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  • I'm going to try to shine a historical light on our language,

    我想試著在我們語言裡 點亮歷史的光輝,

  • and tell you a story about the electric vocabulary.

    並告訴你一些 關於電子學用語的歷史。

  • It all begins over 2,600 years ago.

    這一切要從兩千六百年前說起。

  • An ancient Greek, called Thales of Miletus,

    一位被稱作「米利都的泰勒斯」 (Thales of Miletus)的古希臘人

  • is thought to be the first person to observe

    被認為是觀察到今日所稱「電子現象」 的第一人。

  • what we would today call electrical phenomena.

    被認為是觀察到今日所稱「電子現象」 的第一人。

  • He discovered that a piece of amber, when rubbed with fur,

    他發現用毛皮摩擦過的琥珀

  • could pick up small pieces of straw

    可以吸引一小撮稻草。

  • In Thales' language, amber was called electron.

    在泰勒斯的語言裡,琥珀就叫作 electron。

  • For a long time, that was pretty much all anybody knew about the subject.

    有好一段時間, 這些就是人類所了解的電子學了。

  • And nature had to wait around 2,200 years

    而這世界一直等了兩千兩百多年

  • before any new investigations were made

    才對琥珀的性質 有更進一步的了解。

  • into amber's properties.

    才對琥珀的性質 有更進一步的了解。

  • William Gilbert, a 17th century English scientist,

    十七世紀的 英國科學家吉爾伯特(William Gilbert)

  • discovered that with a careful experimentation,

    發現只要經過妥善的試驗

  • a number of other materials could display the attractive properties

    許多材質也會有 琥珀那樣的吸引現象。

  • of amber.

    許多材質也會有 琥珀那樣的吸引現象。

  • He also found that they could attract objects besides straw.

    他同時發現會被吸引的物質 不只有稻草。

  • Gilbert named these amber-like objects

    吉爾伯特把琥珀這類的東西

  • after the Greek for amber.

    用希臘文的琥珀來命名。

  • He called them "electrics."

    他把他們稱作 electrics。

  • About 40 years later, in nearby Norwich,

    大約又過了四十年後, 在諾里奇附近,

  • Sir Thomas Browne carried out some more experiments.

    布朗爵士(Sir Thomas Browne) 又做了許多實驗。

  • He didn't figure out anything different from William Gilbert,

    他沒有研究出任何 和吉爾伯特結論不同的東西,

  • yet the way he described the experiments

    但是他描述實驗的方法

  • coined the word we use all the time.

    建立了我們今日的用語。

  • The way he saw it, when you rub, say, a crystal with a cloth,

    在他的說法裡, 比如說你用布摩擦水晶,

  • it becomes an electric object.

    它就變成「帶電的」物體。

  • And just as we speak of elastic objects,

    而就如同我們會說

  • and say they possess the property of elasticity,

    彈性物體擁有「彈」的特性,

  • electric objects possess the property of electricity.

    我們會說 帶物體擁有「電」的特性。

  • The 18th century French physicist

    十八世紀的法國物理學家

  • Charles du Fay was the next person to make an important new discovery.

    杜費(Charles du Fay) 是下一位有重大發現的人。

  • He found that almost any object, except for metals and fluids,

    他發現除了金屬和液體 幾乎所有物體

  • could be turned electric

    都可以變成帶電的,

  • after subjecting them to a combination of heating and rubbing.

    只要經過適當的加熱與摩擦 就能達成。

  • In addition, he found that when two electrics are place near each other,

    此外,他發現當 兩個帶電物體放在一起,

  • they sometimes attract and sometimes repel.

    它們有時候會相吸、而有時候相斥。

  • With this extra knowledge,

    有了這份更多的了解,

  • du Fay found that there were two distinct groups of electrics.

    杜費發現帶電物體 可以分為兩類。

  • Any two objects from the same group

    當同類的物體放一起

  • will always repel,

    它們就會相斥;

  • while a pair of one from each group

    而兩類和拿一個放一起

  • will always attract.

