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  • How many of you have been to Oklahoma City?

    你們當中有幾位到過俄克拉荷馬市?

  • Raise your hand. Yeah?

    請舉一下手

  • How many of you have not been to Oklahoma City

    有幾位沒到過俄克拉荷馬市

  • and have no idea who I am? (Laughter)

    而且完全不清楚我是誰? (笑聲)

  • Most of you. Let me give you a little bit of background.

    大部分的人啊 那給個背景資料好了

  • Oklahoma City started in the most

    俄克拉荷馬市以十分特別

  • unique way imaginable.

    想都想不到的方式崛起

  • Back on a spring day in 1889,

    在1889年的春天

  • the federal government held what they called

    聯邦政府用他們稱為

  • a land run.

    「土地開跑」的方式開放土地

  • They literally lined up the settlers

    他們直接請移民者排好隊

  • along an imaginary line,

    在假想線上

  • and they fired off a gun,

    然後下令放一槍

  • and the settlers roared across the countryside

    移居人就開始咆哮奔馳過郊外

  • and put down a stake,

    然後叉下一根棒子

  • and wherever they put down that stake,

    所到之處叉下的那根棒子

  • that was their new home.

    就成了他們的新家

  • And at the end of the very first day,

    就在那天結束前

  • the population of Oklahoma City

    俄克拉荷馬市的人口

  • had gone from zero to 10,000,

    從零迅速增到一萬多人

  • and our planning department

    而我們的企劃部

  • is still paying for that.

    至今仍在為此買單

  • The citizens got together on that first day

    當天人民也聚在一起

  • and elected a mayor.

    推選了一位做市長

  • And then they shot him.

    然後把他給槍殺了

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • That's not really all that funny

    這可不好笑

  • -- (Laughter) --

    --(笑聲)--

  • but it allows me to see what type of audience

    但讓我更清楚我的觀眾屬哪類

  • I'm dealing with, so I appreciate the feedback.

    所以很感謝您的反饋

  • The 20th century was fairly kind to Oklahoma City.

    20世紀待俄克拉荷馬市不薄

  • Our economy was based on commodities,

    我們的經濟建立在商品上

  • so the price of cotton or the price of wheat,

    包括棉花的價格,小麥的價格

  • and ultimately the price of oil and natural gas.

    最後到油價和天然氣的價格

  • And along the way, we became a city

    這一路上,我們變成一座

  • of innovation.

    充滿創新的城市

  • The shopping cart was invented in Oklahoma City.

    購物手推車是在俄克拉荷馬市發明的

  • (Applause)

    (鼓掌)

  • The parking meter, invented in Oklahoma City.

    停車收費器也是在俄克拉荷馬市發明的

  • You're welcome.

    別客氣

  • Having an economy, though,

    建立在日用品上的經濟

  • that relates to commodities can give you some ups and some downs,

    會一直給你跌跌幅幅

  • and that was certainly the case in Oklahoma City's history.

    確實也在俄克拉荷馬市的歷史上發生過

  • In the 1970s, when it appeared

    1970年

  • that the price of energy would never retreat,

    能源的價格不斷衝高

  • our economy was soaring,

    我們的經濟也因此受惠

  • and then in the early 1980s, it cratered quickly.

    到了80年初,經濟迅速降溫

  • The price of energy dropped.

    能源價下滑

  • Our banks began to fail.

    我們的銀行開始關門大吉

  • Before the end of the decade,

    要到80年末時

  • 100 banks had failed in the state of Oklahoma.

    俄克拉荷馬市已有一百家銀行倒閉

  • There was no bailout on the horizon.

    盼望不到任何緊急援助

  • Our banking industry, our oil and gas industry,

    我們的銀行業,石油和氣油產業,

  • our commercial real estate industry,

    商業房產產業

  • were all at the bottom of the economic scale.

    全都陷入經濟的谷底

  • Young people were leaving Oklahoma City in droves

    年輕人成群結隊地離開俄克拉荷馬市

  • for Washington and Dallas and Houston and New York and Tokyo,

    到華盛頓、達拉斯、休斯頓、紐約、東京等城市

  • anywhere where they could find a job that measured up

    任何能讓他們找到工作的地方

  • to their educational attainment,

    讓自己的學識派上用場的地方

  • because in Oklahoma City, the good jobs just weren't there.

    因為在俄克拉荷馬市,好工作已不復存在了

  • But along at the end of the '80s

    但到了80年代後期

  • came an enterprising businessman

    來了一位富有膽識的企業家

  • who became mayor named Ron Norick.

