Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • There is an entire genre of YouTube videos

    YouTube 裡有一整類這種影片

  • devoted to an experience which

    我敢肯定在場所有人都有和 影片裡一樣的經歷

  • I am certain that everyone in this room has had.

    它會找來一個人

  • It entails an individual who,

    讓他覺得只有他自己在場

  • thinking they're alone,

    然後讓他做一些表達自己的行為

  • engages in some expressive behavior

    比如大聲唱歌,誇張地跳舞,

  • wild singing, gyrating dancing,

    或者一些性感動作

  • some mild sexual activity

    當這個人發現他並非獨處

  • only to discover that, in fact, they are not alone,

    其實有人在看偷著他時

  • that there is a person watching and lurking,

    這個發現會使他立刻停止正在做的事情

  • the discovery of which causes them

    並且非常驚恐

  • to immediately cease what they were doing

    他們臉上很明顯的是羞辱和丟臉的表情

  • in horror.

    顯然

  • The sense of shame and humiliation

    這些動作是在沒有別人看時

  • in their face is palpable.

    才願意做的

  • It's the sense of,

    這正是我在最近16個月內 所專心研究的重點:

  • "This is something I'm willing to do

    為什麼隱私這麼重要?

  • only if no one else is watching."

    一個引起世界辯論的話題

  • This is the crux of the work

    它由愛德華 斯諾登的揭密而引起

  • on which I have been singularly focused

    他揭露美國和其同盟

  • for the last 16 months,

    瞞著整個世界

  • the question of why privacy matters,

    把網路

  • a question that has arisen

    這個曾經預示著民主和自由的 前所未有的工具

  • in the context of a global debate,

    轉變成前所未有的用來 肆意監視大眾的空間

  • enabled by the revelations of Edward Snowden

    在這場辯論中有一個普遍的論點

  • that the United States and its partners,

    甚至包括那些對於廣泛監視 感到很不舒服的人

  • unbeknownst to the entire world,

    認為這種大範圍的侵入並沒有實質的傷害

  • has converted the Internet,

    因為只有做壞事的人才有理由想隱藏

  • once heralded as an unprecedented tool

    才會在乎他們的隱私

  • of liberation and democratization,

    這種世界觀隱含著一個議題

  • into an unprecedented zone

    這個世界上有兩種人: 好人和壞人

  • of mass, indiscriminate surveillance.

    壞人是那些圖謀恐怖襲擊或者 參與暴力犯罪的人

  • There is a very common sentiment

    所以他們有理由想要隱藏他們做的事情

  • that arises in this debate,

    有理由要保護他們的隱私

  • even among people who are uncomfortable

    而相反的

  • with mass surveillance, which says

    好人是那些每天去工作

  • that there is no real harm

    回家,帶孩子,看電視的人

  • that comes from this large-scale invasion

    他們不會用網路來策劃炸彈襲擊

  • because only people who are engaged in bad acts

    而是為了看新聞,交流食譜,

  • have a reason to want to hide

    或者計劃孩子的少年棒球比賽

  • and to care about their privacy.

    這些人沒做任何壞事

  • This worldview is implicitly grounded

    所以沒有什麼好隱藏的

  • in the proposition that there are two kinds of people in the world,

    也沒有理由害怕政府監視他們

  • good people and bad people.

    說這些話的人

  • Bad people are those who plot terrorist attacks

    其實是在極大的自我貶低

  • or who engage in violent criminality

    他們其實是在說

  • and therefore have reasons to want to hide what they're doing,

    我同意讓我自己成為

  • have reasons to care about their privacy.

    一個不會傷害他人,沒有威脅性, 又無趣的人

  • But by contrast, good people

    這樣我就不會害怕政府知道我在做什麼

  • are people who go to work,

    我發現這種心態

  • come home, raise their children, watch television.

