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  • You may be wondering

    你也許正在猜想:

  • why a marine biologist from Oceana

    為什麼一個來自 海洋保育組織 (Oceana) 的海洋生物學家

  • would come here today to talk to you

    今天會來到這裡跟你們談

  • about world hunger.

    有關世界飢餓的議題?

  • I'm here today because

    我今天在這裡是因為

  • saving the oceans is more than an ecological desire.

    拯救海洋不只是生態上的需要,

  • It's more than a thing we're doing

    而是比我們做的事情還要更進一步,

  • because we want to create jobs for fishermen

    因為我們想要幫漁民創造工作,

  • or preserve fishermen's jobs.

    或者說是保住他們的飯碗。

  • It's more than an economic pursuit.

    拯救海洋也不只是追求經濟而已。

  • Saving the oceans can feed the world.

    拯救海洋可以 讓全世界的人有東西吃,

  • Let me show you how.

    我來告訴你們如何做得到。

  • As you know, there are already

    如各位所知,

  • more than a billion hungry people on this planet.

    這個星球上已經有超過10億人在挨餓,

  • We're expecting that problem to get worse

    我們預期這個情況會變得更糟,

  • as world population grows to nine billion

    當世界總人口數在21世紀中

  • or 10 billion by midcentury,

    成長到90億人或100億人時,

  • and we can expect to have greater pressure

    我們可以預見未來

  • on our food resources.

    食物供應的壓力會更加沉重。

  • And this is a big concern,

    這是很大的問題,

  • especially considering where we are now.

    尤其是考量到我們的現況,

  • Now we know that our arable land per capita

    我們都知道現在 每人的可耕地面積

  • is already on the decline

    一直在減少,

  • in both developed and developing countries.

    在已開發、開發中的國家都一樣。

  • We know that we're headed for climate change,

    我們知道世界正面臨氣候變遷,

  • which is going to change rainfall patterns,

    這改變了降雨的型態,

  • making some areas drier, as you can see in orange,

    使得某些地方更乾燥, 像是橘色標示處,

  • and others wetter, in blue,

    而其他地方卻更潮溼, 就是藍色標示處,

  • causing droughts in our breadbaskets,

    造成我們的小麥產區發生旱災,

  • in places like the Midwest and Central Europe,

    像是美國中西部與中歐等地區,

  • and floods in others.

    而其他地方則出現水災。

  • It's going to make it harder for the land

    這會使得土地越來越無法

  • to help us solve the hunger problem.

    幫我們解決飢餓問題,

  • And that's why the oceans need to be their most abundant,

    那就是海洋需要 維持多產豐富的原因,

  • so that the oceans can provide us

    如此一來海洋就能

  • as much food as possible.

    提供我們大量的食物。

  • And that's something the oceans have been doing

    那就是海洋長久以來一直

  • for us for a long time.

    在幫我們做的事情。

  • As far back as we can go, we've seen an increase

    我們越往回追溯,就可以發現

  • in the amount of food we've been able to harvest

    從海洋裡捕獲的食物數量增加,

  • from our oceans.

    捕獲量看起來持續增加,

  • It just seemed like it was continuing to increase,

    直到1980年左右,

  • until about 1980,

    我們才開始看到捕獲量減少。

  • when we started to see a decline.

    你們都聽過石油高峰,

  • You've heard of peak oil.

    也許這個就是漁獲高峰,

  • Maybe this is peak fish.

    但我希望不是, 我等一下會回來說明這點。

  • I hope not. I'm going to come back to that.

    你可以看到從1980年以後,

  • But you can see about an 18-percent decline

    全世界的漁獲量

  • in the amount of fish we've gotten in our world catch

    大概下降了18%,

  • since 1980.

    這是很嚴重的問題, 而且漁獲不停在減少,

  • And this is a big problem. It's continuing.

    這條紅線持續往下降。

  • This red line is continuing to go down.

