寫"He has to take his mother shopping.",

  • No. Don't do that. "Mother, shopping" -- done.

    拜託不要,就"Mother, shopping",結束。

  • Okay. Which goes with this? Accept, reject. Somebody makes an invitation. Does the person

    好,然後還有什麼呢?接受還是拒絕。如果有人提出邀請,另外那個人是

  • accept or reject? He accepts and goes. If he rejects, make sure you know what the excuse

    接受還是拒絕了?接受的話就會去,而如果他拒絕了,記得聽清楚他不去的理由

  • is. Okay? Because they'll ask you for that.

    是什麼,好嗎?因為他們會問這個。

  • Purpose. There's going to be a meeting. Okay. Meeting -- not important. What is the meeting

    目的。如果會有一場見面,好, "Meeting"叫什麼本身不是很重要,但這場見面是

  • about? Write that down. That is important. Or the reason -- reason and excuses: similar,

    為了什麼?把它寫下來,這很重要;或者理由-理由與藉口,滿像的,

  • but a bit different. Reason for doing something, excuse for not doing something. Okay? So this

    但有點不一樣:理由是「為什麼要做」、藉口是「為什麼不做」,懂?所以

  • is only the listening and speaking. Let's look at the writing and section, what you

    以上就是聽力部分跟口說部分,我們接著來看看寫作部分,你在這邊需要

  • need to do there.

    做什麼。

  • Okay. So now, let's look at the writing section. What are you doing in the writing section?

    所以接著我們來看寫作部分,你在寫作部分要做什麼?

  • Remember that you have a short reading passage. You're given a little bit of time. You could

    要記得你要讀一段短短的文章,你會得到一點時間,你在讀的時候

  • already start taking your notes as you're reading. But for some people, the reading

    就可以開始做一點筆記,但是對於有些人來說,閱讀就

  • takes some time. Concentrate on the reading. Get the idea. What are the supporting, what

    會花不少時間,那麼你就專心讀、抓他的大意:哪部分是在支持?哪部分是

  • are the attacking, what is their argument. What examples are they using? Then, when you're

    在表示反對?論述有哪些?他們用了哪些例證?然後,當你開始

  • doing your listening, you're listening for -- first thing you're listening for: Are they

    聽接下來的聽力時,你首先要去聽:他們對於你閱讀的文章

  • supporting or attacking the reading? Okay? Because the question is going to ask you how

    是贊同還是反對?好嗎?因為題目一定會問他們是

  • are they supporting or attacking the reading? So this is what you have to pay attention

    怎麼樣表示贊同還是反對,所以這是你一定得注意的地方。

  • for. If they are supporting, what point are they making? If they are attacking, what are

    如果他們支持,他們的論點是什麼?如果他們不支持,他們的論點

  • the points they're making? Again, big points, major points as compared to the reading.

    又是什麼?再次強調,「抓重點」,找出他們跟文章做比較的大點。

  • Also, if the listening uses any names, like a company name or a person's name as an example

    並且,如果聽力這邊有提到任何名字,比如說用公司名稱或者人名來當例子,

  • of supporting or attacking, try to write down that name. This will get you a lot of points

    表示支持或者反對文章內容,試著把那個名字寫下來,這會讓評分委員覺得你連名字都

  • with the graders if they can see that you wrote down the name and used it in your short essay.

    有辦法記下來、用在你的短文裡面,繼而給你多一點分數。

  • Examples. Any examples that they use to support or attack? Again, don't give me all the details,

    例子。他們有沒有舉什麼例子來表示支持或反對?再講一遍,不要把所有細節記下來,

  • but give me the general idea of the example, especially if the example was also used in

    記那個例子的大意,尤其如果那篇文章同樣也有提到那個例子,

  • the reading. Okay? And then, use all of these in your little essay to show the differences.

    好嗎?接著把這些通通比較在你的短文裡面呈現出來。

  • So now you know what you're listening for. Now, the hard part is actually doing the note

    所以現在你知道你自己要去聽什麼東西了,難的部分就是要做筆記、

  • taking, the writing things down. You're going to be learning how to use codes. Now, before

    去把東西寫出來。你要學著利用「代碼」。在我教這些之前,

  • I go over some of these, it's very, very important that you understand that these are some examples

    有件非常非常重要的事:我教你的這些代碼,只是給你一些「例子」。

  • I'm giving you. You need to create your own codes that work for you. If I'm taking notes

    你必須要創造你自己最有辦法好好使用的代碼,如果我自己在為了短文

  • on an essay -- on the listening section, for example -- I know what all these mean. These

    作筆記-比如說在聽力部分作筆記好了-我完全知道這些代碼表示什麼,因為這些

  • are my codes. You might not know what this means, "w/". You may have to practice a little

    是我自己的代碼,你有可能不知道"w/"是什麼意思,你可能會需要一點練習

  • while until you remember it. But make your own codes, something that you will remember

    來把它們記住,但是,一定要做出「你自己的代碼」,你自己在關鍵時刻

  • when it's time to use it for the listening section, the speaking section, the writing

    有辦法用出來的,要在聽力、口說、寫作

  • section.

