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• Ever counted calories using nutritional labels?

計算過食品標示上的卡路里嗎？

• But just how accurate are they anyway?

但它們到底多準確呢？

• Hey, guys, Julia here for DNews.

大家好，我是 DNews 的 Julia。

• Food labels are great.

食品標示很棒。

• They give you an estimate of how many calories are in any certain food.

它讓你吃東西時可以知道自己攝取了多少卡路里。

• But they have a teeny bit of a flaw.

但它們有一個小小的缺陷。

• They fail to take into account cooking.

它們沒有考量到食物的烹調方式。

• So we end up with a system that likely overestimates the calories available in unprocessed foods and underestimates the calories in processed food.

所以這讓我們總是高估未加工食物的卡路里量，且低估加工食品的卡路里量。

• The way we currently count calories is based on the Atwater System, which is at least a hundred years old.

我們目前是基於「艾特瓦特系統」去計算卡路里，而它至少有 100 年的歷史了。

• The System standardized the idea of the amount of energy available in food, 9 calories in a gram of fat or 4 calories in every gram of protein.

這個系統訂定各種食物中成份固定量所含的能量，脂肪每克 9 大卡，蛋白質每克 4 大卡。

• But this measures the availability of energy in food, not the digestibility.

但理論上這只計算到食物上能量的可利用性，沒有考量到它的可消化程度。

• A calorie is a unit of energy.

卡路里是能量的單位。

• It's technically the amount of energy needed to heat up a kilogram of water by 1 degree Celsius.

理論上來說，1 大卡是使 1 公斤的水提高 1℃ 所需要的能量。

• Our body burns calories in food through metabolizing the carbohydrates and proteins and whatnot into smaller molecules our body can use as energy.

我們身體通過代謝來燃燒碳水化合物和蛋白質等物質所含的卡路里，並把它們轉變成更小的分子讓我們的身體可以作為能量使用。

• Cooking food changes how many calories are digestible.

而食物的烹調方式會影響它的可消化性。

• Take potatoes for example.

拿馬鈴薯舉例。

• When raw, the sugar molecules in potatoes are too tightly packed for our digestive system to handle.

當生吃時，馬鈴薯的醣分子因為太緊密連結的關係，使得我們很難去消化。

• Cooking causes the starches in the potato to gelatinize.

而經烹調後會使馬鈴薯中的澱粉變為膠狀。

• That process allows us to access the sugars stored in the starch, so we get more calories out of the cooked potato.

這道程序會讓我們更能去吸收澱粉裡的醣分子，所以當我們在吃煮過的馬鈴薯時攝取的卡路里也較高。

• On top of that, the type of cooking method might change the chemistry of food as well, whether it's boiled, baked, or microwaved.

除此之外，烹調的方法還可能去改變食物中的分子結構，無論是用煮的、用烤的或是用微波的。

• On the other hand, digesting raw food takes work: A stick of celery might have 10 calories, but the chewing and digesting burns about half of them.

另外，消化生食時會需要額外的能量，像是一根芹菜裡可能有 10 卡路里，但在嚼它和消化它的過程中可能就先消耗掉 5 卡路里了。

• All that work means there are fewer calories for your body to absorb for energy.

這代表在吃這些生食時，我們會吸收到較少的卡路里。

• But before you go nibbling on an all-carrot diet, consider this:

但如果你因為這樣就只想去吃一堆生紅蘿蔔，你應該考慮一下：

• For our ancestors, cooking meant the difference between life and death.

對我們的祖先來說，烹調食物意味著生與死的差別。

• The invention of a cooked meal might have changed everything.

「烹調」這個發明可以說是改變了一切。

• Cooking food provided more energy and led to humans with bigger brains and bigger babies.

食物經過烹調可以提供更多的能量，使人類演化出更健全的大腦，更健康的嬰兒。

• And people who consume an all-raw diet now might not be getting enough calories, even when eating food packed with nutrients.

而如果有人現在只吃生食，就算那些食物都非常有營養，也還是有可能攝取不到足夠的熱量。

• Some women on an all-raw diet get irregular menstrual cycles—a sign of undernourishmentnot to mention the bacteria of your gut steal a few of the calories for themselves.

有些婦女也在吃全生食的過程中出現亂經、營養不良等症狀，更不用說你吃進去的細菌在你腸道裡自己偷偷消化了多少卡路里。

• So the exact number of calories you're getting is affected by way too many factors for those labels to be truly accurate.

所以有太多可能的因素會去導致你實際吸收的熱量，與標示上的熱量不太一樣。

• But while modifications to the Atwater system have improved it some over the years, there's still no real alternative.

雖然經過改良艾特沃系統後這情況有稍微得到改善，但我們還是沒有什麼其他計算熱量的選擇。

• So until nutrition scientists come up with a better calorie counting system, take food labels with a grain of salt.

因此，除非營養科學家們想出了一個更好的卡路里計算系統，食物標示參考參考就好啦。

• See what I did there? Grain of salt? It's a... pun... ok.

看我做了什麼？一撮鹽 / 持保留態度？這是...雙關語...

• Switching gears for a second, I wanted to let you know that tomorrow, Trace, Amy, and Ian are gonna be chatting with a real-live astronaut about what it's like to live and work in space.

題外話一下， 我想跟你們說，就在明天 Trace、Amy 跟 Ian 就要訪談一位太空人，聊聊真正在太空中工作和生活是什麼感覺。

• And if you wanna hang out with us space nerds, be sure to RSVP using the link we've got in the description.

如果你也想一起加入的話，請利用以下連結回覆給我們。

• That's at 3 p.m. Eastern time, noon Pacific.

時間訂在東部時間下午三點，中午太平洋時間。

• So, do you trust nutritional labels?

所以你現在還相信食物標示嗎？

• Do they need to be updated?

你覺得它們應該要更新一下嗎？

• Leave your thoughts and comments below, and don't forget to subscribe for more DNews everyday.

請在下面留下您的想法和評論，還有別忘記訂閱我們的頻道鎖定更多每日快訊。

Ever counted calories using nutritional labels?

# 運動健身正夯！你真的可以相信食物上的熱量標示嗎？(Can You Trust The Calorie Counts On Food Labels?)

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Derrick Chen 發佈於 2020 年 05 月 16 日