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  • Hey y'all. Time for two truths and a lie.

    嗨,各位,玩「兩真一假」的時間到囉

  • I'm gonna tell you three things about myself.

    我會跟你說三件關於我的事

  • You have to pick up one that it's not true. Ready?

    你要找出哪件是假的,準備好了嗎?

  • Okay. Number one, I have a machine at home that transforms plain water into carbonated water.

    第一,我家有台機器可以把白開水變成氣泡水

  • Two: I'm really bad at the card game Set

    第二,我很不會玩一種叫SET的桌遊

  • Three, Michael Jackson is my aunt. Isn't that obvious?

    第三,麥可傑克森是我阿姨。答案很明顯吧?

  • Yeah. God, so bad at games.

    沒錯。唉!我真不會玩遊戲

  • Lying. We do it a lot.

    說謊,我們很常做

  • And we're a lot better at it than you'd like to think.

    而且我們比你想像中更擅長說謊

  • Like I'm not a stupid. I could totally make up a better lie than Michael Jackson is my aunt.

    我又不是笨蛋,當然可以編個比「麥可是我阿姨」好的謊話

  • But check it out; the fact that I appeared to be terrible at lying was in fact a lie.

    看,我很不會說謊這件事,其實就是個謊話

  • In the ten-minute conversation with a stranger, we humans will tell an average of 3 lies.

    和陌生人談話十分鐘,人類平均會說三個謊話

  • Researchers who study lying said that the subjects of these lying studies

    研究說謊的學者指出,說謊實驗的受試者

  • rarely even realize that they're doing it.

    很少意識到自己正在說謊

  • But why? What purpose does lying actually serve?

    但為什麼?說謊的實際目的是什麼呢?

  • Well, to put human deception into perspective, it's worth pointing out that humans aren't the only fibbers in nature.

    想全面了解人類的說謊,就得知道,世上不是只有人類會說謊

  • My favorite anecdotal examples of non-human lying.

    我最喜歡的非人類說謊案例是

  • Koko the gorilla who was taught sign language back in 1970s.

    1970年代,有隻會手語的猩猩KOKO

  • Once actually blamed her pet kitten for ripping a sink out of the wall in her room.

    牠把水槽從牆上扯了下來,然後說是牠養的小貓做的

  • Bad bad old ball. So yeah, lying is nothing new with nature.

    真是隻壞猩猩!所以,說謊是種自然天性

  • But why did humans specifically do so much of it?

    但為什麼人類特別常說謊?

  • Well as I mentioned here before on SciShow, humans are first and foremost social animals.

    我在之前的節目提過,人類是最初且最重要的社會化動物

  • Got really, super-huge brains, and that's mainly because we need them for all the interacting we're always doing.

    人腦演化得這麼巨大,就是為了應付日常互動

  • For human successful social interaction is key to success for much of our lives.

    成功的社會互動是人類存活的關鍵

  • So it's clear that lying is a great way of keeping elaborate social structures running smoothly while looking out for number one.

    說謊可以維持複雜的社會運作,讓人獲得更高的社會地位

  • For instance, if you can keep your social group happy, you're going to reap all kinds of benefits

    比如說,如果你能讓群體開心,就能獲得各種好處

  • like food, higher social standing, more and better sexual partners

    像是食物、社會地位、更多更好的性伴侶

  • and you know you don't make friends and influence people going around and saying things like

    你會交不到朋友,失去影響力,要是你說這種話:

  • Actually, that loincloth does make your butt look big,”

    「說真的,那剪裁讓你屁股看起來更大」

  • or "Hey, uh, I have been having sex with your brother while you're out hunting mastodons,

    或是:「每次你去獵長毛象時,我都趁機和你哥打炮」

  • so little Blurgh over there is probably your cave nephew."

    「所以我們的小孩可能是你姪子喔」

  • So the ability to lie and to detect a lie became pretty important to early humans

    說謊和辨別謊言的能力,對早期人類非常重要

  • Because lying is actually not very easy for a brain to do

    對大腦來說,說謊其實不是很簡單

  • And actually caused a bit of an evolutionary arms race.

