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  • The most important walls in western history aren't even in the West.

    西方歷史裡最重要的一面牆 並不是在西方世界。

  • They surround the modern city of Istanbul, Constantinople as the Romans called it.

    這面牆圍繞著現在的伊斯坦堡, 羅馬人稱呼它為君士坦丁堡。

  • And for a thousand years, the fate of Europe depended on them.

    將近有一千年的歷史, 歐州的命運與它有關。

  • Constantinople was designed to be the center of the world.


  • When the frontiers of the Roman Empire began to crumble in the 4th Century,

    當四世紀 羅馬帝國開始分裂時,

  • the capital was moved to the cultured, wealthy, and still stable East.

    它的首都就移到 文明、富裕、在當時算穩定的東方。

  • There, at the crossroads between Europe and Asia, the hub of the major trade routes of the ancient world,

    那裡是歐亞交界 也是許多古代貿易路線的交會處,

  • the Emperor Constantine built his city.


  • This was the city of libraries and universities,


  • 20 times the size of London or Paris at the time.


  • It contained the priceless knowledge of the classical world which was fading in the West.

    裡頭充滿了無價的先人智慧, 但它們正逐漸被西方世界遺忘。

  • To protect this masterpiece from its many enemies,

    為了要保護這些智慧結晶 免於敵人破壞,

  • Constantine's successors built the finest defensive fortifications ever made.

    君士坦丁大帝的後繼者建了一座 有史以來最精良的防禦工事。

  • The first line of protection was a moat 60 feet wide and 22 feet deep,

    這一道防禦是一座 60 英尺寬 22 英尺深的護城河,

  • stretching all four miles from coast to coast.

    從東岸到西岸 延伸了四英里長。

  • Pipes from inside the city could fill it at the first sight of the enemy,

    連接到城內的管線 使得第一眼看到敵人時就可以填滿它。

  • and a short wall protected archers who could fire at the soaked soldiers trying to swim across.

    還有一座矮牆掩護弓箭手, 他們可以攻擊嘗試渡河因而一身濕的敵人。

  • Those who were lucky enough to clear the moat had to contend with an unceasing barrage from the 27 foot outer wall above.

    那些可以幸運突破護城河的人, 還要面臨 27 英尺高的外牆射下來的槍林彈雨。

  • Arrows, spears, or far worse, Greek fire -- an ancient form of napalm that would ignite on contact

    箭如雨下:有弓箭、長矛、或是更可怕的希臘火 ──那是古代版本的汽油彈,

  • and couldn't be extinguished by water -- would rain down on them.


  • Squads of Roman defenders would carry portable flame throwers,

    羅馬的防禦者會帶著 攜帶式火焰投擲器,

  • spraying anyone trying to climb out of the moat.


  • The terrified victims would leap back, only to find that they still burned underwater.

    被嚇著的敵人可能會跳回河裡, 卻只發現在水裡火依舊在燃燒。

  • At times, the Romans would also mount siphons onto the ramparts,

    有時,羅馬人還會在城牆上架設虹吸管 對敵人噴火,

  • and launch clay pots full of Greek fire from catapults at an invading army.

    或是用投石機對進犯的敵軍 投出裝滿希臘火的陶罐。

  • The front lines would turn into an inferno,


  • making it appear as if the earth itself was on fire.


  • If, by some miracle, the outer wall was compromised,

    如果奇蹟般地 外牆被攻破了,

  • attackers would be faced with the final defense: the great inner wall.

    進攻方就要面臨最後一層防禦 ──高大的內牆。

  • These walls were wide enough to have four men ride side by side,

    這牆寬到可以讓 四個人肩併肩騎馬通過,

  • allowing troops to be rushed wherever they were needed.

    這使得部隊可以 迅速移動到任何緊急的地方。

  • Attilla the Hun, destroyer of civilizations, who named himself the Scourge of God,

    匈人阿提拉自號「上帝之鞭」, 並且是文明的破壞者,

  • took one look at them and turned around.

    他看著這面牆一會兒 然後就掉頭走了。

  • The Avars battled the walls uselessly til their catapults ran out of rocks.

    阿瓦爾人使用投石機打到石頭沒了, 卻沒有成功。

  • The Turks tried to tunnel under them, but found the foundations too solid.

    土耳其人想要鑽地道進去, 卻發現地基太結實了。

  • The Arabs tried to starve the city into submission,


  • but ran out of food themselves and had to resort to cannibalism.

    但自己卻先糧食不足, 最終變成人吃人的囧境。

  • It took the guns of the modern world to finally bring them down.

    最後打倒這面牆的 是現代槍砲。

  • In 1453, the Turks brought their super weapon:

    在 1453 年, 土耳其人帶來了他們的超級武器:

  • a monster cannon that could fire a 15 hundred pound stone ball over a mile.

    一座巨型大砲, 它可以將 1,500 磅的石砲打到一英里外。

  • Together with more than a hundred smaller guns,


  • they kept up a steady bombardment day and night.


  • A section of the old walls collapsed, but even in their death throes they proved formidable.

    這座古牆的一小塊塌了, 但在這牆的毀滅中,它依舊證實了它的可畏。

  • The rubble absorbed the shock of the cannonballs better than the solid wall.

    這些碎石堆比起堅固的牆 更能吸收大砲的衝擊。

  • It took a month and a half of continuous blasting to finally open a breach.

    共花了一個半月的持續轟炸 最終於打出一個缺口。

  • The last Roman Emperor, Constantine the 11th, drew his sword

    最後一任羅馬皇帝君士坦丁十一世, 舉起他的劍,

  • and jumped into the gap to stop the onrushing horde,

    跳進缺口中要抵擋 來勢洶洶的敵軍,

  • disappearing into legend.


  • The city was taken, and the Roman Empire finally disappeared.

    這城市被攻破, 羅馬皇帝最終消失了。

  • But those broken walls had one last gift.

    但那些破碎的城牆 留下了最後一項禮物。

  • As the survivors fled the doomed city, they brought with them their precious books and their ancient traditions.

    當倖存者逃離這即將滅亡的城市時, 他們也帶著他們珍貴的圖書以及古老的傳統。

  • They traveled west to Italy, reintroduced the Greek language and learning to western Europe, and ignited the Renaissance.

    他們往西移動到義大利,再次將希臘的語言和智慧 帶到西歐,並點燃了文藝復興。

  • Thanks to Constantinople's walls, that pile of brick and marble that guarded them for so long,

    多虧了君士坦丁的城牆, 那些守護他們許久的磚頭石塊,

  • we still have our classical past.


The most important walls in western history aren't even in the West.

西方歷史裡最重要的一面牆 並不是在西方世界。


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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 敵人 防禦 羅馬 城牆 土耳其人

TED-Ed】城牆之城。君士坦丁堡--拉爾斯-布朗沃斯 (【TED-Ed】The city of walls: Constantinople - Lars Brownworth)

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日