    和 2009 年谷歌 CEO 艾瑞克 施密特接受採訪時

  • They use the Internet not to plot bombing attacks

    回答關於他的公司以各種方式

  • but to read the news or exchange recipes

    侵犯全世界幾億人的隱私的問題時

  • or to plan their kids' Little League games,

    所做出的回應是純然一致的

  • and those people are doing nothing wrong

    他說,如果你在做的事情是你不希望 讓別人知道的

  • and therefore have nothing to hide

    那麼或許你從開始就不應該做這件事

  • and no reason to fear

    對於這種理念有各種各樣的說法

  • the government monitoring them.

    第一種說法認為那些說隱私並不重要的人

  • The people who are actually saying that

    並不真正相信隱私不重要

  • are engaged in a very extreme act

    怎樣知道他們並不相信呢?

  • of self-deprecation.

    在他們說隱私並不重要的同時

  • What they're really saying is,

    他們的行為卻是想方設法

  • "I have agreed to make myself

    保衛他們的隱私

  • such a harmless and unthreatening

    他們給郵件設上密碼

  • and uninteresting person that I actually don't fear

    還有社交網絡帳號

  • having the government know what it is that I'm doing."

    他們給房門和廁所門上鎖

  • This mindset has found what I think

    通過各種方法防止他人

  • is its purest expression

    進入他們自認的私人空間

  • in a 2009 interview with

    其實他們很清楚他們不想讓別人 知道的事情

  • the longtime CEO of Google, Eric Schmidt, who,

    同樣的,谷歌CEO艾瑞克 施密特

  • when asked about all the different ways his company

    命令他在谷歌的員工

  • is causing invasions of privacy

    停止一切與網路雜誌 CNET (科技資訊網)的交流

  • for hundreds of millions of people around the world,

    因為 CNET 發表了一篇文章

  • said this: He said,

    透露了大量的艾瑞克 施密特的個人信息

  • "If you're doing something that you don't want

    這些信息其實是完全通過谷歌搜索

  • other people to know,

    和其他谷歌產品獲得的(笑聲)

  • maybe you shouldn't be doing it in the first place."

    相同的情況也發生在 Facebook 的 CEO 馬克 扎克伯格身上

  • Now, there's all kinds of things to say about

    他在 2010 年那個聲名狼藉的採訪上

  • that mentality,

    斷言隱私已經不再是一個“社會規範”

  • the first of which is that the people who say that,

    去年,馬克 扎克伯格和他的新任妻子

  • who say that privacy isn't really important,

    在帕洛阿爾托(美國舊金附近城市) 不止購買了他們的房子,

  • they don't actually believe it,

    並且買了相鄰四個房子 總值三千萬美元

  • and the way you know that they don't actually believe it

    為了確保他們享有足夠的私人空間

  • is that while they say with their words that privacy doesn't matter,

    防止人們監視他們的私人生活

  • with their actions, they take all kinds of steps

    在過去的十六個月, 我一直在世界各地遊說這個問題

  • to safeguard their privacy.

    每當有人跟我說

  • They put passwords on their email

    ”我真的不擔心隱私受到侵犯,

  • and their social media accounts,

    因為我沒有什麼需要隱藏的。”

  • they put locks on their bedroom

    我總是對他們回答一樣的話

  • and bathroom doors,

    我拿出一支筆,寫下我的郵箱地址

  • all steps designed to prevent other people

    我說:“這是我的郵箱,

  • from entering what they consider their private realm

    我希望回家之後把你所有郵箱賬號的 密碼發給我,

  • and knowing what it is that they don't want other people to know.

    不僅僅是你工作上用的那些 一本正經的郵箱

  • The very same Eric Schmidt, the CEO of Google,

    我要所有的

  • ordered his employees at Google

    因為我就是想讀遍所有你的網上記錄

  • to cease speaking with the online

    然後將我認為有趣的內容發表出來

  • Internet magazine CNET

    畢竟你不是個壞人 你沒做什麼壞事

  • after CNET published an article

    你就沒什麼好隱藏的“

  • full of personal, private information

    沒有任何一個人接受我的提議

  • about Eric Schmidt,

    我查過(掌聲)

  • which it obtained exclusively through Google searches

    我一直在認真的查看那個郵箱

  • and using other Google products. (Laughter)

    那裡一直很荒涼

  • This same division can be seen

    這是有原因的

  • with the CEO of Facebook, Mark Zuckerberg,

    因為我們作為人類

  • who in an infamous interview in 2010

    即使一些人嘴上否認隱私的重要性

  • pronounced that privacy is no longer

    但他們心裡很清楚它深遠的重要性

  • a "social norm."