    不過我們知道該如何讓它回升,

  • But we know how to turn it around,

    那就是今天我要跟大家談的東西,

  • and that's what I'm going to talk about today.

    我們知道如何讓這條線回升,

  • We know how to turn that curve back upwards.

    不一定得要達到漁獲高峰。

  • This doesn't have to be peak fish.

    如果我們在特定的地方 做到簡單的幾件事,

  • If we do a few simple things in targeted places,

    就可以恢復漁場,

  • we can bring our fisheries back and use them

    並且養活大家。

  • to feed people.

    首先我們要知道哪裡有魚群棲息,

  • First we want to know where the fish are,

    我們來看看魚群的棲息地。

  • so let's look where the fish are.

    很輕易地就能發現魚群

  • It turns out the fish, conveniently,

    大部分棲息在

  • are located for the most part

    臨海諸國的海岸區,

  • in our coastal areas of the countries,

    在海岸帶,

  • in coastal zones,

    而這些區域是國家的管轄範圍,

  • and these are areas that national jurisdictions

    這些國家可以管制

  • have control over,

    這些海岸區的漁場。

  • and they can manage their fisheries

    這些臨海諸國往往擁有

  • in these coastal areas.

    200海里水域的管轄權,

  • Coastal countries tend to have jurisdictions

    這些區域又叫做專屬經濟區,

  • that go out about 200 nautical miles,

    可以管制這些水域的漁場是件好事。

  • in areas that are called exclusive economic zones,

    因為在公海上,

  • and this is a good thing that they can control

    就是在地圖上這些暗色區塊,

  • their fisheries in these areas,

    管控公海會有一堆麻煩事,

  • because the high seas,

    因為那必須透過各國同意。

  • which are the darker areas on this map,

    你得要達成國際協議,

  • the high seas, it's a lot harder to control things,

    如果在座有人追蹤氣候變遷協議,

  • because it has to be done internationally.

    就會知道國際協議過程非常慢,

  • You get into international agreements,

    而且惱人、乏味。

  • and if any of you are tracking the climate change agreement,

    因此能在一國之內管理事物

  • you know this can be a very slow,

    是件很棒的事情。

  • frustrating, tedious process.

    相較於公海裡,

  • And so controlling things nationally

    到底有多少魚棲息在海岸區呢?

  • is a great thing to be able to do.

    你可以看到這裡,

  • How many fish are actually in these coastal areas

    海岸區的魚群比公海裡的還多七倍,

  • compared to the high seas?

    所以這是我們可以著重的絕佳地點,

  • Well, you can see here about

    因為我們真的能完成許多事。

  • seven times as many fish in the coastal areas

    要是我們著重在這些海岸區,

  • than there are in the high seas,

    就能回復許多漁場的場量。

  • so this is a perfect place for us to be focusing,

    但是我們得在多少國家裡工作呢?

  • because we can actually get a lot done.

    估計大概有80個濱海國家吧!

  • We can restore a lot of our fisheries

    我們得整頓每一個國家的漁業管理嗎?

  • if we focus in these coastal areas.

    因此我們自問:需要著重幾個國家呢?

  • But how many of these countries do we have to work in?

    要記得,歐盟

  • There's something like 80 coastal countries.

    只透過一個共同的漁場政策,

  • Do we have to fix fisheries management

    就輕鬆地管理好它的漁場。

  • in all of those countries?

    假使我們有很好的漁場管理政策,

  • So we asked ourselves, how many countries

    在歐盟、還有假設 其他九個國家都實施,

  • do we need to focus on,

    我們會涵蓋世界多大面積的漁場呢?

  • keeping in mind that the European Union

    歐盟加上九個國家的結果是

  • conveniently manages its fisheries

    涵蓋世界上三分之二的漁獲。

  • through a common fisheries policy?

    假若我們提高到有24個臨海國家 再加上整個歐盟的話,

  • So if we got good fisheries management

    我們的漁獲量就能達到90%,

  • in the European Union and, say, nine other countries,

    幾乎就是全世界的漁獲量了。

  • how much of our fisheries would we be covering?

