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  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • When you think about the brain,

    當你想到大腦。

  • it's sort of a difficult thing to understand,

    這是一種很難理解的事情。

  • because if I were to ask you right now, how does the heart work,

    因為如果我現在問你,心臟是怎麼運作的。

  • you would instantly tell me it's a pump. It pumps blood.

    你會立刻告訴我它是一個泵。它是泵血的

  • And if I were to ask you how your lungs work,

    如果我問你,你的肺是怎麼工作的?

  • you would say it exchanges oxygen for carbon dioxide. That's easy.

    你會說它把氧氣換成二氧化碳。這很容易。

  • Now if I were to ask you how the brain works, it's a hard thing to understand

    現在如果我問你大腦是如何工作的,這是一個很難理解的事情'。

  • because you can't just look at a brain and understand what it is.

    因為你不能只看一個大腦就明白它是什麼。

  • It's not a mechanical object, it's not a pump, it's not an airbag.

    它'不是機械物,它'不是泵,它'不是氣囊。

  • It's just like, if you held it in your hand when it was dead, it's just a piece of fat.

    這就像,如果你把它拿在手裡,當它死了,它只是一塊脂肪。

  • And so to understand how the brain works,

    所以要了解大腦的工作原理。

  • you have to go inside a living brain. Because the brain's not mechanical,

    你必須去一個活的大腦裡面。因為大腦不是機械的。

  • the brain is electrical and it's chemical.

    大腦是電,它'的化學。

  • Your brain is made out of 100 billion cells,

    你的大腦是由1000億個細胞組成的。

  • and these cells are called neurons. And these neurons communicate with each other with electricity.

    而這些細胞被稱為神經元。而這些神經元之間是用電來溝通的。

  • And we're going to eavesdrop in on a conversation between two cells,

    而我們'要去偷聽兩個細胞之間的對話。

  • and we're going to listen to something called a spike.

    和我們'要聽的東西叫做尖峰。

  • But we're not going to record my brain or your brain or your teacher's brains,

    但我們不會記錄我的大腦或你的大腦或你老師的大腦。

  • we're going to use our good friend the cockroach.

    我們要用我們的好朋友蟑螂。

  • Not just because I think they're cool,

    不只是因為我覺得他們很酷。

  • but because they have brains very similar to ours.

    但因為他們的大腦和我們很相似。

  • And so if you learn a little bit about how their brains work,

    所以如果你瞭解一下他們的大腦是如何工作的。

  • we're going to learn a lot about how our brains work.

    我們會學到很多關於我們的大腦如何工作。

  • So I'm going to put them in some ice water here

    所以我打算把它們放在冰水裡。

  • and then ...

    然後

  • (Audience: Ew!) ... yeah ...

    (觀眾:哎!)......是啊......。

  • So what's happening right now is that they're becoming anesthetized,

    所以,現在發生的事情是,他們'正在成為麻醉劑。

  • because they're cold blooded, they become the temperature of the water

    因為他們'冷血,他們成為水的溫度。

  • and they can't control it so they just basically "chillax," right?

    他們不能控制它,所以他們只是基本上"chillax,"對嗎?

  • They're not going to be able to feel anything,

    他們'不會有任何感覺。

  • and that may just tell you a little bit about what we're going to be doing.

    而這可能只是告訴你一點關於我們'要做的事情。

  • We're going to be doing a scientific experiment to understand the brain.

    我們'要做一個科學實驗來了解大腦。

  • So ...

    所以...

  • This is the leg of a cockroach

    這是隻蟑螂的腿

  • and a cockroach has all these beautiful hairs

    和蟑螂有所有這些美麗的毛髮。

  • and pricklies all over it.

    和遍地的荊棘。

  • Underneath each one of those is a cell,

    每一個人的下面都是一個細胞。

  • and this cell's a neuron, and this neuron's going to send information

    而這個細胞是一個神經元,和這個神經元的要發送信息

  • about wind or vibrations. If you ever try to catch a cockroach, it's hard

    關於風或振動。如果你曾經試圖抓住一隻蟑螂,它'的困難。

  • because they can feel you coming before you're even there, they start running.

    因為他們能感覺到你來之前,你'甚至在那裡,他們開始運行。

  • So these cells are zipping up this information up to the brain

    所以這些細胞把這些信息壓縮到大腦中去

  • using those little axons with electronic messages in there.