    它們就會相吸。

  • Despite these new discoveries,

    儘管有這些新發現,

  • du Fay's descriptions of the physics are all lost to history.

    杜費對物理的描述 則都隨著歷史消逝了。

  • Instead, it is the vocabulary of a charismatic young American

    相反地,反倒是一位有魅力的 美國年輕人

  • that we still remember and use to this day.

    他的說法一直流傳、 並沿用至今。

  • Benjamin Franklin heard of the work going on in Europe

    富蘭克林(Benjamin Franklin) 聽到了歐州的這些研究,

  • and started his own playful experiments.

    並展開他那玩樂般的實驗。

  • He quickly learned how to make electric devices

    他很快地學會怎樣製造一種 會在放電時

  • that would de-electrify by producing very large sparks.

    產生大量火花的電子裝置。

  • Keen on mischievous pranks,

    由於喜愛惡作劇,

  • Franklin would often shock his friends with these machines.

    富蘭克林時常用這些裝置 來嚇他的朋友們。

  • As he built more effective devices,

    他做了許多效能更好裝置,

  • he likened the act of electrifying

    他把帶電和放電的過程 比喻成軍火在填充和射擊。

  • and de-electrifying to charging and discharging weaponry.

    他把帶電和放電的過程 比喻成軍火在「填充」和「射擊」。

  • It didn't take long for Franklin and others to realize

    富蘭克林和一些人 並沒有花太長的時間

  • that it was possible to link these weapons of mischief together.

    就發現這些軍火可以聯結在一起。

  • Franklin, continuing with the metaphor,

    富蘭克林延伸他的比喻,

  • likened this grouping to cannons on a ship.

    把這整套比喻成船上的眾多大砲。

  • The gun deck on a military vessel

    整艘軍艦上的大砲

  • fired their cannons simultaneously, in a battery

    會整個「砲組」同時發射。

  • Similarly, this electric battery

    同樣地,這個電能砲組

  • would discharge all at the same time,

    也會全部同時放電,

  • causing large sparks.

    產成更大的火花。

  • This new technology raised an interesting question:

    這項新的技術帶來了 一個有趣的問題:

  • Was a lightning cloud just a large electrical battery?

    發閃電的烏雲會不會 就是個很大的電能砲組?

  • Franklin's description of all this was as follows:

    富蘭克林對 這整個現象的解釋是這樣:

  • He supposed that there was a substance

    他假設有種物質叫作

  • he called the "electrical fluid" that is common to all things.

    「電流質」(electrical fluid), 而這物質在各物體上都很常見。

  • If, say, a person rubs a glass tube,

    比如說當一個人摩擦玻璃試管時,

  • this rubbing, or charging, causes a flow of this fluid,

    這就相當於在填充軍火, 會造成電流質的流動,

  • or an electrical current, to move from the person to the glass.

    或者說會造成 從人流往玻璃的電流。

  • Both the person and the tube become "electrics" as a result.

    結果導致人和試管 都變成帶電的。

  • Normally, if the person was standing on the ground,

    一般來說, 如果人站在地板上,

  • their electrical fluid would return to normal,

    那身上的電流質就會回歸正常,

  • with an exchange from the common stock of the Earth,

    因為人體的電流質會和 地球本身的「貯存」流通,

  • as Franklin called it.

    富蘭克林是這麼稱呼它的。

  • Standing on something like a wax block

    如果站在蠟塊這類的東西上

  • can cut off this supply.

    就可以阻斷流通。

  • Franklin said that an object with an excess of this fluid

    富蘭克林有過多電流質的物體

  • was positively charged,

    叫作帶正電;

  • and something lacking this fluid was negatively charged.

    而有過少電流質的物體 則叫作帶負電。

  • When objects touch, or are near each other,

    當物體相接觸、 或至少很接近時,

  • the electrical fluid can flow between them

    電流質就可以在 兩者之間流動,

  • until they reach a balance.

    直到達到平衡。

  • The bigger the difference in the fluid between the two objects,

    和平衡點的差距愈大, 那電流質就可以彈跳愈遠,

  • the larger the distance the fluid can jump,

    和平衡點的差距愈大, 那電流質就可以彈跳愈遠,

  • causing sparks in the air.