    因此我們覺得只要在 少數的幾個國家做好事情,

  • Turns out, European Union plus nine countries

    就能讓全球的漁場產量恢復。

  • covers about two thirds of the world's fish catch.

    但是我們必須在這些地方 做些甚麼事呢?

  • If we took it up to 24 countries plus the European Union,

    依據我們在美國和其他地方的經驗得知,

  • we would up to 90 percent,

    我們必須做好三件重要事情,

  • almost all of the world's fish catch.

    才能把漁場恢復回來,

  • So we think we can work in a limited number of places

    那就是我們必須訂出 可捕捉漁獲量的配額或限額、

  • to make the fisheries come back.

    還有我們必須減少混獲量,

  • But what do we have to do in these places?

    這些不是我們預期 要捕捉、殺死的漁獲,

  • Well, based on our work in the United States

    這是非常浪費的事情。

  • and elsewhere, we know that there are

    第三 ,我們必須保護棲息地,

  • three key things we have to do

    像是孵育場、產卵區,

  • to bring fisheries back, and they are:

    這些魚需要能順利地成長與繁殖

  • We need to set quotas or limits

    才能恢復數量。

  • on how much we take;

    如果我們做到這三件事情, 漁場就會回復生機。

  • we need to reduce bycatch, which is the accidental

    我們怎麼知道呢?

  • catching and killing of fish that we're not targeting,

    因為我們已經在很多地方

  • and it's very wasteful;

    看到這事情不斷發生。

  • and three, we need to protect habitats,

    這張投影片

  • the nursery areas, the spawning areas

    顯示挪威的鯡魚數量

  • that these fish need to grow and reproduce successfully

    從1950年以來持續大量減少,

  • so that they can rebuild their populations.

    數量不斷驟減, 等到挪威設定漁場限額或配額,

  • If we do those three things, we know the fisheries will come back.

    你猜怎麼著?

  • How do we know?

    漁場的產量恢復了。

  • We know because we've seen it happening

    還有另一個案例也是發生在挪威,

  • in a lot of different places.

    有關於挪威的北極鱈魚,

  • This is a slide that shows

    同樣的狀況, 漁場的漁獲持續大量減少,

  • the herring population in Norway

    因此他們設定扔棄漁獲的限額。

  • that was crashing since the 1950s.

    業者會扔棄不是他們要的魚種,

  • It was coming down, and when Norway set limits,

    浪費地將那些魚扔棄在甲板上。

  • or quotas, on its fishery, what happens?

    當挪威設定了扔棄的限額,

  • The fishery comes back.

    漁場的生機回復了。

  • This is another example, also happens to be from Norway,

    這不只有在挪威,

  • of the Norwegian Arctic cod.

    我們已經看到這種事情 不停地發生在

  • Same deal. The fishery is crashing.

    全世界各個國家中。

  • They set limits on discards.

    當這些國家加入我們,

  • Discards are these fish they weren't targeting

    並提出永續漁場管理政策,

  • and they get thrown overboard wastefully.

    產量一直大量下降的漁場看起來

  • When they set the discard limit,

    開始回復生機了,

  • the fishery came back.

    因此有很多成功的機會。

  • And it's not just in Norway.

    這對世界上的漁業來說代表什麼?

  • We've seen this happening in countries

    這代表假使我們管理那些

  • all around the world, time and time again.

    漁獲量下降的漁場,

  • When these countries step in and they

    我們可以扭轉情況,

  • put in sustainable fisheries management policies,

    讓每年漁獲量增加高達一億噸。

  • the fisheries, which are always crashing, it seems,

    所以說我們還不曾有過漁獲高峰,

  • are starting to come back.

    我們仍有機會,

  • So there's a lot of promise here.

    不只是把魚群帶回來,

  • What does this mean for the world fish catch?