    因此產生了大腦的演化競賽

  • So people start to get better and better at lying.

    人類越來越擅長說謊

  • Better liars got better stuff while hopefully remain in good standing with their communities.

    比較會說謊的人得到較好的物資,且能維持良好社會地位

  • By the same time token those who were better at detecting lies were cheated on by their mates and

    同樣的,比較會辨別謊言的人,比較不會被伴侶欺騙

  • screwed over in camel trades a lot or less of it

    比較不會被伴侶欺騙,或在駱駝交易中吃虧

  • So yes now we've evolved to be good liars and also good at spotting bad liar.

    現在,我們演化得很會說謊,也擅長辨別彆腳的說謊者

  • So that society became more sophisticated. Folks were like

    社會變得更複雜了,人們會說:

  • okay okay. Enough with the lying!

    好了好了,別再說謊了

  • Because there are a lot of advantages to living in tight-knit communities and structured societies,

    住在緊密有秩序的社會有很多優點

  • but you can't really have them when you don't know for sure if the kids you're raising are yours

    但你無法享受這些,假如你不能確定小孩是不是親生的

  • and the camels you just bought has ever been in an accident. Whatever

    也不能確定你買的駱駝有沒有出過意外

  • So a society in which bold face lying goes completely unchecked leads to total anarchy.

    肆無忌憚的說謊,會使社會失去秩序

  • So organized societies started putting the hammer down.

    所以有秩序的社會開始譴責說謊

  • Religious systems began to drive home the point that God rewards and cares for the truthful and punishes liars.

    宗教團體開始宣導,神會保佑誠實者,懲罰說謊者

  • So if you could survive being thrown into the bog and tied up with a sack of hammers,

    所以,如果你被綁上重物丟進沼澤之後,還能活下來的話

  • God was on your side and you were telling the truth.

    神就是站在你這邊,你是誠實的

  • If not, you were obviously lying.

    如果活不下來,那你顯然是在說謊

  • Oh. Medieval European judicial system, how I love you.

    噢,我真愛中世紀歐洲司法系統

  • Even now, in modern times, there are laws that prohibit lying

    即使在現代,也有各種法律禁止說謊

  • and override even our rights to free speech.

    甚至凌駕於我們的言論自由

  • For instance, you go to jail for lying in the court of law

    比如說,在法庭上說謊,會使你入獄

  • or for lying about having received a Medal of Honor for service in the armed forces.

    謊稱收到軍隊榮譽勳章,也會讓你坐牢

  • Don't do that. Also, ‘cause you're not an evil... Why would someone do that?

    你不是惡魔,別做這種事…怎麼會有人做這種事?

  • So lying it's not okay.

    所以,說謊是不好的

  • But we're all so good at it, and our brains want to do it.

    但我們都很擅長說謊,大腦就是想這麼做

  • And we start lying really early; some researchers say as early as six months old.

    我們很早就會說謊,有學者說,六個月大就開始會說謊

  • I mean you've seen a baby fake crying right?

    你有看過小嬰兒假哭,對吧?

  • It's very obvious. Like they're crying,

    那很明顯,小孩會假哭

  • then they like check to see if anybody's coming over to sympathize,

    之後看看有沒有人會過來哄

  • and then they're likeOh, I'm going to keep crying then.”

    他們會想:「有人來了!那我繼續哭!」

  • Scientists think this is the time when babies are actually learning how to be better liars.

    科學家認為,這時嬰兒其實是在學習如何說謊

  • By the time when kids in college, they're lying to the mom about once in every five interactions

    到了孩子上大學時,和媽媽每五次互動就有一次說謊

  • And actually, that seems, that seems low to me.

    但我覺得…這樣其實算少

  • I would say five out of five for my college experience.

    我大學時,五次互動就說謊了五次!

  • Kids these days, actually, kids every day.

    這年頭的小孩呀…其實,小孩一直都這樣

  • By the time, we're adults. We've gotten so very good at lying

    長大了以後,我們變的很擅長說謊

  • that we're actually able to do it to ourselves very effectively.

