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  • Mind map A mind map is a diagram used to visually outline

  • information. A mind map is often created around a single word or text, placed in the center,

  • to which associated ideas, words and concepts are added. Major categories radiate from a

  • central node, and lesser categories are sub-branches of larger branches. Categories can represent

  • words, ideas, tasks, or other items related to a central key word or idea.

  • Mind maps can be drawn by hand, either as "rough notes" during a lecture or meeting,

  • for example, or as higher quality pictures when more time is available. An example of

  • a rough mind map is illustrated. Mind maps are considered to be a type of spider

  • diagram. A similar concept in the 1970s was "idea sun bursting".

  • Origins Although the term "mind map" was first popularized

  • by British popular psychology author and television personality Tony Buzan, the use of diagrams

  • that visually "map" information using branching and radial maps traces back centuries. These

  • pictorial methods record knowledge and model systems, and have a long history in learning,

  • brainstorming, memory, visual thinking, and problem solving by educators, engineers, psychologists,

  • and others. Some of the earliest examples of such graphical records were developed by

  • Porphyry of Tyros, a noted thinker of the 3rd century, as he graphically visualized

  • the concept categories of Aristotle. Philosopher Ramon Llull (1235–1315) also used such techniques.

  • The semantic network was developed in the late 1950s as a theory to understand human

  • learning and developed further by Allan M. Collins and M. Ross Quillian during the early

  • 1960s. Mind maps are similar in radial structure to concept maps, developed by learning experts

  • in the 1970s, but differ in that the former are simplified by focusing around a single

  • central key concept. Popularisation of the term "mind map"

  • Buzan's specific approach, and the introduction of the term "mind map" arose during a 1974

  • BBC TV series he hosted, called Use Your Head. In this show, and companion book series, Buzan

  • promoted his conception of radial tree, diagramming key words in a colorful, radiant, tree-like

  • structure. Buzan says the idea was inspired by Alfred

  • Korzybski's general semantics as popularized in science fiction novels, such as those of

  • Robert A. Heinlein and A.E. van Vogt. He argues that while "traditional" outlines force readers

  • to scan left to right and top to bottom, readers actually tend to scan the entire page in a

  • non-linear fashion. Buzan's treatment also uses then-popular assumptions about the functions

  • of cerebral hemispheres in order to explain the claimed increased effectiveness of mind

  • mapping over other forms of note making. Mind map guidelines

  • Buzan suggests the following guidelines for creating mind maps:

  • Start in the center with an image of the topic, using at least 3 colors.

  • Use images, symbols, codes, and dimensions throughout your mind map.

  • Select key words and print using upper or lower case letters.

  • Each word/image is best alone and sitting on its own line.

  • The lines should be connected, starting from the central image. The central lines are thicker,

  • organic and thinner as they radiate out from the center.

  • Make the lines the same length as the word/image they support.

  • Use multiple colors throughout the mind map, for visual stimulation and also to encode

  • or group. Develop your own personal style of mind mapping.

  • Use emphasis and show associations in your mind map.

  • Keep the mind map clear by using radial hierarchy or outlines to embrace your branches.

  • This list is itself more concise than a prose version of the same information and the mind

  • map of these guidelines is itself intended to be more memorable and quicker to scan than

  • either the prose or the list. Uses

  • As with other diagramming tools, mind maps can be used to generate, visualize, structure,

  • and classify ideas, and as an aid to studying and organizing information, solving problems,

  • making decisions, and writing. Mind maps have many applications in personal,

  • family, educational, and business situations, including notetaking, brainstorming (wherein

  • ideas are inserted into the map radially around the center node, without the implicit prioritization

  • that comes from hierarchy or sequential arrangements, and wherein grouping and organizing is reserved

  • for later stages), summarizing, as a mnemonic technique, or to sort out a complicated idea.

  • Mind maps are also promoted as a way to collaborate in color pen creativity sessions.

