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  • Hi again. Welcome back to I'm Adam, and today's lesson is about prepositions.


  • Everybody's favourite little words that get in the middle of everything.


  • And cause you lots of troubles, and headaches, and confusion.


  • Especially if you're writing, this is the worst part, but even if you're not, always causes problems.


  • Today's prepositions that we're going to look at: "to" and "for."

    今天的介詞,我們要看,"to "和 "for"。

  • Now, there isn't really a set rule for these prepositions, they can be used in many different ways.


  • What I'm going to try to show you today is when to use "to" instead of "for", when to use "for" instead of "to."

    我今天要試著告訴大家的是,什麼時候用 "要 "代替 "為",什麼時候用 "為 "代替 "要"。

  • Now, to do that, we first have to look at why or situations in which we use these prepositions.


  • So let's start. If you want to express a reason, okay.


  • Then you're going to use "to" or "for".

    那你就要用 "要 "或 "為"。

  • "I went to the store", "why?" "To buy milk." "I went to the store", "why?" "For milk."


  • What's the difference between these two? Should be very clear I think. Here I have a verb.


  • Here I'm only talking about the noun so we use "to".

    這裡我只說名詞,所以我們用 "到"。

  • Now, technically, this is not a preposition. Okay. This is an infinitive verb marker, but it looks like a preposition.

    現在,技術上,這不是一個介詞。好吧,這是一個不定式動詞標記,但看起來像介詞。這是一個不定式動詞標記, 但它看起來像一個介詞。

  • So we'll treat it as one for now. Verb, noun, that's the difference when you're talking about reason.


  • Now, before we go to the next one, I want you to look at this.


  • "I went to the store", whenever you have a sort of a movement. Sorry. And you have a destination.


  • So by movement I mean: "go", "walk", "drive", "take the bus," for example.

    所以我所說的動作是指:"走"、"走"、"開車"、"坐公交 "等。"走","走","開車","坐公車",例如。

  • Anything that involves you moving or going somewhere .

    任何涉及到你搬家或去某個地方的事情 。

  • And then you're talking about the destination means the place that you are going to.


  • It's always going to be "to", and this is very much a preposition showing direction. Okay?

    它總是會是 "到",這是非常多的介詞顯示方向。好嗎?

  • Now, there are of course exceptions. There are situations where you can use "for".

    現在,當然也有例外。在某些情況下,你可以使用 "for"。

  • "Head for the hills", "Make for the lobby", okay, but very, very specific situations.


  • Very specific verbs and you're not going to use them that often because they're not as common.


  • Easier to just use "go", okay? Next, if you want to point out a recipient.

    用 "去 "更方便,好嗎?接下來,如果你想點出一個收件人。

  • What is a recipient? A person who receives something. Okay?


  • "Give this to her.", "This is for her." Now you're thinking: "Well, her, her, what's the difference? They look exactly the same."


  • So here is why I wrote: "verb". In this situation, you're not worried about the preposition.


  • You're worried about the verb. In this case, "give", in this case: "is". Okay?


  • When you... again, when you have motion.

    當你... 再次,當你有運動。

  • And here, "her" or the person is like a destination. It's not a place, but it's the recipient.

    而在這裡,"她 "或人就像一個目的地。它不是一個地方,但它是接受者。

  • Recipient is similar to a destination except you have place and person. Okay?


  • You have motion and recipient, use "to". When you have situation, then you're going to use "for". Okay?

    你有動作和接受者,就用 "到"。當你有情況時,那麼你要用 "為"。明白了嗎?

  • So it all depends on the verb, not the preposition.


  • Now, another example, "Can you send this fax to her?" "Send" means motion, you're gonna be doing something.

    現在,另一個例子,"你能把這個傳真發給她嗎?""發送 "的意思是運動, 你要做的事情。

  • You're gonna be moving something. "I made this cake for her."


  • "Made", you're not moving anything, nothing's changing hands. Right? You made it.


  • This is the situation and it's for her. Eventually she will be the recipient.


  • "I made this for her. Can you give it to her?" Right? So I'm using both: one motion "to", situation "for".

    "這是我為她做的。你能給她嗎?"對不對?所以我用了兩個詞:一個動作 "給",情況 "為"。

  • Here's another one, intention. What do you want the person to do?


  • So, "Ask John", or: "Could you please ask John to send me the file?", "Ask John for the file."


  • Again, we have two verbs of the infinitive and we have "for", a noun.

    同樣,我們有兩個不定式的動詞,我們有 "為 "這個名詞。

  • Now, the meaning here is pretty much the same. It's all about the expectation. What do you expect?


  • When you say: "to send", you're expecting an action, you're concerned about this.


  • You want John to do this. If you're using "for", you care more about the file.

    你想讓約翰來做這個。如果你用的是 "for",你更關心的是文件。

  • You don't care how John gets it. If he like picks it up and walks it over, great. You care about the file.


  • Here, you care about the action. Care about the action, here you care about the thing.


  • Now, in this case, the verb is not so important. It's the meaning, the intention.