    就算是對自己說謊,也都非常有效率

  • The trick of lying to yourself is in the holding of two pieces conflicting information in your head at the same time

    對自己說謊的關鍵是,在腦中同時保有兩種衝突訊息

  • And paying attention to one while ignoring the other.

    一次只注意一個訊息,忽略另一個

  • People who are good liars can hold a bunch of conflicted information in their heads all at once and keep tracking to that

    很會說謊的人,可以同時處理一大堆衝突訊息,不會混亂

  • Take pathological liars, people who habitually and compulsively lie, cheat, and manipulate other people.

    病態的說謊者會強迫性的說謊誤導別人

  • The thing about pathological liars is that they're super good at self-deception

    他們非常擅長欺騙自己

  • At the moment they're telling it, they whole-heartedly believe their own lie.

    他們說謊的當下,是全心全意相信那謊言的

  • Interestingly enough, there is an actual difference between the brain of a normal person and the brain of a pathological liar.

    更有趣的是,正常人和病態說謊者的腦,有個地方不同

  • That difference is in the very front of the brain, in a place called the prefrontal cortex.

    那個部位在大腦的最前端,稱為前額葉皮質

  • Most neuroscience studies focus on the gray matter of the brain, that's the material that actually processes information.

    大部分神經科學研究都專注於大腦灰質,灰質負責處理資訊

  • However, nearly half of our brains are made up of what's called white matter

    但是,將近一半的大腦是由白質組成的

  • Which is composed of connective tissues that carry electrical signals from one group of neurons to another.

    白質由結締組織構成,將電子訊息在神經叢之間傳遞

  • So gray matter is where all the processing happens and white matter connects the different parts of the brain

    所以灰質負責處理資訊,白質則連接大腦各部位

  • In a study at the University of Southern California, researchers found that

    在南加州大學的研究中,科學家發現,

  • pathological liars have about 25 % more white matter in their prefrontal cortex than the rest of us.

    病態說謊者前額葉皮質裡的白質,比普通人多了25%

  • Suggesting the pathological liars can make a bunch of connections in their brain really fast.

    表示他們大腦可以快速連結各種資訊

  • And that let them keep all the information in order that they need to sustain the lie.

    讓他們可以記住維持謊言的所有資訊

  • also to read the person that they're lying to, suppress their emotions,

    理解他們說謊的對象,並壓抑情緒

  • and probably believe what they're saying on top of it all.

    可能完全相信他們正在說的謊

  • So why haven't pathological liars taken over the world?

    那麼,為什麼病態說謊者還沒佔領世界呢?

  • I mean, they seem to be the next step in human evolution.

    我是說,他們似乎是人類演化的下一世代

  • Well, pathological liars have a surplus of white matter, they also have around 14% less gray matter than other people.

    病態說謊者大腦白質較多的同時,灰質也比一般人少了約14%

  • And grey matter is where all the critical thinking happens.

    而全部的批判性思考都由灰質運作

  • So the white matter is all like, “I'm gonna tell Jim I used to be a fighter pilot!”

    所以當白質說:我要跟Jim說,我以前是戰鬥機飛行員!

  • And the gray matter is all, “I could tell Jim I used to be a fighter pilot,

    灰質會說:我是可以跟Jim這樣說

  • but I probably shouldn't because that would jeopardize my relationship with Tammi.”

    但我不應該,因為這會危害到我和Tammy的關係

  • So extreme liars have a really hard time maintaining relationships and holding down jobs

    所以說謊成性的人,極難維持關係或工作

  • Because after a while, everybody realizes they are full of crap and they get dumped or fired,

    因為過了一陣子,大家會發現他謊話連篇,把他甩掉或炒魷魚

  • Which is not ideal for the person. It's great for everyone.

    對說謊者來說不太如意,但對大家而言是件好事

  • But if there are these super liars out there, how do we know if we're being lied to?

    但是,世上有這麼多說謊者,我們該怎麼知道自己被騙了呢?

  • I mean, lie detectors might be able to pick up signals like

    我意思是,測謊器也許能發現一些線索

  • like change the liar's voice, or increased heart rate, or sweating

    像是說謊者的聲音變化、心跳加快、流汗等等

  • all stuff that we do when we're fibbing out right.

