Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • Prof: Good morning everyone.

  • As you can see from today's lecture title,

  • we're going to be talking about painting palaces and villas in

  • the first century A.D.

  • But I could also call this lecture a lecture on Third and

  • Fourth Style Roman wall painting,

  • because we're going to continue our conversation today about the

  • four architectural styles of Roman wall painting.

  • In order to do that, I just want to remind you of

  • what we talked about last time.

  • We covered the First and Second Styles of Roman wall painting,

  • and you'll remember that what they had in common is that they

  • both tried to create an illusion of what they weren't,

  • in a sense.

  • Think back to the First Style of Roman wall painting,

  • when the painters tried to transform a rubble wall into a

  • marble wall, to create the illusion that it

  • was indeed a marble wall, rather than a rubble wall.

  • And in the case of the Second Style--

  • and I show you two examples again of that here,

  • the detail from the Villa of Publius Fannius Sinistor,

  • on the left-hand side of the screen,

  • now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art,

  • and the House of Augustus, the Room of the Masks in the

  • House of Augustus, on the Palatine Hill in Rome,

  • both examples of Second Style Roman wall painting.

  • And we saw in this instance that the illusion was to create

  • the sense that you were looking through a window,

  • to transform, once again, the rubble wall

  • into a window, a window that showed what might

  • lie outside the villa, in the peristyle court,

  • for example.

  • Remember this one, with the shrine or

  • tholos that is surrounded by blue sky and looks like it is

  • located perhaps in a domestic peristyle,

  • and then over here this window that opens onto a sacro-idyllic

  • landscape.

  • We are being beckoned into that sacro-idyllic landscape to

  • explore the sacred items within it and even beyond.

  • So opening up these walls illusionistically,

  • to create an illusion in both, but in the case of the Second

  • Style, to open the wall up

  • illusionistically as a panoramic window.

  • We also explored the fact that in the Second Style the Roman

  • designers, the Roman painters,

  • seemed to have experimented with one-point linear

  • perspective, this perspective in which all

  • points recede to a single point in the distance,

  • and that we see that use of one-point perspective in the

  • Second Style wall paintings in the Room of the Masks.

  • We also talked about the relationship between Second

  • Style Roman wall painting and theatrical architecture --

  • that they may have been looking at actual theaters,

  • possibly in wood, possibly in other more

  • permanent materials that no longer survive,

  • or they may have been creating this,

  • in part, out of whole cloth.

  • So this connection to the theater,

  • and the one last point that I want to remind you of is the

  • fact that we also discussed that,

  • although there's an enormous respect for earlier Greek

  • architecture, not only in these painting but

  • in the temples and in the cities and in the sanctuaries that

  • we've already explored, and we see the Roman painters

  • using those elements of Greek architecture--

  • columns and pediments and the like--

  • in the Second Style, we also see that they are

  • beginning to break the rules.

  • They have a respect for Greek architecture,

  • but they're also willing to bend the rules,

  • an example being, of course, their use of the

  • triangular pediment here, but they have broken that

  • triangular pediment apart to reveal the tholos here.

  • This is a very important development,

  • and we saw it already also in the Sanctuary of Fortuna

  • Primigenia at Palestrina, where you'll remember the

  • column capitals in the ramp and how they slanted those column

  • capitals in a way that Greek architects never would have

  • done.

  • We see that same sort of breaking of the rules here.

  • It's extremely important because it shows again that

  • although they revered the past, they were willing to look

  • forward to the future.

  • And we're going to see, especially in the late first

  • century A.D., into the second century A.D.,

  • further exploration of that kind of thing,

  • and it's going to have a huge impact on Roman architecture.

  • In order to explore the Third and Fourth Styles,

  • I need to go to a couple of other cities than the ones we've

  • looked at thus far.

  • I have the map here once again that shows Campania.

  • We are going to be looking at the city of -- or a villa -- in

  • the town of Oplontis, which you see here.

  • We'll also be looking at an important villa at Boscotrecase.

  • And you can see the proximity of those two to the sites we've

  • already discussed--Pompeii, Herculaneum,

  • Boscoreale, and also Naples, up here.

  • I want to look first at a villa, or the paintings at a

  • villa, at Oplontis.

  • This villa--and you see a plan of it here--appears to have

  • belonged to a woman by the name of Poppaea--P-o-p-p-a-e-a.

  • Who was Poppaea?

  • Poppaea was first the mistress and then the wife of Rome's

  • notorious emperor Nero.

  • Initially it looked as if the two were soul mates because she

  • seemed to have as much of a mean streak as he did,

  • in that she encouraged him, quite avidly,

  • to murder his mother, to murder his first wife,

  • and even to murder the philosopher Seneca.

  • But despite the fact that they seemed to have been soul mates,

  • Nero turned against her, and in fact when she announced

  • to him that she was pregnant, he kicked her in the stomach,

  • which caused her death.

  • But after her death he took advantage of her death and

  • divinized her, made her a diva for his

  • own political purposes.

  • So a very interesting saga here, between Nero and his wife

  • Poppaea.

  • The reason that we think Poppaea owned this villa,

  • or lived in this villa at some point--

  • and the villa dates, we believe, to 20 to 10 B.C.--

  • the reason we believe that she lived there is that there was an

  • amphora, one of these terracotta pots,

  • that was found in the excavation with the name of a

  • freedman, a freedman of Poppaea,

  • which suggests that she may well have lived there.