    事後成了市長 他叫羅納德•諾裡克

  • Ron Norick eventually figured out

    羅納德•諾裡克最後發現

  • that the secret to economic development

    經濟發展的秘密

  • wasn't incentivizing companies up front,

    首要做的並不是先給予公司獎勵

  • it was about creating a place where businesses wanted to locate,

    而是創造一個企業會想來長駐的地方

  • and so he pushed an initiative called MAPS

    所以他推動了「都會區域計畫」(MAPS)

  • that basically was a penny-on-the-dollar sales tax

    基本上就是每一美元就收走一分錢的銷售稅

  • to build a bunch of stuff.

    作為建造的用途

  • It built a new sports arena,

    建造了新的運動場

  • a new canal downtown,

    建造了位於城市商業區的新運河

  • it fixed up our performing arts center,

    修繕了我們的表演藝術中心

  • a new baseball stadium downtown,

    位於城市商業區新的棒球場

  • a lot of things to improve the quality of life.

    許多作為以改善生活品質

  • And the economy indeed seemed to start

    然後經濟好像也確實開始

  • showing some signs of life.

    顯現一些生命力

  • The next mayor came along.

    接著下一任的市長上任了

  • He started MAPS for Kids,

    他開始為孩子推出「都會區域計畫」

  • rebuilt the entire inner city school system,

    重建整座內都市的學制

  • all 75 buildings either built anew or refurbished.

    全部75棟建築物不是新建就是翻修

  • And then, in 2004,

    接下來,到了2004年

  • in this rare collective lack of judgment

    在看法上極少有交集的居民

  • bordering on civil disobedience,

    對政府大都採取不合作的態度

  • the citizens elected me mayor.

    他們推選我作市長

  • Now the city I inherited

    現在我繼承的這座城市

  • was just on the verge

    才剛要從

  • of coming out of its slumbering economy,

    經濟不振的邊緣站出來

  • and for the very first time,

    我們頭一次

  • we started showing up on the lists.

    出現在排名的列表上

  • Now you know the lists I'm talking about.

    現在你就懂我說的是什麼列表了

  • The media and the Internet

    就是媒體和網路

  • love to rank cities.

    喜好為城市排名

  • And in Oklahoma City,

    而俄克拉荷馬市

  • we'd never really been on lists before.

    之前從未真的列入任何排名

  • So I thought it was kind of cool

    我直覺這還挺酷的

  • when they came out with these positive lists and we were on there.

    我們的名字出現在這些正面的排名上

  • We weren't anywhere close to the top,

    雖然與第一名相差甚遠

  • but we were on the list, we were somebody.

    但卻出現在排名上,我們是大人物了

  • Best city to get a job,

    我們成了就業的最佳城市

  • best city to start a business,

    創業的最佳城市

  • best downtown --

    最棒的城市商業區

  • Oklahoma City.

    就在俄克拉荷馬市

  • And then came the list

    緊接著出現這樣的排名

  • of the most obese cities in the country.

    美國過胖人口最多的城市

  • And there we were.

    赫然地發現我們的名字

  • Now I like to point out that we were on that list

    我想跟你們說眀那排名表上

  • with a lot of really cool places.

    我們還跟許多很酷的城市排名在一起

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Dallas and Houston and New Orleans

    達拉斯、休斯頓、紐奧良

  • and Atlanta and Miami.

    亞特蘭大和邁阿密

  • You know, these are cities that, typically,

    你也知道,跟這些城市排名在一起

  • you're not embarrassed to be associated with.

    普通並不會感到尷尬的

  • But nonetheless, I didn't like being on the list.

    但我仍舊不喜歡出現在那份排名表上

  • And about that time, I got on the scales.

    就在那個時候,我踏上體重機

  • And I weighed 220 pounds.

    我的體重達220磅

  • And then I went to this website

    然後我就去到一個網站

  • sponsored by the federal government,

    由聯邦政府贊助的

  • and I typed in my height, I typed in my weight,

    鍵入我的身高,體重

  • and I pushed Enter,

    然後按鍵盤上的「輸入」按鍵

  • and it came back and said "obese."

    緊接著出現回覆:「過胖」

  • I thought, "What a stupid website."

    我心想:「這網站可蠢爆了。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • "I'm not obese. I would know if I was obese."

    心想:「我哪裡胖過頭了,若我有又怎可能不自知呢!」

  • And then I started getting honest with myself

    然後我開始誠誠實實的面對自己

  • about what had become my lifelong struggle with obesity,

    這也造就了我與肥胖的終生對抗

  • and I noticed this pattern,

    然後我注意到此模式

  • that I was gaining about two or three pounds a year,

    那就是我每年體重就會增加2到3磅

  • and then about every 10 years, I'd drop 20 or 30 pounds.

