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  • Welcome to Roman Architecture.

    歡迎來到羅馬建築這堂課

  • I'm Professor Kleiner, and what I'd like to do today

    我是你們的教授 Kleiner,今天的主題是

  • is to give you a sense of some of the great buildings

    要讓你們對一些偉大的建築物有基本認識

  • and some of the themes that we will be studying together this semester.

    其中部分主題,我們這學期中會介紹

  • I think it's important to note, from the outset,

    有一點我覺得很重要,要在一開始先告訴你們:

  • that Roman architecture is primarily an architecture of cities.

    古羅馬建築主要是城市建築

  • The Romans structured a man-made, worldwide empire out of architectural forms,

    古羅馬人用建築打造了一個人工、世界性的帝國

  • and those architectural forms revolutionized the ancient world

    而在建築領域,為古代世界帶來革命性影響

  • and exerted a lasting influence on the architecture and the architects of post-classical times.

    也對建築和後古典時期的建築師產生長遠影響

  • This semester we will be concerned primarily with urban

    這學期我們會著重城市、

  • communities-- with urban communities--and we

    公共生活,討論都市的公共生活

  • will, in the first half of this

    上半學期

  • semester, we will focus on the city of

    焦點放在羅馬這個城市

  • Rome, and in the second-- and also central Italy,

    接下來,到義大利中部去

  • including Pompeii.

    包括龐貝城

  • And I wanted to show you, at the outset,

    一開始我想先讓你們看看

  • an aerial view of Rome--you see it over here,

    羅馬的空照圖,看這裡

  • on the left-hand side of the screen--

    螢幕左手邊

  • that situates us in the very core of the ancient city.

    這張圖幫我們指出古城的中心位置

  • You see the famous Colosseum, the very icon of Rome,

    可以看到著名的競技場,羅馬的象徵

  • at the upper right.

    右上方

  • You see the Roman Forum, as it looks today,

    你看到的是古羅馬市政廣場 (註:拉丁文「人民的」)今天的樣貌

  • and you see a part of the Capitoline Hill,

    以及一部分的卡比托利歐山丘

  • transformed by Michelangelo into the famous Campidoglio,

    米開朗基羅把它改建成著名的卡比托利歐廣場

  • as well as the Via dei Fori Imperiali of Mussolini,

    還有墨索里尼的帝國大道

  • built by Mussolini, and the Imperial Fora.

    墨索里尼建造的,以及帝國議事廣場

  • So the city of Rome again we'll be concentrating on,

    這就是羅馬城,也就是我們

  • at the beginning of this semester, as well as the city of

    在學期一開始的主要重點

  • Pompeii.

    還有龐貝城

  • An aerial view of Pompeii, as it looks today.

    龐貝空照圖,這是現在的樣貌

  • You can see many of the buildings of the city,

    可以看到這座城市裡的很多建築物

  • including the houses and the shops, and also the

    包括住宅和店鋪

  • entertainment district.

    以及娛樂區

  • This is the theater and the music hall of ancient Pompeii.

    這是古龐貝的劇場和音樂廳

  • The amphitheater is over here.

    圓形劇場在這裡

  • And you can see, of course, looming up in the

    也可以看到,當然了,背景裡隱約看得到

  • background, Mount Vesuvius, the mountain that caused all that trouble in 79 A.D.

    維蘇威火山,這座山引發了西元79年那場災難

  • So that's the first half of the semester.

    以上就是上半學期的內容

  • The second half of the semester we are going to be going out

    下半學期,我們會走出羅馬

  • into the provinces, into the Roman provinces,

    去看看羅馬帝國其他地區(行省)

  • and that is going to take us-- and we're going to look at the

    我們會去看看各個地區

  • provinces both in the eastern and the western part of the

    包括帝國的西部和東部

  • Empire-- and that will take us to Roman Greece.

    去看希臘的羅馬時期 (註:西元前146年羅馬統治時期)

  • It will take us to Asia Minor; Asia Minor, which of course is modern Turkey.

