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  • Nice guys finish lastat least that’s how the saying goes.

    好人沒好報——至少俗話是這麼說的。

  • But were here to destroy this myth and show you with scientific research and evidence how nice guys, undoubtedly, finish first.

    但現在我要打破這個迷思,並用科學研究、證據告訴你,好人絕對會有好報。

  • There’s a neat problem called The Prisoner’s Dilemma that has boggled many intelligent minds for decades.

    我們先來看看「囚徒困境」這個理論。幾十年來,這理論難倒了許多聰明人。

  • There are many variations, but in ours, two people face off against each other, with two different cards in their hands.

    囚徒困境有很多版本,在我們的版本中,兩人互相對峙,手中各有兩張卡。

  • One says "COOPERATE" and the other says "DEFECT".

    一張是「合作」,另一張則是「背叛」。

  • Each round, both players pick one of the cards and play it face down without the other knowing which theyve chosen.

    每回合中,兩位玩家各選一張卡並蓋牌,不讓對方知道自己的選擇。

  • If both players choose "COOPERATE", then they each win $300.

    如果兩人都選「合作」,那兩名玩家各贏三百元。

  • If both players play "DEFECT", then they both lose $10.

    如果他們都選「背叛」,那他們各損失十元。

  • But if one person plays "COOPERATE" and the other plays "DEFECT", the person who played "DEFECT" wins $500 and the "COOPERATE" card loses $100.

    但若一個人選擇「合作」,另一人選擇「背叛」,那選擇「背叛」的人會將得到五百元,選擇「合作」的人則會損失一百 元。

  • So, how is this a dilemma?

    那麼,為何這是個困境?

  • Well, if I were to play the card "DEFECT", your best move would also be to "DEFECT".

    如果我選擇「背叛」,那你最好的選擇也會是「背叛」。

  • Sure, we both lose some money, but you haven’t lost as much as if you were to play "COOPERATE".

    當然,我們各自會損失一些錢,但不會比你選擇「合作」的損失來的多。

  • And if I were to play "COOPERATE", your best move would still be to play "DEFECT" because you would win the most money.

    而如果我選擇「合作」,你最好的選擇仍然是「背叛」,這樣你會得到最多的錢。

  • So, no matter what the other does, DEFECT is always our best, most logical move.

    所以不論另一個人選擇甚麼,「背叛」總是我們最好、最合理的選擇。

  • And yet, if we both play our smartest move, we'll always lose, fully knowing that if we had simply cooperated, we could have won $300.

    但是,如果我們都做最聰明的選擇(背叛),我們就會一直輸。即使雙方都知道,如果兩人都選擇「合作」,就都能贏得 三百元。

  • But here’s the really interesting part:

    但最有趣的地方在此:

  • Scientists have created computer simulations to analyze and discover which strategy is the best to win the most money over hundreds of turns, and the winner was one called "Tit for Tat".

    科學家用電腦模擬分析哪個策略能在上百次的遊戲中獲得最多錢。答案是一個叫「以牙還牙」的策略。

  • It was programmed to always start with "COOPERATE" and after that, it would copy the last move of its opponent.

    這個模擬從「合作」開始,接著重複對手的上一個動作。

  • So if your opponent "DEFECTs", then next time you "DEFECT".

    如果你的對手選擇「背叛」,下次你就「背叛」。

  • If they "COOPERATE", then you "COOPERATE" next time.

    如果對手選擇「合作」,下次你就「合作」。

  • Using this method not only helps to prevent you from getting duped over and over, but statistically, leads to the highest earnings in all simulations, when compared to any other strategy.

    這個方法不只可以讓你免於一直受騙,統計上來說,這個方法比起其他方法能在模擬中贏到最多錢。

  • Okay, so how does this relate to nice guys?

    好,所以這跟好人有什麼關係?

  • Well, it turns out the top-ranked strategies were almost all the ones that begin with what the scientists classified as "niceness"

    結果就是,最好的策略幾乎都是從科學家所說的「善良」開始。

  • That is, they would never be the first to defect, and would always cooperate first.

    也就是,他們不會先選擇「背叛」,而是先選擇「合作」。

  • Furthermore, strategies which were quick to forgive others for deceiving them, and ones that were non-envious aka happy when others won just as much money, were key factors to success.

    不僅如此,原諒別人欺騙自己,不因為受騙而感到忌妒、不悅,且為別人贏得很多錢感到開心,是成功的關鍵。

  • On the other hand, the more devious strategies that tried to trick or defect more often while temporarily gaining more, actually scored worst over the long term.