    用那些小軸突與電子信息在那裡。

  • So we're going to record by sticking a pin right in there.

    所以我們'要通過在那裡插針來記錄。

  • So we need to take off the leg of a cockroach --

    所以我們需要把蟑螂的腿拿下來... ...

  • don't worry, they'll grow back --

    別擔心,它們會重新長出來的。

  • then we're going to put two pins in there. One of the pins, these are metal pins,

    然後我們'要把兩個針在那裡。其中一個插銷,這些都是金屬插銷。

  • will pick up this electronic message, this electric message is going by.

    會接收到這個電子信息,這個電資訊是通過。

  • So, we're now going to do the surgery, let's see if you guys can see this.

    所以,我們'現在要做手術了,讓'看看你們能不能看到這個。

  • Yeah, it's gross ...

    是的,它的毛... ...

  • All right ... so there we go ...

    好吧... ...所以我們去... ...。

  • You guys can see his leg right there.

    你們可以看到他的腿就在那裡。

  • So now I'm going to take this leg, I'm going to put it in this invention that we came up with

    所以現在我要把這條腿,放在我們想出的這個發明中去。

  • called the Spikerbox --

    稱為Spikerbox --

  • and this replaces lots of expensive equipment in a research lab

    而這也取代了研究實驗室中許多昂貴的設備。

  • so you guys can do this in your own high schools,

    所以你們可以在自己的高中做這個。

  • or in your own basements if it's me --

    或在你自己的地下室,如果它是我 --

  • So, there. (Laughter)

    所以,有。(笑聲)

  • Can you guys see that? Alright, so I'm going to go ahead and turn this on.

    你們能看到嗎?好吧,所以我'要繼續前進,並打開這個。

  • I'm going to plug it in. (Sound of neurons firing)

    我要把它插進去 I'm going to plug it in.(神經元發射的聲音)

  • To me, this is the most beautiful sound in the world.

    對我來說,這是世界上最美的聲音。

  • This is what your brain is doing right now.

    這就是你的大腦現在正在做的事情。

  • You have 100 billion cells making these raindrop-type noises

    你有一千億個細胞發出這種雨滴型的聲音。

  • So let's go ahead and take a look at what it looks like,

    那麼我們就來看看它的樣子吧'。

  • let's pull it up on the iPad screen

    讓我們把它拉到iPad的螢幕上吧

  • I plugged my iPad into here as well.

    我把我的iPad也插到了這裡。

  • So remember what we said about the axon, what we said it looks like, looks like a spike.

    所以還記得我們說的軸子,我們說它的樣子,看起來像一個尖峰。

  • So we're going to take a look at what one of them looks like in just a brief second.

    所以我們'要在短短的一秒鐘內,看看其中一個人是什麼樣子的。

  • We're going to tap here, so we can sort of average this guy.

    我們'要在這裡拍,所以我們可以有點平均這個傢伙。

  • So there we see it. That's an action potential.

    所以我們看到了。這是一個動作電位。

  • You've got 100 billion cells in your brain doing this right now,

    你的大腦裡有1000億個細胞正在做這個。

  • sending all this information back about what you're seeing, what you're hearing.

    發送所有這些資訊回來 關於你看到的,你聽到的。

  • So we also said this is a cell that's going to be taking up information about vibrations in the wind.

    所以我們也說這是一個細胞,'要在風中吸收振動的資訊。

  • So what if we do an experiment?

    那麼如果我們做一個實驗呢?

  • We can actually blow on this and hear if we see a change.

    其實我們可以在這上面吹一吹,聽一聽是否有變化。

  • Are you guys going to be ready for this?

    你們準備好了嗎?

  • If I blow on it you tell me if you hear anything.

    如果我吹它,你告訴我,如果你聽到什麼。

  • (Sound of spikes reacting to wind)

    (尖峰對風的反應聲)

  • Let me just touch this with a little pen here.

    讓我在這裡用小筆碰一下。

  • (Noise)

    (噪音)

  • That's actually the neural firing range. That actually took a while

    這'其實就是神經的發射範圍。這其實需要一段時間

  • in neuroscience to understand this. This is called rate coding,

    在神經科學中理解這一點。這就是所謂的速率編碼。

  • which is that the harder you press on something, the more spikes there are,

    也就是你越是用力的按著某樣東西,越是有尖峰。

  • and all that information is coming up to your brain. That's how you perceive things.

