Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • In 2008, something incredible happened: a man was cured of HIV.

    在 2008 年發生了神奇的事情:一個男人的「人類免疫缺陷病毒」 (HIV) 被治好了

  • In over 70 million HIV cases, that was a first and, so far, a last.

    在超過 7,000 萬筆 HIV 病例中這是首件,至今也是最後一件

  • We don't yet understand exactly how he was cured.

    我們尚未瞭解他到底是如何被治癒的

  • We can cure people of various diseases, such as malaria and hepatitis C,

    我們可以治好很多種疾病像是瘧疾或是 C 型肝炎

  • so why can't we cure HIV?

    那麼我們為什麼無法治癒HIV呢?

  • Well, first let's examine how HIV infects people

    首先讓我們來檢視HIV 對人體的影響

  • and progresses into AIDS.

    以及如何進化成愛滋病 (AIDS)

  • HIV spreads through exchanges of bodily fluids.

    HIV 會透過體液交換散播出去

  • Unprotected sex and contaminated needles are the leading cause of transmission.

    沒有防護措施的性愛、受感染的針頭是染病的首要原因

  • It, fortunately, cannot spread through air, water, or casual contact.

    幸運的是它不能透過空氣水分、或是一般接觸來散播

  • Individuals of any age, sexual orientation, gender and race

    任何年齡層、性傾向、性別或是種族的單一個體

  • can contract HIV.

    都可能會感染到 HIV

  • Once inside the body, HIV infects cells that are part of the immune system.

    一但進入了體內,HIV 會影響免疫系統的部分細胞

  • It particularly targets helper T cells,

    它又特別針對輔助 T 細胞

  • which help defend the body against bacterial and fungal infections.

    這種細胞保護身體對抗細菌和黴菌感染

  • HIV is a retrovirus,

    HIV 是一種「反轉錄病毒」

  • which means it can write its genetic code into the genome of infected cells,

    意即它可以將它的基因碼寫進受感染細胞的基因組

  • co-opting them into making more copies of itself.

    拉攏這些細胞來複製更多病毒

  • During the first stage of HIV infection,

    在第一階段的 HIV 感染期間

  • the virus replicates within helper T cells,

    病毒在輔助 T 細胞裡面做複製

  • destroying many of them in the process.

    在過程裡摧毀掉大量的輔助 T 細胞

  • During this stage, patients often experience flu-like symptoms,

    在這個階段病患經常遭受到類似流行感冒的症狀

  • but are typically not yet in mortal danger.

    但是通常還不會有致命的危險

  • However, for a period ranging from a few months to several years,

    然而在幾個月到數年的期間裡

  • during which time the patient may look and feel completely healthy,

    病患也許看起來或感覺上是完全健康的

  • the virus continues to replicate and destroy T cells.

    病毒繼續在複製本身並摧毀輔助 T 細胞

  • When T cell counts drop too low,

    當輔助 T 細胞的數量下降到太低時

  • patients are in serious danger of contracting deadly infections

    病患就會有受到感染而喪命的極度危險

  • that healthy immune systems can normally handle.

    那是健康的免疫系統通常可以解決的

  • This stage of HIV infection is known as AIDS.

    這階段的 HIV 感染就是你我熟知的愛滋病

  • The good news is there are drugs that are highly effective

    好消息是有一些藥

  • at managing levels of HIV

    在控制 HIV 的程度有高度成效

  • and preventing T cell counts from getting low enough for the disease to progress to AIDS.

    並防止輔助 T 細胞的數量降低到足以讓病情演變成愛滋病

  • With antiretroviral therapy,

    有了抗反轉錄病毒療法

  • most HIV-positive people can expect to live long and healthy lives,

    大部分的 HIV 陽性反應者能預期活得長久又健康

  • and are much less likely to infect others.

    而且不太會感染給他人

  • However, there are two major catches.

    不過有兩個大問題

  • One is that HIV-positive patients must keep taking their drugs for the rest of their lives.

    第一、 HIV 陽性反應患者在往後的日子裡一定要持續服藥

  • Without them, the virus can make a deadly comeback.