    偵測我們在撒謊時的生理反應

  • But a really good liar might not display any of those symptoms.

    但很會說謊的人,可能不會有這些反應

  • Well, no matter how good of a liar you are, the fact that you are lying will often leak out,

    其實,不管有多會說謊,總是有些線索能分辨謊言

  • Both through your body language and for your word choices.

    像是身體語言,還有用字遣詞

  • Let's look at the sample sentences.

    來看些例子吧

  • Believe me, I was not the one who farted and evacuated that movie theater.

    相信我!放屁讓那個戲院人都跑光的人不是我!

  • So do you believe me? Probably not

    你相信我嗎?可能不相信

  • because I did three things in that sentence that made you totally certain

    我在這句話中,做了三件事,讓你能完全肯定

  • that I was, in fact, the person who made them evacuate the movie theater. Do it!

    我就是那個放屁讓人疏散電影院的人

  • One, I saidbelieve meliars will always said that

    第一,我說「相信我」,騙子總是這樣說

  • orto be totally honest.”

    或是「說真的」

  • Or Richard Nixon's favorite: “in all candor.”

    或是尼克森總統的名言「坦白說」

  • Two, I all of a sudden stopped using contractions.

    第二,我講話突然不用縮寫了

  • Liars often use more formal language to deny something that they've actually done.

    騙子常用正式的語氣來否認他們做過的事

  • And three, I said that movie theater instead of the movie theater.

    第三,我說「那間」戲院而不使用冠詞the

  • I was trying to distance myself from the whole situation.

    我想讓自己與整個情況保持距離

  • We think of liars as being fidgety, but we actually tend to freeze our upper bodies when we lie.

    我們常覺得說謊會坐立不安,但其實說謊時上半身會定住不動

  • We make more, not less, eye contact; maybe a little too much to over-compensate for telling a fib.

    說謊時會有更多眼神接觸,而不是更少,有時反而會太多

  • Liars will also do things like shake their heads while saying yes.

    說謊者也會在說「是」時搖頭

  • And smile when they're done telling the story even if it's a terrible one

    在說故事時微笑,即使那故事很糟

  • All of this stuff, the reading of what we leak through our words and bodies, is actually the future of lie detection.

    這些從語言或身體洩漏出的訊息,其實就是說謊偵測的未來

  • Training law enforcement officers to read potential criminals to catch them in the act of lying.

    訓練執法人員找出潛在犯人,當場揭穿他們的謊言

  • Of course there are always coming up with new kinds of gadgets all the time, too

    當然,總是會有各種新的科技裝置出現

  • eye trackers, MRI brain scanners that are going to replace the old lie-detector tests

    眼動儀和大腦核磁共振儀會取代舊式測謊器

  • Maybe I'll tell my two truths and a lie to a brain scanner and see how it does.

    也許我會對大腦掃描儀說「兩真一假」,看看結果如何

  • Pretty sure we all know how it's gonna turn out.

    我相信我們都知道結果會如何

  • Yeah, you're right; I'm a terrible liar. Or am I?

    對啦,我很不會說謊…你確定?

  • Thank you for watching this Infusion. All the facts contained within are not lies, we promise!

    謝謝你的收看,本集節目純屬事實毫無編造,我們保證!

  • But if you want to check, there are citations in the description. Of course because we're scientists here.

    想查證的話,資料來源全在影片描述裡,我們是科學家嘛

  • If you have ideas for future episodes or infusions, you can leave those in the comments.

    如果你對未來的節目內容有任何想法,請留言告訴我們

  • Or connect with us on Facebook or Twitter also questions. We'll be happy to answer those as well.

    也可以用臉書或推特和我們聯絡,我們很樂意回答任何問題

  • See you next time.

    下次見!

Hey y'all. Time for two truths and a lie.

嗨,各位,玩「兩真一假」的時間到囉

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什麼!其實每個人都是說謊高手!? The Science of Lying

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    Go Tutor 發佈於 2015 年 02 月 21 日
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