    然後來到小亞細亞,小亞細亞是現在的土耳其

  • It will take us to North Africa.

    到北非地區

  • It will take us to the Middle East,

    中東地區

  • in what's now Jordan and Syria, and it will also take us to

    也就是今天的約旦和敘利亞,然後也會到

  • Europe, to western Europe,

    歐洲,歐洲西部

  • to cities in France and to cities in Spain.

    法國的城市,以及西班牙的城市

  • And let me just show you an example of some of the buildings

    我舉幾個建築案例給你們看

  • that we'll look at as we travel to the provinces.

    這些案例是當我們介紹到那些地區時會特別注意的

  • This is the Library of Celsus, in Ephesus,

    這是塞爾蘇斯圖書館,在艾菲索斯(另譯為「以弗所」)

  • on the western coast of Turkey.

    位於土耳其西部海岸

  • This--the theater, a spectacularly well-preserved

    而這個劇場,保存得驚人完整

  • theater at Sabratha, you see on the upper right-hand

    右上方看到的是塞卜拉泰的劇場

  • side; and down here a restored view

    下面這一張

  • of the masterful Palace of Diocletian.

    是壯麗的戴克里先宮殿復原圖

  • We have the late Roman emperors in a place called Split,

    羅馬帝國晚期,位於 Split 這個地方

  • which is in Croatia, along the fabulously gorgeous

    在克羅埃西亞

  • Dalmatian Coast today.

    沿著今天的Dalmatian海岸一帶 (註:亞得里亞海東岸)

  • So those are just a sampling of the kinds of buildings that

    以上案例就是我們會談到的

  • we'll look at in the provinces.

    帝國其它地區的建築物

  • We're going to be seeing, we'll be concentrating on the

    我們要開始來看,先著重在

  • ways in which the Romans planned and built their cities.

    古羅馬規劃、建造城市的方式

  • And it's important to note, from the very outset,

    一開始我要先提醒一個重點

  • that Rome itself grew in a very ad hoc way.

    羅馬城市的發展方式很特別

  • And we can tell that.

    我們可以看到

  • Here's a Google Earth image showing that core of Rome,

    這是Google 地球的影像,羅馬城的中心

  • with the Colosseum, with the famous,

    有競技場,和十分著名的

  • modern Victor Emmanuel Monument that looks either like a wedding

    現代風格維托里亞諾艾曼紐二世紀念館

  • cake or a typewriter.

    看起來像是婚禮蛋糕或一台打字機

  • It's very white, and it's called the wedding

    潔白醒目,被很多的當地人

  • cake by a lot of the locals.

    稱為婚禮蛋糕

  • You see that here.

    看到這裡

  • But it's a landmark in Rome.

    是羅馬的地標

  • And the Capitoline Hill, with the Campidoglio over here;

    然後是卡比托利歐山,卡比托利歐廣場在這裡

  • the Forum, the Roman Forum; the Imperial Fora on this side.

    古羅馬廣場,帝國議事廣場在另一側

  • But you can see from the relatively crooked and narrow

    但你可以從較為彎曲、狹窄的羅馬街道看出端倪

  • streets of the city of Rome, as they look from above today,

    現在從空照可以看到

  • you can see that again the city grew in a fairly ad hoc

    這個城市的發展方式相當特別

  • way, as I mentioned.

    就像之前所提到的

  • It wasn't planned all at once, it just grew up over time,

    它並非一次規劃完成,而是隨著時間發展

  • beginning in the eighth century B.C.

    從西元前八世紀開始

  • Now this is interesting because what we know about the Romans is

    這很有趣,因為我們知道古羅馬人

  • when they were left to their own devices,

    當時已具備一次規劃完成的能力

  • and they could build a city from scratch,

    他們從零開始規劃、建設城市

  • they didn't let it grow in an ad hoc way.

    並沒有放任城市那樣古怪地發展

  • They structured it in a very methodical way.

