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  • The power of yet.

    「還沒」的力量。

  • I heard about a high school in Chicago where students had to pass a certain number of courses to graduate,

    我聽說芝加哥有一所高中,學生必須過了一定數量的必修課才能畢業,

  • and if they didn't pass a course, they got the grade "Not Yet".

    如果他們有某門課沒過,那門成績就打成「還沒過」。

  • And I thought that was fantastic.

    我認為這超棒的。

  • Because if you get a failing grade, you think, "I'm nothing; I'm nowhere."

    因為如果你被當,你就會想:「我什麼都不是、一事無成。」

  • But if you get the grade "Not Yet", you understand that you're on a learning curve.

    但是如果你的成績寫的是「還沒過」,你知道你還在學習中。

  • It gives you a path into the future.

    它給你一條生路。

  • "Not Yet" also gave me insight into a critical event early in my career, a real turning point.

    「還沒」也讓我在早期職業生涯中對一件很關鍵的事有深入的了解,一個真正的轉捩點。

  • I wanted to see how children coped with challenge and difficulty.

    那時我想知道孩童如何應付挑戰與困難。

  • So, I gave 10-year-olds problems that were slightly too hard for them.

    所以我給十歲的孩童一些有點超齡的問題。

  • Some of them reacted in a shockingly positive way.

    有些孩童的反應驚人之積極。

  • They said things like, "I love a challenge," or, "You know, I was hoping this would be informative."

    他們會說像是「我喜歡挑戰」,或「你知道嗎?我本來就希望這會讓我有更多的認識。」

  • They understood that their abilities could be developed.

    他們瞭解他們的能力是可以培養的。

  • They had what I call a "growth mindset".

    他們擁有我所謂的「成長型思維」。

  • But other students felt it was tragic, catastrophic.

    但是其他的學生卻覺得很悲慘、被擊敗了。

  • From their more fixed mindset perspective, their intelligence had been up for judgment and they failed.

    從他們傾向固定型思維的觀點來看,他們的智力受到判斷,而他們失敗了。

  • Instead of luxuriating in the power of yet, they were gripped in the tyranny of now.

    他們不但不能盡情享受「還沒」的力量,他們反而困在目前的艱難處境。

  • So, what do they do next?

    所以他們下一步會怎麼做?

  • I'll tell you what they do next.

    我告訴你們他們下一步會怎麼做。

  • In one study, they told us they would probably cheat the next time instead of studying more if they failed a test.

    在一項研究中,他們告訴我們如果他們沒考過,他們下次可能會作弊,而不是更用功念書。

  • In another study, after a failure, they looked for someone who did worse than they did so they could feel really good about themselves.

    在另一項研究中,在當掉之後,他們就去找比他們考得還糟的人, 所以他們能自我感覺良好。

  • And in study after study, they have run from difficulty.

    一項又一項的研究顯示,他們會逃避困難。

  • Scientists measured the electrical activity from the brain as students confronted an error.

    科學家測量腦電活動,看學生在出錯時的狀況。

  • On the left, you see the fixed mindset students.

    在左方,你看到的是固定型思維的學生。

  • There's hardly any activity.

    幾乎測不出什麼活動。

  • They run from the error.

    他們逃避錯誤。

  • They don't engage with it.

    他們一點也不想參與。

  • But on the right, you have the students with the growth mindset, the idea that abilities can be developed.

    但在右邊,你看到成長型思維的學生,即能力是可以培養的想法。

  • They engage deeply; their brain is on fire with yet.

    他們努力參與。他們的腦部活動如火如荼,因為「還沒」。

  • They engage deeply.

    他們努力參與。

  • They process the error, they learn from it, and they correct it.

    他們思考錯誤、從中學習並予以修正。

  • How are we raising our children?

    我們是怎麼教養我們的孩子?

  • Are we raising them for now instead of yet?

    我們教養是只看眼前的成果而不顧成長的發展?

  • Are we raising kids who are obsessed with getting A's?

    我們要教養出一心一意只想得 100 分的孩子?

  • Are we raising kids who don't know how to dream big dreams?

    我們要教養出不知道如何作遠大夢想的孩子?

  • Their biggest goal is getting the next A or the next test score?

    他們最大的目標是再拿一個 100 分或是通過下次考試?

  • And are they carrying this need for constant validation with them into their future lives?

    難道他們一輩子都依賴於不斷地確認他們很棒?

  • Maybe, because employers are coming to me and saying,

    或許,是因為有雇主來找我並對我說:

  • "We have already raised a generation of young workers who can't get through the day without an award."

    「我們已經教養出一個年輕世代,他們不知道要怎麼過 沒有獎勵的一天。 」

  • So, what can we do?

    所以我們要怎麼做?

  • How can we build that bridge to yet?

    我們要如何築橋把「還沒」與現在連起來?

  • Here are some things we can do.

    這些是我們能做的。

  • First of all, we can praise wisely, not praising intelligence or talentthat has failed.

    第一,我們要有智慧地讚美,不是讚美他們的聰明或才能,這樣的讚美已經沒有用。

  • Don't do that anymore.

    不要再重蹈覆轍。

  • But praising the process that kids engage in.

    而是要讚美孩子參與的過程。

  • Their effort, their strategies, their focus, their perseverance, their improvement.

    他們的努力、他們的策略、他們的專注、他們的堅持、他們的進步。

  • This process praise creates kids who are hardy and resilient.

    讚美他們的努力會教養出堅忍不拔的孩子。

  • There are other ways to reward yet.

    還有其他的方法獎勵「還沒」。

  • We recently teamed up with game scientists from the University of Washington to create a new online math game that rewarded yet.