  • In addition to these direct use cases, data retrieved from mind maps can be used to enhance

  • several other applications; for instance expert search systems, search engines and search

  • and tag query recommender. To do so, mind maps can be analysed with classic methods

  • of information retrieval to classify a mind map's author or documents that are linked

  • from within the mind map. Differences from other visualizations

  • Concept maps - Mind maps differ from concept maps in that mind maps focus on only one word

  • or idea, whereas concept maps connect multiple words or ideas. Also, concept maps typically

  • have text labels on their connecting lines/arms. Mind maps are based on radial hierarchies

  • and tree structures denoting relationships with a central governing concept, whereas

  • concept maps are based on connections between concepts in more diverse patterns. However,

  • either can be part of a larger personal knowledge base system.

  • Modelling graphs - There is no rigorous right or wrong with mind maps, relying on the arbitrariness

  • of mnemonic systems. A UML diagram or a semantic network has structured elements modelling

  • relationships, with lines connecting objects to indicate relationship. This is generally

  • done in black and white with a clear and agreed iconography. Mind maps serve a different purpose:

  • they help with memory and organization. Mind maps are collections of words structured by

  • the mental context of the author with visual mnemonics, and, through the use of colour,

  • icons and visual links, are informal and necessary to the proper functioning of the mind map.

  • Research Effectiveness - Cunningham (2005) conducted

  • a user study in which 80% of the students thought "mindmapping helped them understand

  • concepts and ideas in science". Other studies also report positive effects through the use

  • of mind maps. Farrand, Hussain, and Hennessy (2002) found that spider diagrams (similar

  • to concept maps) had limited, but significant, impact on memory recall in undergraduate students

  • (a 10% increase over baseline for a 600-word text only) as compared to preferred study

  • methods (a 6% increase over baseline). This improvement was only robust after a week for

  • those in the diagram group and there was a significant decrease in motivation compared

  • to the subjects' preferred methods of note taking. A meta study about concept mapping

  • concluded that concept mapping is more effective than "reading text passages, attending lectures,

  • and participating in class discussions". The same study also concluded that concept mapping

  • is slightly more effective "than other constructive activities such as writing summaries and outlines".

  • In addition, they concluded that low-ability students may benefit more from mind mapping

  • than high-ability students. Features of Mind Maps - Beel & Langer (2011)

  • conducted a comprehensive analysis of the content of mind maps. They analysed 19,379

  • mind maps from 11,179 users of the mind mapping applications SciPlore MindMapping (aka Docear)

  • and MindMeister. Results include that average users create only a few mind maps (mean=2.7),

  • average mind maps are rather small (31 nodes) with each node containing about 3 words (median).

  • However, there were exceptions. One user created more than 200 mind maps, the largest mind

  • map consisted of more than 50,000 nodes and the largest node contained ~7500 words. The

  • study also showed that between different mind mapping applications (Docear vs MindMeister)

  • significant differences exist related to how users create mind maps.

  • Automatic Creating of Mind Maps - There have been some attempts to create mind maps automatically.

  • Brucks & Schommer created mind maps automatically from full-text streams. Rothenberger et al.

  • extracted the main story of a text and presented it as mind map. And there is a patent about

  • automatically creating sub-topics in mind maps.

  • Pen and Paper vs Computer - There are two studies that analyze whether electronic mind

  • mapping or pen based mind mapping is more effective.

  • Tools Mind-mapping software can be used to organize

  • large amounts of information, combining spatial organization, dynamic hierarchical structuring

  • and node folding. Software packages can extend the concept of mind-mapping by allowing individuals

  • to map more than thoughts and ideas with information on their computers and the Internet, like

  • spreadsheets, documents, Internet sites and images. It has been suggested that mind-mapping

  • can improve learning/study efficiency up to 15% over conventional note-taking.

  • Generation from natural language In 2009, Mohamed Elhoseiny et al. presented

  • the first prototype that can generate mind maps out of small text to fit in a single

  • screen. In 2012, it was extended into a more scalable system that can work from larger

  • texts. Trademark

  • The phrase "mind map" is trademarked by Buzan's company for the specific use of self-improvement

  • educational courses in Great Britain and the United States. The trademark does not appear

  • in the records of the Canadian Intellectual Property Office.

Mind map A mind map is a diagram used to visually outline

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心智圖 (Mind map)

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    羅吉森 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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