    並且確實能得到更多的漁獲,

  • This means that if we take that fishery catch

    餵養更多人口,

  • that's on the decline

    比目前供給的人數還多。

  • and we could turn it upwards, we could increase it

    能多餵飽多少人呢? 以現在來說,

  • up to 100 million metric tons per year.

    我們有能力供養大概四億五千萬人

  • So we didn't have peak fish yet.

    一天一餐魚肉,

  • We still have an opportunity

    依據當下世界的捕魚量而言,

  • to not only bring the fish back

    當然你也知道捕魚量一直減少,

  • but to actually get more fish

    所以如果不改善, 餵養的人口數會越來越少。

  • that can feed more people

    但是如果我們採取漁場管理措施,

  • than we currently are now.

    像我剛才提到

  • How many more? Right about now,

    在10到25個國家中來做,

  • we can feed about 450 million people

    我們就有機會增加捕獲量,

  • a fish meal a day

    並且讓七億人一整年

  • based on the current world fish catch,

    都有一餐健康的魚肉。

  • which, of course, you know is going down,

    顯然我們應該這麼做,

  • so that number will go down over time

    因為這是可以解決飢餓問題的好事,

  • if we don't fix it,

    而且也符合成本效益。

  • but if we put fishery management practices

    因為魚肉是地球上

  • like the ones I've described in place

    最符合成本效益的蛋白質。

  • in 10 to 25 countries,

    假如你衡量花在魚肉上 每一塊錢所得到的蛋白質,

  • we could bring that number up

    相較於所有地球上 其他的動物來說,

  • and feed as many as 700 million people a year

    顯然,魚肉是最精明的決定。

  • a healthy fish meal.

    養魚也不需要很多土地,

  • We should obviously do this just because

    土地現在已經不夠用了,

  • it's a good thing to deal with the hunger problem,

    這是相較於其他蛋白質來源的好處。

  • but it's also cost-effective.

    養魚也不需要用到很多淡水,

  • It turns out fish is the most cost-effective protein

    養魚需要的淡水較少,

  • on the planet.

    相較之下養牛,

  • If you look at how much fish protein you get

    你必須灌溉土地

  • per dollar invested

    才有草料用來養牛。

  • compared to all of the other animal proteins,

    養魚產生的碳足跡也很少,

  • obviously, fish is a good business decision.

    只會有一點點碳足跡,

  • It also doesn't need a lot of land,

    因為我們必須出門去捕魚,

  • something that's in short supply,

    那要用到一點燃料;

  • compared to other protein sources.

    如你所知,農業也有碳足跡,

  • And it doesn't need a lot of fresh water.

    而漁業產生的碳足跡少很多,

  • It uses a lot less fresh water than,

    所以比較不會有汙染。

  • for example, cattle,

    在我們的飲食裡, 魚肉占了很大一部分,

  • where you have to irrigate a field

    不過還能更多,

  • so that you can grow the food to graze the cattle.

    這是件好事,因為我們知道魚肉有益健康,

  • It also has a very low carbon footprint.

    可以降低我們癌症、

  • It has a little bit of a carbon footprint

    心臟病和肥胖的風險。

  • because we do have to get out and catch the fish.

    事實上我們團體的執行長 安迪‧夏普勒斯 (Andy Sharpless)

  • It takes a little bit of fuel,

    是這個概念的發起人,

  • but as you know, agriculture can have a carbon footprint,

    他很愛說魚肉是最完美的蛋白質。

  • and fish has a much smaller one,

    安迪還說

  • so it's less polluting.

    海洋保育運動其實是

  • It's already a big part of our diet,

    從土地保育運動發展而來,

  • but it can be a bigger part of our diet,

    在土地保育中,

  • which is a good thing, because we know

    我們有生物多樣性 與食物生產之間的兩難,

  • that it's healthy for us.

