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The power of yet.
I heard about a high school in Chicago
where students had to pass
a certain number of courses to graduate,

and if they didn't pass a course,
they got the grade "Not Yet."

And I thought that was fantastic,
because if you get a failing grade,
you think, I'm nothing, I'm nowhere.

But if you get the grade "Not Yet"
you understand that
you're on a learning curve.

It gives you a path into the future.
"Not Yet" also gave me insight
into a critical event early in my career,

a real turning point.
I wanted to see
how children coped
with challenge and difficulty,

so I gave 10-year-olds
problems that were
slightly too hard for them.

Some of them reacted
in a shockingly positive way.

They said things like,
"I love a challenge,"

or, "You know, I was hoping
this would be informative."

They understood
that their abilities could be developed.

They had what I call a growth mindset.
But other students felt
it was tragic, catastrophic.

From their more fixed mindset perspective,
their intelligence had been
up for judgment and they failed.

Instead of luxuriating
in the power of yet,

they were gripped in the tyranny of now.
So what do they do next?
I'll tell you what they do next.
In one study, they told us
they would probably cheat the next time

instead of studying more
if they failed a test.

In another study, after a failure,
they looked for someone
who did worse than they did

so they could feel really
good about themselves.

And in study after study,
they have run from difficulty.

Scientists measured
the electrical activity from the brain

as students confronted an error.
On the left, you see
the fixed mindset students.

There's hardly any activity.
They run from the error.
They don't engage with it.
But on the right, you have
the students with the growth mindset,

the idea that abilities can be developed.
They engage deeply.
Their brain is on fire with yet.
They engage deeply.
They process the error.
They learn from it and they correct it.
How are we raising our children?
Are we raising them for now
instead of yet?

Are we raising kids who are
obsessed with getting A's?

Are we raising kids who don't know
how to dream big dreams?

Their biggest goal is getting the next A
or the next test score?

And are they carrying this need
for constant validation with them

into their future lives?
Maybe, because employers
are coming to me and saying,

we have already raised a generation
of young workers who
can't get through the day

without an award.
So what can we do?
How can we build that bridge to yet?
Here are some things we can do.
First of all, we can praise wisely,
not praising intelligence or talent.

That has failed.
Don't do that anymore.
But praising the process
that kids engage in:

their effort, their strategies,
their focus, their perseverance,

their improvement.
This process praise
creates kids who are hardy and resilient.
There are other ways to reward yet.
We recently teamed up with game scientists
from the University of Washington
to create a new online math game
that rewarded yet.

In this game, students were rewarded
for effort, strategy and progress.

The usual math game
rewards you for getting
answers right right now,

but this game rewarded process.
And we got more effort,
more strategies,
more engagement over
longer periods of time,

and more perseverance when
they hit really, really hard problems.

Just the words "yet"
or "not yet," we're finding,

give kids greater confidence,
give them a path into the future
that creates greater persistence.

And we can actually
change students' mindsets.

In one study, we taught them
that every time they push
out of their comfort zone

to learn something new and difficult,
the neurons in their brain can form
new, stronger connections,

and over time they can get smarter.
Look what happened: in this study,
students who were not
taught this growth mindset

continued to show declining grades
over this difficult school transition,

but those who were taught this lesson
showed a sharp rebound in their grades.

We have shown this now,
this kind of improvement,

with thousands and thousands of kids,
especially struggling students.

So let's talk about equality.
In our country, there are
groups of students

who chronically underperform,
for example, children in inner cities,
or children on
Native American reservations.

And they've done so poorly for so long
that many people think it's inevitable.

But when educators create
growth mindset classrooms steeped in yet,

equality happens.
And here are just a few examples.
In one year, a kindergarten class
in Harlem, New York

scored in the 95th percentile
on the National Achievement Test.

Many of those kids could not hold a pencil
when they arrived at school.

In one year,
fourth grade students
in the South Bronx, way behind,

became the number one fourth grade class
in the state of New York

on the state math test.
In a year to a year and a half,
Native American students
in a school on a reservation

went from the bottom of their district
to the top,

and that district included
affluent sections of Seattle.

So the native kids outdid
the Microsoft kids.

This happened because the meaning
of effort and difficulty were transformed.
Before, effort and difficulty
made them feel dumb,
made them feel like giving up,

but now, effort and difficulty,
that's when their neurons
are making new connections,

stronger connections.
That's when they're getting smarter.
I received a letter recently
from a 13-year-old boy.

He said, "Dear Professor Dweck,
I appreciate that your writing is based
on solid scientific research,

and that's why I decided
to put it into practice.

I put more effort into my schoolwork,
into my relationship with my family,
and into my relationship
with kids at school,

and I experienced great improvement
in all of those areas.

I now realize I've wasted
most of my life."

Let's not waste any more lives,
because once we know
that abilities are capable of such growth,
it becomes a basic human right
for children, all children,

to live in places that create that growth,
to live in places filled with yet.
Thank you.
(Applause)
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【TED】卡蘿·德威克: 相信你能進步的力量 (The power of believing that you can improve | Carol Dweck)

97472 分類 收藏
CUChou 發佈於 2015 年 1 月 17 日
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