Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • Thank you. Today I want to tell you about the power of "yet." I learned in High School

    謝謝,今天我想告訴你們「再試一下」的力量。我曾研究芝加哥的某所高中

  • in Chicago where students had to pass eighty four units to graduate and if they didn't

    那所高中的學生必須通過八十四個單元考驗才能畢業。如果他們沒有

  • pass they got the grade "not yet." I thought, isn't that wonderful? Because if you fail

    通過,成績欄就會顯示「成就尚未達成」。我想,這不是很棒嗎?因為假如你失敗了,

  • you're nowhere but if you get the grade "not yet" you're on a learning curve. "Not yet"

    你什麼都沒有,但如果成績顯示「尚未達成」,代表你不過處在學習曲線的某一階段罷了。「未達成」

  • gave them a path into the future. And "not yet" also helped me understand a critical

    給予學生通往未來的一條路徑。而這「未達成」也助於我了解自己早期工作時的一個關鍵

  • experience early in my career. To figure out how kids cope with challenge, I gave ten year

    經歷—挖掘兒童如何因應挑戰。我給一些十歲的小孩

  • olds some problems that were a little too difficult for them. Some of them reacted in

    幾道高出他們目前能力的難題,有些小孩面對難題時,反應

  • a shockingly positive way. They said things like, "I love a challenge!" or "I was hoping

    十分正向,這令我感到詫異。他們是這樣說的:「我好喜歡挑戰!」或是「這讓我

  • this would be informative!" They understood that their abilities could grow through their

    增廣見聞!」他們明白,遭逢逆境後,自身能力會有所增長

  • hard work. They had what I would call a "growth mindset." But for other children it was tragic,

    我會稱這些孩子擁有「成長型心態」。但對其他小孩而言,遭逢難題簡直是場終極悲劇

  • catastrophic from their more fixed mindset perspective their core intelligence had been

    原因是他們處在「固定型心態」之中,他們的核心智力遭受

  • tested and devastated. Instead of the power of "yet" they were gripped by the "tyranny

    考驗,最後毀於一旦。除了「再試一下」的力量常受制於

  • of now." So what did they do next? In one study, after a failure on a test, they said

    「當下定成敗」的衝擊。所以這樣的孩子之後該何去何從?一份研究指出,在經過一次考試的失敗後,學生坦言,

  • they'd cheat next time instead of study more. In another study they found someone who did

    下一次考試會選擇作弊,而不是更用功讀書。另一份研究闡述,他們發現有人表現比他們還要差時,

  • worse than they did so they could feel better. And in many studies we found they run from

    就會覺得心情好一點。而從很多研究中,我們發現,他們傾向逃避

  • difficulty. Let's look at how that looks in the brain. Moser and his colleagues measured

    考驗。讓我們一同來看不同心態的學生,會有怎樣的腦部反應差異。Moser與他的同事測量

  • from the brain as kids encountered errors. Processing the error shows up in red. If you

    學生在犯錯時的腦部變化。在犯錯的過程中,腦部區塊反應以「紅色」呈現。如果你

  • look at the fixed mindset brain on the left nothing is happening. But if you look at the

    看左圖,會發現持固定型心態的學生,大腦沒有任何反應。但如果你對照

  • growth mind-set on the right it's on fire with "yet!" They're processing the error deeply

    右圖,持增長型心態的學生腦中一股「再試一下」的大火正熊熊燃燒!他們正深入錯誤,從中

  • learning from it and correcting it. So, how are we raising our kids? Are we raising them

    學習並改正。話說回來,我們該如何教育我們的小孩呢?我們是以「當下定成敗」

  • for a growth now or for "yet?" Are they focused on the next "A" or test score instead of dreaming

    還是「再試一下」作為養育方針呢?孩子是不是滿腦只想著拿到下一個A等第,而不是勇敢

  • big? Instead of thinking about what they want to be and how they want to contribute to society?

    做大夢呢?是不是沒有想過想增就怎樣的自我,或是該如何為社會貢獻一份心力呢?

  • And if they are too focused on "A's" and test scores, are they going to carry this with

    假如我們太過希望小孩拿到A,或是拿到好成績,他們是否在未來也一直

  • them into the future? Maybe. Because many employers are coming to me and saying, "we've

    背著這樣的包袱?或許如此。因為許多雇用者都問我:「我們

  • already created a generation of young workers who can't get through the day without a reward."

    塑造出的年輕一代,如果沒有給予他們肯定,他們就撐不下去。」

  • So, what can we do? How can we build that bridge to "yet?" First, we can praise wisely.

    所以,我們該怎麼做?我們如何建立一座「再試一次」的橋樑呢?首先,我們可以大力讚美孩子

  • Our research shows that when we praise kids for the process they engage in for their hard

    我們所做的研究顯示,在孩子歷經困難挑戰後,我們讚美他們努力的過程、

  • work, their strategies, their focus, their perseverance - they learn that challenge seeking.

    所採取的策略、專注力與恆心,他們就了解應從挑戰中學習

  • They learn that resilience. Praising talent, praising intelligence makes them vulnerable.

    了解自我復原力。若一味稱讚孩子的才華、智力,只會讓他們脆弱不堪。

  • There are other ways of rewarding "yet." We teamed up with game scientist at the University

    仍有其他辦法可以肯定「再試一次」的精神。我們與華盛頓大學的遊戲科學家合作,

  • of Washington to create a math game: Brain points. The typical math game rewards right

    研發一款數學遊戲:大腦點數。傳統的數學遊戲是因答對而給予肯定,

  • answers, right now. But not Brain Points. We rewarded process and the learning curve

    也就是「當下定成敗」,但大腦點數計分方式不同。我們針對孩子在遊戲的過程與其學習曲線的變化給予肯定

  • so effort, strategy and progress. The Brain Points game created more sustained learning

    也就是付出心力、策略與進步。大腦點數遊戲比傳統遊戲多營造了持之以恆的學習模式與毅力

  • and perseverance than the standard game. And just the words "yet" and "not yet" after a

    而我們發現,「再來一次」與「尚未達成」的評定

  • student has a setback we're finding creates greater confidence and greater persistence.