  • But, I'm going to look at a few more examples where the verb makes all the difference.


  • Okay, so here are a few more examples, and remember what I said about the verbs.


  • Different verbs will use "to" and "for" differently. Right?

    不同的動詞會有不同的 "為 "和 "為 "的用法。對不對?

  • "Invite". "Invite someone to a party", but "Invite someone for dinner."

    "邀請"。"請人参加聚會",但 "請人吃飯"。

  • You could invite them to dinner, but it's a little bit different meaning.


  • If you invite someone to dinner, means the event of the dinner. So this is about the event. Okay?


  • The social event like a party, a wedding, a dinner where many people come and sit together.


  • "Invite someone for dinner." means invite them to eat. Okay? Just to come and have food.

    "請人吃飯 "的意思是請他們吃飯。意思是請他們吃飯,好嗎?就是來吃東西的意思。

  • If you invite someone to dinner, you're inviting them to the dinner party.


  • It's a little bit different. Here you're inviting for a thing. Here you're inviting for an event.


  • Now, I put this in a question form and you'll understand why in a second.


  • "What did you do to him?", "What did you do for him?"


  • The first one: "What did you do to him?" means you directed some sort of action at him. You... "I yelled at him." Okay?

    第一條"你對他做了什麼? "意思是你對他做了某種動作。你..."我對他大喊大叫"好嗎?

  • "What did I do for him?" I did something on his behalf, instead of him. Okay?


  • "I took the test for him." Now, so we'll... we'll call this a directed action.

    "我為他做了測試"現在,所以我們會... 我們會把這稱為定向行動。

  • And we'll say on behalf means in his place. Now, you notice the answers? Did you notice my answers?


  • "What did you do to him?", "I yelled at him." I'm not using "to" or "for" in the answer.

    "你對他做了什麼?","我對他大吼大叫"。我在回答中沒有用 "對 "或 "為"。

  • I'm showing "at" him means in that direction, the yelling, but "What did you do for him?".

    我表現出 "在 "他的意思是在那個方向,大喊大叫,但 "你為他做了什麼?"。

  • "I took his test for him." Okay? So there I could use "for him" in the answer.

    "我幫他做了測試"好嗎?所以我可以用 "為他 "來回答。

  • "To" I can't use in the answer, only in the question with "do." Oh sorry, with "do". Okay?

    "要 "我不能用在答案中,只能用在帶 "做 "的問題中。哦,對不起,用 "做"。好嗎?

  • Now, we can also use "to" and "for" as a complement, mean a complement is a phrase that completes the meaning of something before.

    現在,我們還可以用 "以 "和 "為 "來做補語,意思是補語是完成前面某件事的意思。

  • So I want to say,


  • "To make a...use spiced Clamato juice." For what? To make a perfect Caesar."

    "要做一個... ...用香料Clamato汁。"用來做什麼?做一個完美的凱撒。"

  • A Caesar is a drink, it's an alcoholic drink. Vodka, Clamato juice, tabasco, a little spices, it's very delicious.


  • Very Canadian drink. "For a perfect Caesar, use spiced Clamato."


  • Again, I have the infinitive verb, I have the "for" thing, noun/verb.

    同樣,我有不定式動詞,我有 "為 "的東西,名詞/動詞。

  • That's the only difference when we're talking about complement. Okay, and finally let's look at "used to".

    這就是我們說的補語時唯一的區別。好了,最後我們來看一下 "曾經"。

  • So, "be used to", "be used for". Very different meanings and uses here.


  • "Be used to", for example, "I am used to the weather in Canada".

    "習慣",比如 "我習慣了加拿大的天氣"。

  • So for example, many people come to Canada in the winter, they're like "Oh my God, it's so cold here", they're shocked.

    所以舉個例子,很多人冬天來加拿大,他們會說 "天啊,這裡太冷了",他們很震驚。

  • But me, I'm used to it. I'm comfortable with it. I'm familiar with it.


  • I can also be... I can also use "Be used to" to show purpose.

    我也可以用...我也可以用 "習慣於 "來表示目的。

  • So, "this marker is used to write things with", but with "for", I can only use it for a use or a purpose.

    所以,"這個記號是用來寫東西用的",但用 "為",我只能用它的用途或目的。

  • "This marker is used for writing". I can only talk about the purpose, the... what... how this tool is being used.

    "這支筆是用來寫字的"。我只能說說這個工具的用途... 什麼... 如何使用。

  • What is the use of it? Okay? So that's the difference between "be used to" and "be used for".

    它有什麼用?好不好?所以這就是 "被用來 "和 "被用來 "的區別。

  • Now, I know it's still a little bit confusing.


  • But if you go to, there's a quiz there that you can practice "to" and "for".

    但如果你去,那裡有一個測驗,你可以練習 "to "和 "for"。

  • And of course, check me out on YouTube. Subscribe to my channel.


  • And I'll see you again, real soon. Bye.


Hi again. Welcome back to I'm Adam, and today's lesson is about prepositions.


由 AI 自動生成

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2015 年 01 月 25 日