    事實上,作為人類,我們是社會性動物

  • Last year, Mark Zuckerberg and his new wife

    這意味著我們需要其他人

  • purchased not only their own house

    知道我們在做什麼,說什麼,想什麼

  • but also all four adjacent houses in Palo Alto

    這也是為什麼我們自願的在網上 發佈自己的信息

  • for a total of 30 million dollars

    但是和成為一個自由的、完整的人類 同等重要的是

  • in order to ensure that they enjoyed a zone of privacy

    我們需要有一個地方完全遠離 其他人批判的目光

  • that prevented other people from monitoring

    為什麼我們要找到這樣一個地方 原因是我們所有人

  • what they do in their personal lives.

    -並非只有那些恐怖分子者和罪犯,而是我們所有人-

  • Over the last 16 months, as I've debated this issue around the world,

    都有想要隱藏的東西

  • every single time somebody has said to me,

    許多我們做的、想的各種各樣的事情

  • "I don't really worry about invasions of privacy

    我們只願意告訴自己的醫生,

  • because I don't have anything to hide."

    或者律師,或者心理醫生, 或者配偶,或者好朋友。

  • I always say the same thing to them.

    如果全世界都知道我們會覺得很囧

  • I get out a pen, I write down my email address.

    我們每天都會判斷

  • I say, "Here's my email address.

    某些我們說的、想的、做的某些事情

  • What I want you to do when you get home

    我們願意讓別人知道

  • is email me the passwords

    還有某些我們說的、想的、做的某些事情

  • to all of your email accounts,

    我們不願意讓別人知道

  • not just the nice, respectable work one in your name,

    人們可以很輕易地以言語宣稱

  • but all of them,

    他們不在乎他們的隱私

  • because I want to be able to just troll through

    但他們的行為卻在否定 他們所相信的真實性

  • what it is you're doing online,

    這有一個原因為什麼人們如此 普遍地且本能地渴望隱私

  • read what I want to read and publish whatever I find interesting.

    這不僅僅是個反射性動作

  • After all, if you're not a bad person,

    像呼吸和喝水那樣

  • if you're doing nothing wrong,

    原因是當在我們在一種狀態裡

  • you should have nothing to hide."

    我們可能被監視著,被看著的時候

  • Not a single person has taken me up on that offer.

    我們的行為會有巨大的改變

  • I check and — (Applause)

    我們所考量的不同行為的範圍

  • I check that email account religiously all the time.

    在我們被觀察者的時候

  • It's a very desolate place.

    會大幅縮小

  • And there's a reason for that,

    這就是人類的本性的事實

  • which is that we as human beings,

    已被社會科學、

  • even those of us who in words

    文學、宗教

  • disclaim the importance of our own privacy,

    以及幾乎所有學科領域所公認

  • instinctively understand

    許多心理學研究證明

  • the profound importance of it.

    當一個人知道他可能在被看著

  • It is true that as human beings, we're social animals,

    他的行為會尤其地順從

  • which means we have a need for other people

    人的羞恥心是一個強大的動力

  • to know what we're doing and saying and thinking,

    以避免受辱

  • which is why we voluntarily publish information about ourselves online.

    這就是為什麼

  • But equally essential to what it means

    人們在被看著的情況下所做的決定

  • to be a free and fulfilled human being

    並非他們自己機體的副產品

  • is to have a place that we can go

    而是別人對他們的期望或者是 社會正統所要求的

  • and be free of the judgmental eyes of other people.