    為經歷挫折後的學生增加自信與持之以恆的動力

  • We also can change students mind-sets directly. In one study, we taught students that every

    我們也直接改變學生的心態。其中一份研究表示,我們教導學生

  • time they pushed out of their comfort zone to learn something really really hard and

    每次都把自己推出舒適圈外,試著學習很難很難的內容

  • they stuck to it the neurons in their brain could form new, stronger connections and over

    在處理難題的過程中,腦神經都會產生更強的鍵結

  • time they could become smarter. Those who learned this lesson showed a sharp increase

    經歷一段時間後,他們可以變得更聰明。那些了解這個道裡的學生,之後的課業成績表現

  • in their grades. Those who did not showed a decrease. We have done this with thousands

    進步明顯。那些並未了解這個道理的學生,成績則退步了。目前為止,我們已研究美國境內近千位

  • of students now across the country with similar results. Especially for struggling students.

    學生,所得結果大同小異,尤其著重在身處難題過程的學生反應

  • So let's talk about equality. In our country there are groups of kids who chronically show

    所以,我們現在來談「平等」。在美國,有許多孩童長期下來

  • poor performance and many people think that's inevitable. But when educators create growth

    的表現不佳,而許多人認為,這樣的結果無可厚非。但當老師營造出一個成長型

  • mind-set environments steeped in "yet" equality can happen". Let me give you a few small examples.

    心態的學習環境時,「再試一下」所形成的平等就會發生。讓我舉些例子:

  • One teacher took her Harlem kindergarten class, many of whom could not hold a pencil for the

    有位老師教導位在哈倫區的一所幼稚園班級,在第一個月,班上小朋友連鉛筆都握不穩

  • first month, threw daily tantrums, she took them to the 95th percentile on the National

    愛耍脾氣,但他帶領學生在全國成就測驗達到 PR95 的佳績

  • Achievement Test. That same teacher took a fourth grade class in the South Bronx - way

    同樣的這位老師教導位於布朗克斯南部的四年級放牛班

  • behind - she took them to the top of New York State on the state math test. That teacher

    她成功讓該班奪得紐約州數學第一名。這位老師

  • is a Stanford grad and she's here today. And another Stanford grad, Phd student, now a

    是史丹佛碩士生,而今天,她就站在這裡。另一位史丹佛博士生,如今已是位

  • professor, went back to her Native American reservation in the state of Washington. She

    教授,回到位在自己所屬的華盛頓印地安人居住地任教

  • transformed the elementary school in terms of a growth mind-set. That school had always

    她將國小轉變為成長型心態學習環境。那所學校一直以來都是該區

  • been at the bottom of the district - at the bottom of the state! Within a year to a year

    吊車尾,甚至是全州吊車尾!在一年半內,

  • and a half, the kindergarteners and first graders were at the top of the district in

    那些幼稚園小孩和小一學童在閱讀測驗與閱讀準備度測驗奪下雙料冠軍

  • reading and reading-readiness. That district contained affluent sections of Seattle so

    該區涵括西雅圖富裕地區,所以這些

  • the reservation kids outdid the Microsoft kids. And they did it because learning a growth

    原住民小孩的表現還遠遠勝過「微軟子女」。他們之所以能成功,原因在於,成長型心態

  • mindset transformed the meaning of effort and difficulty. It used to mean they were

    轉變了心力與困境的定義。過去,這些低成就學生認定自己

  • dumb and now it means they have a chance to get smarter. Difficulty just meant "not yet."

    愚鈍,而現在卻代表他們獲得變得更加聰明的機會。困境指代表「尚未達成」

  • Last year I got a letter from a thirteen year old boy. He said, "Dear Professor Dweck, I

    去年,我收到一位十三歲男孩寄來的信。他說:「親愛的杜威克教授,我讀了

  • read your book already. I liked the fact that it was based on sound scientific research. That's

    妳寫的書,我喜歡妳在經過完善的科學研究後得出的事實。這是

  • why I decided to test out your growth mindset principles in three areas of my life. As a

    為何我決定應用成長型心態原則在我人生中的三部分。最後成果顯示,

  • result, I'm earning higher grades, I have a better relationship with my parents, I have

    我得到更高的成績,我和家人關係更加緊密了,我在校內

  • a better relationship with the other kids at school. I realize I've wasted most of my

    的同儕關係也有所增進。我終於明白,一直以來,我蹉跎了大多數的歲月

  • life." Let's not waste any more lives because the more we know that basic human abilities

    我們不要再繼續揮霍時間了,因為我們越了解人類基本能力是

  • can be grown, the more it becomes a basic human right for kids - all kids, all adults

    能夠有所增長,越代表這應該要是孩子的基本人權,所有的孩子、大人

  • - to live in environments that create that growth. To live in environments filled - overflowing

    都該活在一個成長型心態的環境,活在一個溢滿

  • - with "yet." Thank you.

    「再試一下」的環境。謝謝你的聆聽

Thank you. Today I want to tell you about the power of "yet." I learned in High School

謝謝,今天我想告訴你們「再試一下」的力量。我曾研究芝加哥的某所高中

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

A2 初級 中文 心態 學生 學習 孩子 達成 小孩

Carol Dweck 成長學習法 (Carol Dweck, 'Developing a Growth Mindset')

  • 1035 98
    張家瑋 發佈於 2015 年 01 月 08 日
影片單字