    然後每10年,我就會甩掉20到30磅

  • And then I'd do it again.

    然後整個循環再度開始

  • And I had this huge closet full of clothes,

    我有超大的衣櫃,裝滿了衣服

  • and I could only wear a third of it at any one time,

    每次都只穿的下衣櫃裡3分之1的衣裳

  • and only I knew which part of the closet I could wear.

    而且也只有我心知肚明 衣櫃裡哪部分是我穿得下的

  • But it all seemed fairly normal, going through it.

    但當年也沒覺得哪不對勁,感覺挺正常的

  • Well, I finally decided I needed to lose weight,

    總之,我終於下定決心我需要減重

  • and I knew I could because I'd done it so many times before,

    過去無數減重的經驗告訴我做得到

  • so I simply stopped eating as much.

    我很單純的減少飲食的量

  • I had always exercised.

    我一直都有做運動

  • That really wasn't the part of the equation

    所以運動並不是

  • that I needed to work on.

    我最需要努力的地方

  • But I had been eating 3,000 calories a day,

    但我一天吃進3,000多的卡路里

  • and I cut it to 2,000 calories a day,

    我把它降到一天2,000多的卡路里

  • and the weight came off. I lost about a pound a week

    體重開始下降兒-每週減一磅

  • for about 40 weeks.

    就這樣持續了40週

  • Along the way, though,

    就在這期間

  • I started examining my city,

    我開始仔細勘察我的城市

  • its culture, its infrastructure,

    它的文化,它的基礎建設

  • trying to figure out why our specific city

    絞盡腦筋想要了解

  • seemed to have a problem with obesity.

    怎麼我們的城市會有過胖的問題

  • And I came to the conclusion

    然後我下了結論

  • that we had built an incredible quality of life

    那就是我們建造了最佳的生活品質

  • if you happen to be a car.

    如果你恰好是一輛車的話

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But if you happen to be a person,

    但若你是人的話

  • you are combatting the car seemingly at every turn.

    似乎每轉個彎都能碰到車

  • Our city is very spread out.

    我們的城市遼闊無際

  • We have a great intersection of highways,

    我們的公路擁有很棒的十字路口

  • I mean, literally no traffic congestion in Oklahoma City to speak of.

    俄克拉荷馬市根本就沒有「交通堵塞」這四個字眼

  • And so people live far, far away.

    所以人們都住得很遠

  • Our city limits are enormous, 620 square miles,

    我們城市的車速路程很長- 620平方英里

  • but 15 miles is less than 15 minutes.

    也就是說行駛15英里的路花不到15分鐘

  • You literally can get a speeding ticket

    若這情況發生在俄克拉荷馬市的塞車尖峰時段

  • during rush hour in Oklahoma City.

    是會被開超速的罰單

  • And as a result, people tend to spread out.

    結果人們都傾向於住得很遠

  • Land's cheap.

    土地便宜嘛

  • We had also not required developers

    我們也很久沒要求開發商

  • to build sidewalks on new developments for a long, long time.

    在新的建設上設人行道

  • We had fixed that, but it had been relatively recently,

    我們也在近期解決了此問題

  • and there were literally 100,000

    有10萬或更多的房子

  • or more homes into our inventory

    在我們的編制中

  • in neighborhoods that had virtually no level of walkability.

    包括根本沒有可步行性的社區

  • And as I tried to examine

    在我試著審視

  • how we might deal with obesity,

    如何解決過胖的問題

  • and was taking all of these elements into my mind,

    納入各種考量因素後

  • I decided that the first thing we need to do

    我決定該優先處理的

  • was have a conversation.

    就是我們需要好好的談一談

  • You see, in Oklahoma City,

    因為在俄克拉荷馬市

  • we weren't talking about obesity.

    我們都不談論過胖的問題

  • And so, on New Year's Eve of 2007,

    所以在2007年的除夕

  • I went to the zoo,

    我去到動物園

  • and I stood in front of the elephants,

    站在大象的前面

  • and I said, "This city is going on a diet,

    然後說: 「這個城市要開始減重了,

  • and we're going to lose a million pounds."

    我們要甩掉100萬磅。」

  • Well, that's when all hell broke loose.

    這是驚天動地的大事啊

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • The national media

    全國媒體的注意力

  • gravitated toward this story immediately,

    瞬間聚焦在這事上

  • and they really could have gone with it one of two ways.

    處理這樣的報導有兩種方向

  • They could have said,

    他們大可說:

  • "This city is so fat

    「這座城市真是胖到

  • that the mayor had to put them on a diet."

    連市長都得強迫他們減肥了。」

  • But fortunately, the consensus was,

    好在媒體都一致報導:

  • "Look, this is a problem in a lot of places.