    對於這件現象的認識

  • There's a reason why we seek that out,

    被十八世紀的實用主義哲學家 杰裡米 邊沁為了務實的目的大為利用

  • and our reason is that all of us

    以解決了工業時期出現的一個 很重要的問題

  • not just terrorists and criminals, all of us

    就是當組織體系初次大幅擴張和 權力的集中以致於

  • have things to hide.

    人們無法進行監視

  • There are all sorts of things that we do and think

    和控制到他們組織的每一個份子

  • that we're willing to tell our physician

    邊沁的解決方案是

  • or our lawyer or our psychologist or our spouse

    一個建築學設計

  • or our best friend that we would be mortified

    本來的目的是用於監獄

  • for the rest of the world to learn.

    他稱之為全景監獄

  • We make judgments every single day

    其主要特徵是將一個巨大的塔 建立在組織機構的中間

  • about the kinds of things that we say and think and do

    這樣組織的統治者就可以隨時監視 其中的任一個囚犯

  • that we're willing to have other people know,

    雖然他不能一直看著所有的人

  • and the kinds of things that we say and think and do

    這個設計的關鍵處在於

  • that we don't want anyone else to know about.

    犯人無法看到塔的内部

  • People can very easily in words claim

    所以他們永遠無法知道

  • that they don't value their privacy,

    自己是否或者什麼時候是在被監視著的

  • but their actions negate the authenticity of that belief.

    這個發現讓邊沁非常興奮

  • Now, there's a reason why privacy is so craved

    因為這意味著囚犯們會假定

  • universally and instinctively.

    他們隨時隨地是被監視著的

  • It isn't just a reflexive movement

    這種假定成為了順從和服從的終極實施者

  • like breathing air or drinking water.

    二十世紀法國哲學家米歇爾 福柯

  • The reason is that when we're in a state

    意識到這個模型不僅可以用於監獄

  • where we can be monitored, where we can be watched,

    它可以用於任何控制人類行為的機構

  • our behavior changes dramatically.

    學校、醫院、工廠、工作場所

  • The range of behavioral options that we consider

    而且他說這種思維模式 邊沁發明的這種結構

  • when we think we're being watched

    是現代西方社會進行社會控制的主要手段

  • severely reduce.

    讓社會不再需要公然的使用暴政的武器

  • This is just a fact of human nature

    -懲罰,或者投送監獄, 或者處死異議者,

  • that has been recognized in social science

    或者合法地強迫人民對一個政黨的忠誠

  • and in literature and in religion

    因為廣泛的監控

  • and in virtually every field of discipline.

    會在人腦中形成一個監獄

  • There are dozens of psychological studies

    這是一個非常微妙的 且更加有效的

  • that prove that when somebody knows

    使人服從社會規範 或者社會正統的方法

  • that they might be watched,

    這是暴力手段遠不能及的

  • the behavior they engage in

    關於監視和隱私,最標誌性的文學表達 是喬治 奧威爾的小說《1984》

  • is vastly more conformist and compliant.

    我們在學校都學過,它都快成了 陳詞濫調了

  • Human shame is a very powerful motivator,

    事實上,在關於監視的討論中 不論什麼時候提到本書

  • as is the desire to avoid it,

    人們都立即忽略它

  • and that's the reason why people,

    認為它行不通,他們說:

  • when they're in a state of being watched, make decisions

    “在《1984》裡人們家裡都是監視器,

  • not that are the byproduct of their own agency

    他們無時無刻不被看著

  • but that are about the expectations

    這和我們所面對的國家監控是 不一樣的。”

  • that others have of them

    這其實是從根本上誤解奧威爾在《1984》裡提出的警告

  • or the mandates of societal orthodoxy.