    和所有的資訊是來了你的大腦。這就是你如何看待事物。

  • So that's one way of doing an experiment with electricity.

    所以這就是用電做實驗的一種方式。

  • The other way is that your brain is not only taking in electrical impulses,

    另一種方式是,你的大腦不僅在接受電脈衝。

  • you're also sending out. That's how you move your muscles around.

    你'也送出去。這就是你如何移動你的肌肉。

  • Let's see what happens if I've plugged in something that's electric

    讓我們來看看如果我插上了電的東西會怎麼樣?

  • into the cockroach leg here.

    到蟑螂腿這裡。

  • I'm going to take two pins, I'm going to plug them onto the cockroach.

    我'要拿兩個針頭,我'要把它們插到蟑螂上。

  • I'm going to take the other end, I'm going to plug in into my iPod.

    我'要採取另一端,我'要插入我的iPod。

  • It's my iPhone actually.

    其實是我的iPhone。

  • I don't know if you guys know this, but do you guys know how your earbuds work in your ears?

    我不知道你們是否知道,但是你們知道你們的耳塞是怎麼在耳朵裡工作的嗎?

  • You have a battery in your phone, your iPod, right?

    你的手機、iPod裡都有電池吧?

  • It's sending electrical current into these magnets in your earbuds

    它將電流送入耳塞中的這些磁鐵。

  • which shake back and forth and allow you to hear things.

    來回搖晃,讓你聽到東西。

  • But that electric current's the same currency that our brain uses

    但那電流和我們大腦使用的貨幣是一樣的。

  • so we can send that directly to our cockroach leg and hopefully if this works,

    所以我們可以直接把它送到我們的蟑螂腿上,希望如果這個工作。

  • we can actually see what happens when we play music into the cockroach.

    我們其實可以看到,當我們把音樂放進蟑螂體內會發生什麼。

  • Let's take a look.

    讓我們'看看吧。

  • (Music beat) Can we turn it up? There we go.

    (音樂節拍)我們能把它調大嗎?我們去那裡。

  • (Music beats) (Audience reacts and gasps) So what's happening?

    (音樂節拍) (觀眾反應和喘息) 那麼發生了什麼?

  • (Music beats)

    (音樂節拍)

  • So you see what's moving. It's moving on the bass.

    所以,你看什麼'的移動。它在動的低音。

  • All those audio files out there. If you have awesome, kicking car stereos,

    所有這些音頻文件在那裡。如果你有厲害的,踢的汽車音響。

  • you know, the bass speakers are the biggest speakers.

    你知道,低音喇叭是最大的喇叭。

  • The biggest speakers have the longest waves, the longest waves have the most current,

    最大的喇叭波浪最長,波浪最長的電流最大。

  • and the current is what's causing these things to move.

    和電流是什麼'的導致這些東西移動。

  • So it's not just speakers that are causing electricity.

    所以,不僅僅是音箱引起的電。

  • Microphones also cause electricity. (Beat)

    麥克風也會引起電。(節拍)

  • So I'm going to go ahead and invite another person out on the stage here

    所以,我要繼續邀請另一個人上臺,在這裡

  • to help me out with this. So there we go. (Beatboxing)

    來幫我解決這個問題。所以,我們去那裡。(Beatboxing)

  • This is the first time this has ever happened in the history of mankind.

    這是人類歷史上第一次出現這種情況。

  • Human beatbox to a cockroach leg.

    人的拍子對蟑螂腿。

  • When you guys go back to your high school, think about neuroscience and how you guys can begin the neuro-revolution.

    當你們回到高中的時候,想想神經科學,你們如何開始神經革命。

  • Thank you very much. Bye bye. (Applause)

    謝謝你了再見了。(掌聲)

  • (Music)

    (音樂)

(Music)

(音樂)

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A2 初級 中文 TED-Ed 大腦 蟑螂 細胞 神經元 電流

【TED-Ed】跟著蟑螂一起Beatbox! (TED-ED : The Cockroach Beatbox - Greg Gage)

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    Calvin Chen 發佈於 2012 年 12 月 18 日
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