    都可以用的。

  • So here's a little sample of codes. Some of these, you know from your texting on your

    所以這邊有些示範用的代碼,其中一些你可能在發簡訊的時候用過,

  • phone. You will never have to use LOL, OMG, BBF on the TOEFL, but good to know that they work.

    你可能在托福考試永遠用不上LOL、OMG或者BBF,但是如果你真的平常會用那也滿好的。

  • I have a b; I have a 4 -- b4. I have an L; I have an 8 -- L8. Add an R -- L8R. Okay?

    我會用b然後我會用4:before。我會用L然後我會用eight:late,如果加上R:later,懂?

  • Up -- go up, increase, raise, grow. Down -- go down, decrease, decelerate, slow down, whatever

    ↑,表示往上、增加、提升、成長。↓,表示往下、減少、減速、慢下來,看你

  • you need. Anything that shows going down, anything that shows going up.

    需要怎麼用,任何你要表示向下的趨勢、任何你要表示向上的趨勢。

  • 4 -- why did he go to the store? For milk -- 4 milk. Etc.

    4,他為什麼要去店裡?for milk,為了要買牛奶,等等。

  • 2 -- could be "to", "too", or "two". Although very rarely will you have to actually worry

    2,可以當成too或者two。雖然你其實很少需要擔心數字啦,

  • about numbers because that's details.

    因為它們都算是細節了。

  • Times -- five X as many. So there are five times as many people in that class as this

    幾倍幾倍-5x什麼什麼,所以假如這個班是那個班的5倍人數,

  • class. So five X people. That's it. Class A, B, 5X -- that's it.

    5倍人數,5 x people,分成A班B班的話,A=5xB,就這樣。

  • Minus, less. Plus, in addition. Up 2-- means maximum. Down 2 -- minimum. Approximately

    「減號」表示減少;「加號」表示此外還有;「down 2」,表示最少;「大約」....

  • -- this is my sign. It means not equal, but close to. So approximately. Greater than -- A

    這是我會用的符號,它表示不等於,但也相差不遠,這就是「大約」。

  • is more than B. Less than. Equal. With something. Without something.

    A大於B、小於、等於;包含什麼、不含什麼。

  • H2O. What is "H2O"? You dink it every day. Water. Any little code that you can use to

    H20...什麼是"H2O"?就是你每天都會喝的水。你可以用任何符號來讓你自己

  • help you write things quickly and remember things quickly, especially things like this

    更快地寫筆記跟記憶,尤其像是托福

  • -- TOEFL for some reason loves science things. They love science lectures. They love science

    為了某些原因,很愛科學相關的東西,他們喜歡科學相關的演講,他們喜歡科學

  • articles. Be very comfortable with those because you're going to see a lot of them.

    文章,你該試著對這些甘之如飴,因為你一定會看到很多。

  • Now, the next thing we're going to look at is abbreviations, which are just as important

    我們接下來要看的是「縮寫」,它跟符號一樣

  • as the codes. And again, something that you're going to have to practice and work on, but

    重要,並且再次強調,這是你要自己去練習、努力的,但我

  • I'll give you a little bit of a sample to get you started.

    這邊會提供你一些範例讓你有頭緒開始。

  • Okay. So now we get into the area where it's really more up to you to create your own master

    好,現在我們要講的範圍,是你真的有更多自由去創造你自己可以掌握的

  • list and practice it and study it so on test day, you can use it and not have any problems.

    清單,然後不斷練習,這樣你在考試那天就可以隨心所欲的使用。

  • We're looking at abbreviations. An "abbreviation" means taking a word and squeezing it, making

    我們來看看這些縮寫,,「縮寫」就表示拿一個字、把它精簡化,讓

  • it shorter. So the abbreviation for abbreviation is "abbr." Okay? Abbreviation. The most important

    它變短,所以「縮寫」的縮寫就是"abbr",懂?縮寫。最重要的是

  • thing to remember is that you must remember what "abbr." means. If I see "abbr." In any

    你要記得"abbr"是什麼意思,我如果在任何文件看到"abbr",

  • document, I will automatically understand this means "abbreviation". Some of these are

    我都可以自動理解它表示「縮寫」。這邊有些縮寫

  • very common. Everybody used them. Some of them, you will have to make your own, and

    非常普遍,大家都這麼用;而有些縮寫,你得自己想一個你會用的,而

  • I'll show you how to do that as well.

    我待會也會教你要怎麼做。

  • So for example, you have to be careful sometimes. You have to make yourself little changes,

    所以,比如說,你有時候必須小心,你要會自己分辨,

  • like with a dot. So "inc." if I have only "inc" without a dot, I understand "increase".

    像是有沒有「點」的差別,沒有「點」的"inc",我知道它代表「increase(增加)」

  • Okay? If I see "inc." with a dot, I understand "incorporate". Okay? Same with "co" without

    懂?假如我看到的是有「點」的"inc.",我知道它代表「incorporate(合併)」,同樣的,沒有「點」的"co"

  • a dot is "company"; "co." with a dot -- "corporation". Or "cor." -- depends how you want to do it.

    表示「company(公司)」,有「點」的 "co.",就表示「corporation(企業)」,你也可以寫成cor.,就看你怎樣做。

  • Now, sometimes, you have some of them that look very similar, only one letter difference,

    有時候你會覺得它們很多看起來都很像,只有一個字母不一樣,