    我們最近與華盛頓大學的電玩學家合作, 設計了一套新的線上數學遊戲,獎勵「還沒」。

  • In this game, students were rewarded for effort, strategy, and progress.

    在這個遊戲中,學生因其努力、策略及過程而受到獎勵。

  • The usual math game rewards you for getting answers right right now, but this game rewarded process.

    一般的數學遊戲在你答對的瞬間獎勵你, 這組遊戲獎勵的則是過程。

  • And we got more effort, more strategies, more engagement over longer periods of time, and more perseverance when they hit really, really hard problems.

    我們看到學生更加努力、想出更多的策略, 花更長的時間更積極地參與, 在他們碰到真的很難很難的問題時,更有毅力。

  • Just the words "yet" or "not yet," we're finding, give kids greater confidence, give them a path into the future that creates greater persistence.

    我們發現簡單一句「還沒」或「還可以更好」,就能給孩子更多的信心, 給他們邁向未來的一條生路,能更有毅力。

  • And we can actually change students' mindsets.

    我們還能真正改變學生的思維。

  • In one study, we taught them that every time they push out of their comfort zone to learn something new and difficult,

    在一項研究中,我們教導他們每次他們把自己推出熟悉的舒適區, 去學習新的、難的東西,

  • the neurons in their brain can form new, stronger connections, and over time, they can get smarter.

    他們腦中的神經元就開始形成新的、更強的連結,一段時間後他們變得更聰明了。

  • Look what happened.

    來看看發生了什麼。

  • In this study, students who were not taught this growth mindset continued to show declining grades over this difficult school transition,

    在這項研究中,沒有接受成長型思維教學的學生在升班換學校等困難時刻,顯示成績持續下滑,

  • but those who were taught this lesson showed a sharp rebound in their grades.

    但是有接受這門思維課程的學生則顯示成績大幅反彈。

  • We have shown this now, this kind of improvement, with thousands and thousands of kids, especially struggling students.

    現在我們已經在成千上萬的孩童上看到這種進步,特別是苦苦掙扎的學生。

  • So, let's talk about equality.

    所以讓我們來談一下平等。

  • In our country, there are groups of students who chronically underperform, for example, children in inner cities or children on Native American reservations.

    在美國,有幾類學生長期表現不佳, 例如貧民區的孩童, 或是美國原住民保留區的孩童。

  • And they've done so poorly for so long that many people think it's inevitable.

    他們的表現長期如此之差,大家都認為他們就是這樣。

  • But when educators create growth mindset classrooms steeped in yet, equality happens.

    但是當老師以「還沒」觀點設計成長型思維教學法,平等就發生了。

  • And here are just a few examples.

    隨便舉幾個例子。

  • In one year, a kindergarten class in Harlem, New York, scored in the 95th percentile on the National Achievement Test.

    僅一年的時間,紐約哈林區的一個幼稚園班,其全國能力測驗得分率高達 95%。

  • Many of those kids could not hold a pencil when they arrived at school.

    其中很多小孩剛進學校的時候還不會拿筆。

  • In one year, fourth-grade students in the South Bronx, way behind, became the number-one fourth-grade class in the state of New York on the state math test.

    僅一年時間,紐約市南布朗克斯區嚴重落後的四年級學生, 變成紐約州全州數學測驗排名第一的四年級生。

  • In a year to a year and a half, Native American students in a school on a reservation went from the bottom of their district to the top,

    僅一年到一年半, 某美國原住民保留區一所學校的學生成績從學區的墊底直升第一,

  • and that district included affluent sections of Seattle.

    而且那個學區還包括 西雅圖的富裕區。

  • So, the native kids outdid the Microsoft kids.

    所以原住民小孩比微軟小孩棒多了。

  • This happened because the meaning of effort and difficulty were transformed.

    能有此結果是因為努力與困難的意義有所轉變。

  • Before, effort and difficulty made them feel dumb, made them feel like giving up,

    之前,努力與困難讓他們覺得很蠢、讓他們覺得很想放棄,

  • but now, effort and difficulty, that's when their neurons are making new connections, stronger connections.

    但是現在,努力與困難成了他們神經元產生新連結的時候,還是更強的連結。

  • That's when they're getting smarter.

    那就是他們變更聰明的時候。

  • I received a letter recently from a 13-year-old boy.

    我最近收到一封 13 歲男孩寫給我的信。

  • He said, "Dear Professor Dweck, I appreciate that your writing is based on solid scientific research, and that's why I decided to put it into practice."

    他說:「親愛的德威克教授,我明白你的文章有紮實的科學根據,這就是為什麼我決定要將其付諸實踐。 」

  • "I put more effort into my schoolwork, into my relationship with my family, and into my relationship with kids at school,"

    「我在課業上下了更多工夫, 還有我與我家人的關係上,還有我與同學的關係上,」

  • "and I experienced great improvement in all of those areas."

    而我在這些方面都經歷長足進步,」

  • "I now realize I've wasted most of my life."

    「我現在才明瞭之前我多浪費生命。」

  • Let's not waste any more lives.

    不要再浪費生命了。

  • Because once we know that abilities are capable of such growth,

    因為一但我們知道能力是能如此培養成長的,

  • it becomes a basic human right for children, all children, to live in places that create that growth, to live in places filled with yet.

    它就變成孩童、所有孩童的基本人權, 在創造此等成長的地方生活,在充滿「還沒」的氛圍下生活。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

The power of yet.

「還沒」的力量。

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A2 初級 中文 美國腔 TED 孩童 學生 思維 獎勵 讚美

【TED】卡蘿·德威克: 相信你能進步的力量 (The power of believing that you can improve | Carol Dweck)

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    CUChou 發佈於 2022 年 11 月 19 日
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