    他所發出的警告

  • This realization was exploited most powerfully

    其實不是關於國家隨時隨地在監視人們

  • for pragmatic ends by the 18th- century philosopher Jeremy Bentham,

    而是人們知道他們可能隨時被監視着

  • who set out to resolve an important problem

    這是溫斯頓 史密斯, 奧威爾小說的敘述者,

  • ushered in by the industrial age,

    所描述的他們面對的監控系統:

  • where, for the first time, institutions had become

    “當然,你無從知道你何時在被監視著。”

  • so large and centralized

    他接著說:

  • that they were no longer able to monitor

    “但是,他們隨時想要是都可以插上 監視你的電線。

  • and therefore control each one of their individual members,

    你必須,也確實地活在一個漸漸變成 本能的習慣裡,

  • and the solution that he devised

    假定你發出的任何聲音都會被聽到,

  • was an architectural design

    和除了在黑暗中,你的所有的動作 被監視着。”

  • originally intended to be implemented in prisons

    亞伯拉罕教派也有類似的斷定

  • that he called the panopticon,

    有一個無形的、無所不知的權威

  • the primary attribute of which was the construction

    因為祂的全知全能

  • of an enormous tower in the center of the institution

    總是在看你在做什麼

  • where whoever controlled the institution

    意思就是你從來沒有一刻是私有的

  • could at any moment watch any of the inmates,

    這就是讓你對祂絕對服從最終執行者

  • although they couldn't watch all of them at all times.

    這些看似不同的手段

  • And crucial to this design

    最終的共同的結論是

  • was that the inmates could not actually

    一個人們隨時都在被監視的社會

  • see into the panopticon, into the tower,

    是在培養一致、順從、和屈服

  • and so they never knew

    這也是為什麼每一個暴君

  • if they were being watched or even when.

    從公然施暴的到暗中控制的

  • And what made him so excited about this discovery

    都渴望這種制度

  • was that that would mean that the prisoners

    相反的,而且更重要的是

  • would have to assume that they were being watched

    在一個有隱私的空間裡

  • at any given moment,

    我們可以去某處思考

  • which would be the ultimate enforcer

    辯論,互動,和發表言論

  • for obedience and compliance.

    而沒有別人投來的批判的目光

  • The 20th-century French philosopher Michel Foucault

    只有在此創新、探索

  • realized that that model could be used

    和異議可以存在

  • not just for prisons but for every institution

    這就是為什麼 當我們允許一個

  • that seeks to control human behavior:

    我們隨時被監控的社會存在

  • schools, hospitals, factories, workplaces.

    我們就是容許人類自由的本質慘遭蹂躪

  • And what he said was that this mindset,

    最後,我對這種心理的一個觀察是

  • this framework discovered by Bentham,

    這種認為只有做了錯事的人

  • was the key means of societal control

    才想隱藏,才關心隱私的思維模式

  • for modern, Western societies,

    它確立了兩個非常有害的信息

  • which no longer need

    兩個破壞性的教導

  • the overt weapons of tyranny

    第一個是

  • punishing or imprisoning or killing dissidents,

    只有那些關心隱私的人

  • or legally compelling loyalty to a particular party

    只有那些想得到隱私的人

  • because mass surveillance creates

    被自然的被定義為壞人

  • a prison in the mind

    這是一個我們應該用各種理由避免的結論

  • that is a much more subtle

    其中最重要的是

  • though much more effective means

    當你說“那個人在做壞事”時

  • of fostering compliance with social norms

    你可能是指謀劃恐怖襲擊

  • or with social orthodoxy,

    或參與暴力犯罪之類的事

  • much more effective

    這個概念比行使權力的人所指的“做壞事” 要狹窄的多

  • than brute force could ever be.

    對他們來說,“做壞事”基本上意思是

  • The most iconic work of literature about surveillance

    做對自己行使權利造成一定挑戰的事

  • and privacy is the George Orwell novel "1984,"

    另一個真正有破壞性的 而且我認為更加陰險的教導

  • which we all learn in school, and therefore it's almost become a cliche.

    來自於接受這種思維模式

  • In fact, whenever you bring it up in a debate about surveillance,

    這其中暗含一個交易

  • people instantaneously dismiss it

    接受這種思維模式的人同時 也接受了這個交易

  • as inapplicable, and what they say is,

    這個交易就是:

  • "Oh, well in '1984,' there were monitors in people's homes,

    只要你願意讓自己

  • they were being watched at every given moment,

    對那些行使政治權利的人不造成 傷害或威脅