    並造成空中的火花。

  • And it is the material of the object

    而物體本身的材質

  • that determines if it gains or loses electrical fluid

    決定了它在帶電的過程中 是增加還減少電流質。

  • during charging.

    決定了它在帶電的過程中 是增加還減少電流質。

  • These are du Fay's two groups of electrics.

    而這就是杜費口中的 那兩類帶電體。

  • You might have heard the phrase, "Opposite charges attract,

    你也許聽過: 「異性相吸、

  • like charges repel."

    同性相斥。」

  • That's why.

    這就是原因。

  • For the next 150 years,

    在接下來的一百五十年裡,

  • Franklin's theory was used to develop

    富蘭克林的理論其後 變成許多想法和發現的基礎,

  • many more ideas and discoveries,

    富蘭克林的理論其後 變成許多想法和發現的基礎,

  • all using the vocabulary he invented.

    它們都依循富蘭克林的用語。

  • this scientific inquiry brought forth technological advances

    這項科學研究 推進了科技的發展,

  • and eventually, scientists were able to take a closer look

    而最後 科學家們終於找到辦法

  • at the electric fluid itself.

    來一窺電流質的秘密。

  • In 1897, J.J. Thomson, working in Cambridge, England,

    在一八九七年, 在英國劍橋從事研究的湯姆森(J.J. Thomson)

  • discovered that the electrical fluid

    發現電流質

  • is actually made up of small particles

    其實是由很小的粒子組成,

  • named by the physicist George Stoney

    而這粒子被物理學家斯托尼(George Stoney) 命名為電子(electron)。

  • as electrons.

    而這粒子被物理學家斯托尼(George Stoney) 命名為電子(electron)。

  • And so we return to the ancient Greek word for amber,

    這下我們要回顧一下 琥珀的希臘文了,

  • where our story began.

    也就是我們故事的開頭。

  • However, there's an epilogue to this tale.

    然而,這個故事還有後緒發展。

  • It was discovered that these electrons flow

    大家發現這些電子的流動

  • in the opposite direction to what Franklin supposed.

    和富蘭克林假設的方向相反。

  • Therefore, objects that are positively charged

    因此,帶正電的物體

  • don't have an excess of electrical fluid,

    並沒有過多的電子流入,

  • they actually lack electrons.

    反而是缺少電子。

  • Yet, instead of relabeling everything the other way around,

    然而,與其推翻所有先前的說法,

  • people have decided to hold on to Franklin's vocabulary

    基於習慣和方便的因素 人們決定保留富蘭克林的用語。

  • as a matter of habit and convention.

    基於習慣和方便的因素 人們決定保留富蘭克林的用語。

  • While acknowledging the discovery of electrons,

    這一方面認同了富蘭克林 對發現電的貢獻,

  • it kept Franklin's flow of electrical fluid,

    一方面也保留了他的電流觀念

  • renaming it "conventional current."

    並稱之為「常規電流」 (conventional current)。

  • The electron has become the salmon of electricity,

    而電子就變成了電能的鮭魚

  • swimming upstream in a ghostly river

    在常規電流這條不存在的河裡

  • of conventional current.

    逆流而上。

  • This can be understandably confusing for many people

    這對不熟悉 這些概念來龍去脈的人來說

  • who aren't familiar with the history of these ideas.

    容易造成理解上的混淆。

  • And so I hope,

    所以我希望

  • with this short story about the electric vocabulary,

    有了這篇 關於電子學用語的小故事,

  • you will be able to see through the accident and whimsy of this subject

    你可以參透這些 命名上的意外與反覆無常,

  • and can gain a clearer understanding

    並對電子現象的物理

  • of the physics of electrical phenomena.

    有更清楚的了解。

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 富蘭克林 物體 電子 用語 發現

【TED-ED】電商詞彙--詹姆斯-謝爾斯 (【TED-Ed】Electric vocabulary - James Sheils)

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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