  • The other interesting observation that archaeologists

  • made when they excavated this particular house is that it

  • looked like it had been empty at the time of the eruption of

  • Vesuvius, when it had been indeed covered

  • over with ash and lava.

  • And they also found a lot of tools lying around the house,

  • which led to their belief that the house was probably in the

  • process of being renovated.

  • It may have suffered damage in the earthquake and was in the

  • process of being renovated, before reuse,

  • at the time Vesuvius struck.

  • If we look at this very good plan of what is preserved of

  • this villa today, we can pick out a number of

  • features that we've already become accustomed to in our

  • study of Roman domestic architecture:

  • houses and villas.

  • We can see peristyle courts with columns,

  • for example.

  • We notice here the very large atrium, with the

  • impluvium designated here in plan.

  • There was a kitchen, an extensive kitchen,

  • over here as well.

  • We also see the use of columns, these colonnades that are part

  • of peristyles, in some cases,

  • but also are colonnades that look out from the villa toward

  • what surrounds it -- the landscape and the sea and

  • so on, that surround it.

  • And it's another example of what we began to see in the

  • second phase of the plan of the Villa of the Mysteries in

  • Pompeii, and that is an opening up of

  • the facade, an incorporation of a larger

  • number of windows to make the facade lighter and more airy,

  • as well as a series of colonnades with spectacular

  • views toward what lay outside the villa.

  • The most important room for us today is Room Number 8,

  • over here, and that room is part of an interior bath,

  • an elaborate interior bath, that was part of this villa.

  • And Room Number 8, which is basically a

  • rectangular room, as you can see here,

  • was the caldarium or the warm room of that bath,

  • and it has some very interesting paintings that will

  • show us the transition between what we know of as Second Style

  • Roman wall painting and what we term Third Style Roman wall

  • painting.

  • This is a view of the villa as it looks today.

  • You can see, like Herculaneum,

  • it is very closely surrounded by modern apartment houses and

  • so on.

  • Here you see it.

  • It's only again part of what the original villa was.

  • But even from this view, you can get a sense of how open

  • it was compared to those very enclosed,

  • severe Domus Italica houses that we began with.

  • You see here this opening up, views through columns and

  • doorways, but also these peristyle courts

  • and colonnaded courts and so on, that again give this a very

  • open appearance, which is part of again this

  • important development toward that kind of openness.

  • The villa has in it both Second and Third Style Roman wall

  • paintings, which again makes it extremely

  • interesting, because it is clear that there

  • was some transitioning here, from one style to the other.

  • And I should mention, by the way, that with regard to

  • the First, Second, Third,

  • and Fourth Styles, they weren't necessarily an

  • evolution, a development,

  • from one point to another; by that I mean I don't think

  • the painters or the patrons necessarily had in mind,

  • "We're going to start at Point A and get to Point D

  • eventually."

  • I think that what we're dealing with here,

  • as we talk about this chronological evolution,

  • is a transition of styles that had something to do in part

  • probably with fashion, with fashion for a particular

  • way of decorating things, and, of course,

  • with influences that were coming in from other parts of

  • the world.

  • And, in fact, as far as the transition from

  • the Second to the Third Style, the cycle of styles seems to

  • suggest that at the time that the Second Style was at its most

  • popular was just when those who owned these houses wanted to

  • move on to something new, understandably.

  • Once everybody had it, it was time to think about

  • something else.

  • And so the cycle, just as these walls that we've

  • been describing-- the Room of the Masks,

  • the Fannius Sinistor, and this one in Oplontis that

  • we see on the left-hand side of the screen--

  • just as they gained their greatest popularity,

  • there was a decision to move on to still another cycle of taste.

  • And again, that's exactly what we're going to see at Oplontis.

  • I show you here on the left--actually it's not on your

  • Monument List but in order to get us to the Third Style,

  • I want to say something about a Second Style painting at

  • Oplontis, and we see a detail of that on

  • the left-hand side of the screen.

  • I compare it to the Second Style, or a part of the Second

  • Style wall of P. Fannius Sinistor at Boscoreale.

  • And I think you can see the resemblance between the two.

  • The objectives are the same.

  • The artist is trying to open up the wall,

  • to create a picture window through which you can see a

  • vista -- a vista that includes a round

  • shrine, just as we saw here.

  • So the same at Oplontis, a round shrine,

  • in this case with the windows spread to see a cult statue

  • inside, and that shrine,

  • that circular shrine or tholos,

  • surrounded by a peristyle, the kind of peristyle that one

  • might have seen inside one of these Roman houses surrounding a

  • garden.

  • Just as at Boscoreale, we see the gateway that seems

  • to separate us from what lies beyond, and we see again the

  • structure surrounded by blue sky.

  • We also see these very substantial columns that are

  • characteristic of the Second Style,

  • projecting out into the spectator's space,

  • supporting entablatures that also project out into the

  • spectator's space, and supporting also a lintel

  • that has a ceiling, with coffers that recede into

  • depth.

  • So what we see in Second Style at Oplontis is very similar to

  • what we saw at Second Style, at Boscoreale and also at

  • Pompeii, at Cubiculum 16 of the Villa of the Mysteries.