    假使你想要取得土地的話,

  • It can reduce our risks of cancer,

    你就必須砍掉 生態豐富多樣的森林,

  • heart disease and obesity.

    把土地拿來種玉米餵養人口,

  • In fact, our CEO Andy Sharpless,

    因此這兩者不斷在拉扯。

  • who is the originator of this concept, actually,

    一直以來,我們都必須在 兩件重要的事情上做出困難的抉擇,

  • he likes to say fish is the perfect protein.

    那就是維持生態多樣性 或者是餵飽人口。

  • Andy also talks about the fact that

    不過在海洋裡, 我們沒有這樣的衝突,

  • our ocean conservation movement really grew

    在海洋裡,生態多樣性 與豐富多產並非勢不兩立。

  • out of the land conservation movement,

    事實上這兩者相輔相成。

  • and in land conservation,

    當我們做的事增加了生物多樣性,

  • we have this problem where biodiversity

    同時也會得到更多的漁獲,

  • is at war with food production.

    重要的是這樣一來 我們就可以餵飽大家。

  • You have to cut down the biodiverse forest

    這裡有個「潛」在的問題。

  • if you want to get the field

    沒人發現這雙關嗎?(笑聲)

  • to grow the corn to feed people with,

    非法捕撈。

  • and so there's a constant push-pull there.

    非法捕撈會逐漸危害

  • There's a constant tough decision

    我正在談的永續漁場管理,

  • that has to be made between

    可能是當你捕魚時用了禁用的設備,

  • two very important things:

    或是當你在不對的地方捕魚,

  • maintaining biodiversity and feeding people.

    就會捕到尺寸或種類錯誤的漁獲。

  • But in the oceans, we don't have that war.

    非法捕撈欺瞞了消費者

  • In the oceans, biodiversity is not at war

    以及誠實的漁民,

  • with abundance.

    因此應該禁止非法捕撈。

  • In fact, they're aligned.

    非法捕撈流入我們市場的作法 就是透過海產詐欺。

  • When we do things that produce biodiversity,

    你也許已經聽說過了,

  • we actually get more abundance,

    就是將魚肉標示為其他的魚種。

  • and that's important so that we can feed people.

    回想上一次你吃的魚肉,是什麼魚呢?

  • Now, there's a catch.

    你確定那就是魚的原貌嗎?

  • Didn't anyone get that? (Laughter)

    因為我們測試了1,300個 不一樣的魚肉樣本,

  • Illegal fishing.

    大概有三分之一

  • Illegal fishing undermines the type of

    並不是標籤上標示的魚種。

  • sustainable fisheries management I'm talking about.

    以真鯛來說, 十個裡面有九個並不是真鯛;

  • It can be when you catch fish using gears

    我們測試的鮪魚之中, 有59%標示不實。

  • that have been prohibited,

    我們測試了120個紅鯛,

  • when you fish in places where you're not supposed to fish,

    之中只有七個是真的紅鯛,

  • you catch fish that are the wrong size or the wrong species.

    所以祝你幸運找到貨真價實的紅鯛!

  • Illegal fishing cheats the consumer

    海鮮的供應鏈非常複雜,

  • and it also cheats honest fishermen,

    在這個供應鏈的每一個環節

  • and it needs to stop.

    都有機會發生海產詐欺,

  • The way illegal fish get into our market is through seafood fraud.

    除非我們有追蹤機制。

  • You might have heard about this.

    追蹤機制能讓海鮮產業

  • It's when fish are labeled as something they're not.

    追查海鮮從擺上餐盤到進入漁船的記錄,

  • Think about the last time you had fish.

    確保消費者之後可以找出

  • What were you eating?

    他們的海鮮來自何方。

  • Are you sure that's what it was?

    這是很重要的事情,

  • Because we tested 1,300 different fish samples

    在這個行業裡已經有少數人在做, 但還不夠,

  • and about a third of them

    我們計畫在國會中推動

  • were not what they were labeled to be.

    「安全海鮮法案」。