    少了這些藥,病毒就會回復而且致命

  • So, how do these drugs work?

    這些藥如何發生作用呢

  • The most commonly prescribed ones prevent the viral genome from being copied

    最常開出的藥能避免病毒的基因組複製

  • and incorporated into a host cell's DNA.

    及被整合進宿主細胞的 DNA 裡頭

  • Other drugs prevent the virus from maturing or assembling,

    其他的藥則不讓病毒成熟或是組合

  • causing HIV to be unable to infect new cells in the body.

    造成 HIV 無法感染身體的新細胞

  • But HIV hides out somewhere our current drugs cannot reach it:

    但是 HIV 深藏於最新藥方仍無法碰觸的某處:

  • inside the DNA of healthy T cells.

    健康的輔助 T 細胞的 DNA 裡面

  • Most T cells die shortly after being infected with HIV.

    大部分的輔助 T 細胞感染到 HIV 很快就會死亡

  • But in a tiny percentage,

    不過在極少百分比的情形下

  • the instructions for building more HIV viruses lie dormant,

    製造更多 HIV 病毒的指令會潛伏

  • sometimes for years.

    有時候還會長達數年

  • So even if we could wipe out every HIV virus from an infected person's body,

    因此即便我們可以將所有的 HIV 病毒趕出受感染者的身體

  • one of those T cells could activate and start spreading the virus again.

    潛伏指令的輔助 T 細胞能激活並再次開始傳播病毒

  • The other major catch is that not everyone in the world has access to the therapies that could save their lives.

    另一個問題就是並非世界上的所有人都能拿到可能救其一命的療法

  • In Sub-Saharan Africa, which accounts for over 70% of HIV patients worldwide,

    在亞薩哈拉非洲有著世界上超過 70% 的 HIV 病患

  • antiretrovirals reached only about one in three HIV-positive patients in 2012.

    2012 年抗反轉錄病毒療法只能及於大約1/3 的 HIV 陽性反應病患

  • There is no easy answer to this problem.

    這個問題並不容易解決

  • A mix of political, economic and cultural barriers

    夾雜了政治和經濟還有文化的隔閡

  • makes effective prevention and treatment difficult.

    使得有效的防護以及治療很難做到

  • And even in the U.S., HIV still claims more than 10,000 lives per year.

    即便在美國每年 HIV 照樣奪走一萬多條人命

  • However, there is ample cause for hope.

    然而還是有足夠的理由可以盼望

  • Researchers may be closer than ever to developing a true cure.

    研究人員比以前更有可能做出真正的解藥

  • One research approach involves

    有一個研究方法涉及

  • using a drug to activate all cells harboring the HIV genetic information.

    利用藥物活化所有藏著 HIV 基因資訊的細胞

  • This would both destroy those cells and flush the virus out into the open,

    這將會一併摧毀這些細胞以及讓病毒趕出細胞外

  • where our current drugs are effective.

    在那裡最新的藥物是起的了作用的

  • Another is looking to use genetic tools

    另一個則是打算利用基因工具

  • to cut the HIV DNA out of cells genomes altogether.

    把 HIV 的 DNA 全部趕出細胞的基因組

  • And while one cure out of 70 million cases may seem like terrible odds,

    7,000 萬個案例裡才一個被治癒可能看起來是非常糟糕的機率

  • one is immeasurably better than zero.

    一個還是遠遠勝過零個

  • We now know that a cure is possible,

    現在我們知道了治癒是有可能的

  • and that may give us what we need to beat HIV for good.

    這就可能帶給我們想永遠解決掉 HIV 所需要的東西

In 2008, something incredible happened: a man was cured of HIV.

在 2008 年發生了神奇的事情:一個男人的「人類免疫缺陷病毒」 (HIV) 被治好了

字幕與單字
已審核 字幕已審核

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 細胞 病毒 輔助 病患 陽性

【TED-Ed】AIDS / HIV 為什麼這麼難治癒 (Why it’s so hard to cure HIV/AIDS - Janet Iwasa)

  • 12719 1110
    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2015 年 07 月 12 日
影片單字