    「嘿,很多地方也面臨肥胖的問題,

  • This is a city that's wanting to do something about it."

    但這座城市願意面對、著手處理這個問題」

  • And so they started helping us

    然後他們開始給予我們協助

  • drive traffic to the website.

    造成網路擁塞

  • Now, the web address was

    網址為:

  • thiscityisgoingonadiet.com.

    thiscityisgoingonadiet.com. (譯:這座城市要減重了)

  • And I appeared on "The Ellen DeGeneres Show"

    後來我出現在「 艾倫•狄珍妮秀 」的脫口秀

  • one weekday morning to talk about the initiative,

    某工作日的早晨要談「都會區域計畫」

  • and on that day, 150,000 visits

    就在那天,創下了15萬訪客

  • were placed to our website.

    登錄這個網站

  • People were signing up,

    人們開始註冊

  • and so the pounds started to add up,

    體重也開始一磅一磅的增添上來

  • and the conversation that I thought

    我認為談肥胖症的重要性

  • was so important to have was starting to take place.

    也開始陸續發生在多種場所

  • It was taking place inside the homes,

    像是在家裡面

  • mothers and fathers talking about it with their kids.

    爸媽會跟孩子談過胖的事

  • It was taking place in churches.

    也開始出現在教會裡

  • Churches were starting their own running groups

    教堂開始組自己的跑步團隊

  • and their own support groups

    和支持團體

  • for people who were dealing with obesity.

    為對抗過胖的人盡一份心力

  • Suddenly, it was a topic worth discussing at schools

    一夕間,過胖成了校園和工作場所

  • and in the workplace.

    值得談論的話題

  • And the large companies, they typically have

    大公司普遍都有提供

  • wonderful wellness programs,

    很棒的員工保健計畫

  • but the medium-sized companies

    但對於中小公司而言

  • that typically fall between the cracks on issues like this,

    在這議題上卻力不從心

  • they started to get engaged and used our program

    他們也開始採納我們的健康計畫

  • as a model for their own employees

    給他們的員工做參考

  • to try and have contests to see

    然後藉由試辦比賽

  • who might be able to deal with their obesity situation

    找出誰的方法不僅能夠利已

  • in a way that could be proactively beneficial to others.

    還能在解決過胖的問題中對他人有利

  • And then came the next stage of the equation.

    這就到了計畫裡的下一個階段

  • It was time to push what I called MAPS 3.

    該是推動我稱做「都會區域計畫3」 的時候了

  • Now MAPS 3, like the other two programs,

    就像前兩項計畫一樣

  • had had an economic development motive behind it,

    背後都支撐著經濟發展的動力

  • but along with the traditional economic development tasks

    但隨著傳統經濟發展的項目

  • like building a new convention center,

    像建造新的會議中心

  • we added some health-related infrastructure

    我們就在建造的過程中

  • to the process.

    加入一些有益健康的基礎建設

  • We added a new central park, 70 acres in size,

    我們也增添了一座70英畝大的中央公園

  • to be right downtown in Oklahoma City.

    就在俄克拉荷馬市城市商業區

  • We're building a downtown streetcar

    我們也在城市商業區建造有軌電車

  • to try and help the walkability formula

    試著幫助選擇住在內都市的人

  • for people who choose to live in the inner city

    提供更多可行走的方式

  • and help us create the density there.

    進而幫助我們製造人口密集度

  • We're building senior health and wellness centers

    我們正在建造老人健康和保健中心

  • throughout the community.

    遍及整個社區

  • We put some investments on the river

    我們也在河流方面做了投資

  • that had originally been invested upon

    這項投資原本

  • in the original MAPS,

    就列在「都會區域計畫」裡

  • and now we are currently in the final stages

    目前也到了最後一個階段

  • of developing the finest venue in the world

    開發全世界最棒的地點

  • for the sports of canoe, kayak and rowing.

    做為划獨木舟、小皮艇、划船等運動的地方

  • We hosted the Olympic trials last spring.

    去年春天我們為奧林匹克舉辦選拔賽

  • We have Olympic-caliber events coming to Oklahoma City,

    也有水準高達奧林匹克的比賽項目來到本市舉辦

  • and athletes from all over the world moving in,

    世界各地的運動員也到這進駐

  • along with inner city programs

    內都市的計畫還包括吸引孩子

  • to get kids more engaged in these types of recreational activities

    更加積極參與這類型的娛樂活動

  • that are a little bit nontraditional.

    這些與傳統基礎建設顯得較為不同

  • We also, with another initiative that was passed,

    我們還通過了另一項計劃