    反之,意圖欺騙、擊敗別人的邪惡策略,或許能短暫獲得更多錢,但長期來說並不會贏得比較多。

  • Seriously, out of 15 strategies, the top 8 scores came from those which containednicestrategies, while the bottom 7 were more nasty or devious.

    認真來說,在十五種策略中,前八名都是「善良」的策略,而倒數七名則都是相對「邪惡」、卑鄙的手段。

  • And this niceness, forgiveness, and non-envious behavior pay(s). Not only in monetary terms like our game but even in the real world, from an evolutionary perspective.

    更進一步來看,這些善良、寬恕、不嫉妒的行為,不只在金錢遊戲中贏得報酬,在現實社會中也是。

  • Shockingly, we can actually see these strategies right in nature.

    令人驚訝地,我們在大自然中也可以看到這理論的實例。

  • Many birds, for example, must work together to remove ticks in hard-to-reach spots.

    舉鳥當例子,牠們必須一起合作,才能碰到自己無法夠到的地方,把頭蝨清乾淨。

  • Both can cooperate and help each other out, whereby they both use energy but also benefit or one can receive help and then not return the favor.

    牠們可以互相幫忙;或是其中一隻鳥接受幫助,卻不回報。

  • But it turns out that selfish birds are completely shunned from these communities.

    但結果是這種自私的鳥會被群體隔離。

  • Vampire bats, on the other hand, hunt for blood in the night but occasionally don’t find any.

    另一方面,吸血蝙蝠會在夜間尋找鮮血,但有時候也會找不到食物來源。

  • To increase their group success, the ones who do find blood will share it with those who don’t, with the understanding that on their off nights, others will help them out.

    為了讓族群更繁盛,找到血的蝙蝠會將血分給沒找到的蝙蝠,因為牠知道當自己找不到血時,其他蝙蝠也會幫助牠。

  • And ultimately, all the bats are more successful if they carry this trait.

    最終,如果蝙蝠們都這麼做,牠們將會更加繁榮。

  • However, just like the Tit for Tat strategy, If a bat is selfish and doesn’t share, others are less likely to share with it.

    然而,就像「以牙還牙」策略,如果有隻蝙蝠很自私、不分享,其他蝙蝠就不會跟牠分享。

  • Those who are nice are more successful.

    因此,善良的才會成功、存活。

  • From an evolutionary perspective, animals which contain genes that promote nice behavior are likely to have more offspring.

    從進化的觀點來看,有著善良行為基因的動物,比較可能有更多後代。

  • It’s the basic underlying code for altruistic behavior: You help me and I’ll help you.

    這是基本的利他原則:你幫我,我就幫你。

  • And ultimately, well all do better!

    最終,我們會一起變得更好!

  • So while some mean, cut-throat, or envious people may temporarily exploit and gain from others, in the long run, not only nice guys, but nice people, really do finish first.

    所以,或許有些惡劣、邪惡、愛忌妒的人,或許能短暫地從他人身上榨取利益,但長期來說,好人真的會有好報。

  • If you wanna learn more about the human condition and altruism, check out the book "The Selfish Gene" by Richard Dawkins, which this episode was based on.

    如果想暸解更多人類知識、利他理論,請看由 Richard Dawkins 所著的《自私的基因》,本片就是參考此書資料。

  • And if you like a good deal on books, especially textbooks, weve teamed up with our friends at slugbooks.com to get you the cheapest prices for the books you need.

    如果想得到划算的書價,特別是教科書,我們在 slugbooks.com 幫各位爭取到了最划算的價格。

  • Seriously, we know how expensive textbooks, in particular, can be.

    我們知道教科書有多貴。

  • So all you have to do is head to SlugBooks.com/AsapSCIENCE and search the ISBN number of the books you're looking for.

    你只需前往 SlugBooks.com/AsapSCIENCE,然後找到你要的書的 ISBN 碼。

  • SlugBooks will then compare prices from all across the net, and hopefully save you some money!

    SlugBooks 就會比較網路上所有的價格,幫你省錢!

  • Don’t forget, our own AsapSCIENCE book is now on pre-sale, too! There's links in the description for that.

    別忘了,我們 AsapSCIENCE 的書現在也在預售!連結在下方說明欄。

  • And subscribe for more weekly science videos!

    記得訂閱,以觀看更多每週科學影片喔!

Nice guys finish lastat least that’s how the saying goes.

好人沒好報——至少俗話是這麼說的。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 背叛 選擇 合作 蝙蝠 善良 自私

好人沒好報?你錯了!好人才是最終勝利者! (Nice Guys Finish First)

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    少少 發佈於 2021 年 11 月 15 日
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