    他們的工程建設很有系統

  • It was basically based on military strategy,

    是以軍事策略為本

  • military planning.

    軍事考量的規劃

  • The Romans, they couldn't have conquered the world without

    古羅馬人如果沒有高超軍事謀劃

  • obviously having a masterful military enterprise,

    想必就無法征服世界

  • and everywhere they went on their various campaigns,

    而且在他們出征所及的地方

  • their various military campaigns, they would build

    各式各樣的軍事戰役所到之處,都會建設

  • camps, and those camps were always

    軍營,這些軍營總是

  • laid out in a very geometric plan,

    以幾何的方式規劃平面,沿著網格排列,

  • along a grid, usually square or rectangular.

    通常是方形或矩形

  • So when we begin to see the Romans building their ideal

    所以當我們看到古羅馬的理想城市

  • Roman city, they turn to that so-called

    就是所謂的「營寨」

  • castrum, or military camp design,

    或者說,是軍事基地的設計

  • and they build their cities that way.

    他們以此方式建造城市

  • And I show you here one example.

    你們看一下這個案例

  • We're using Google Earth here again,

    這個案例也是利用Google 地球

  • another example of, or an example of a city called

    另外這個案例,是在「提姆加德」這個城市

  • Timgad, T-i-m-g-a-d,

    拼法是T-i-m-g-a-d,

  • which is in modern Algeria, and the ancient city still

    是今天的阿爾及利亞,這個城市仍然

  • survives.

    存在

  • And if we look at this Google Earth image of it,

    從Google 地球的影像裡,

  • you can see there are no later accretions,

    可以看到這個城市並沒有後來的增建、擴張,不同於羅馬

  • as we have in Rome, no later civilizations built on

    沒有後來的各種文明

  • top of it.

    疊加上去

  • You can see the ideal Roman plan, which, as I said,

    這就是理想的古羅馬規劃,和我剛剛說的一樣

  • is usually either a square or a rectangle.

    通常是方形或矩形兩者之一

  • It has in the center the two main streets of the city.

    城市的中心有兩條主要街道

  • The north-south street is called the cardo,

    南北向的街道稱為「南北軸大道」

  • c-a-r-d-o.

    拼法是c-a-r-d-o

  • The east-west street is called the decumanus,

    東西向的街道稱為「東西軸大道」

  • d-e-c-u-m-a-n-u-s.

    拼法是d-e-c-u-m-a-n-u-s

  • We'll go back to all of this in the future; so you don't have to

    我們以後會再回來談這部分

  • worry about it today.

    現在先不必擔心

  • The cardo and the decumanus,

    「南北軸大道」和「東西軸大道」

  • and you can see that they cross exactly;

    兩者正好交錯

  • they intersect exactly at the center of the city.

    交叉點位於城市中心

  • And then the rest of the city is arranged in blocks,

    城市其它的部份街廓羅列

  • very regular blocks, this grid plan that I mentioned

    十分工整,也就是我剛剛提過的

  • before.

    網格狀規劃

  • Then some of the major monuments, whether it's the

    然後,一些主要的紀念建築物,無論是

  • theater or the forum, are arranged in different parts

    劇場或市政廣場,都配置在城市的不同位置

  • of the city, and then these blocks

    這些街廓

  • constitute essentially the housing and the shops and so on

    構成基本的房舍和店鋪

  • and so forth.

    依此類推

  • This is a city that was planned in around 100 A.D.,

    這個城市於西元100年規劃

  • under the emperor Trajan.

    在圖拉真帝王的時代

  • And again it gives us an inkling of what the Romans --

    帶給我們一些有關古羅馬的線索

  • when the Romans thought about ideal Roman town planning --

    當古羅馬人思考理想的城鎮規劃時

  • it was this grid plan, not Rome, but this grid plan

    是這樣的網格規劃,不是今天的羅馬,而是格狀

  • that they had very much in mind.

    他們有很多點子

  • Cities like Rome, like Timgad,

    像是提姆加德或羅馬這些城市

  • and most of the others that we'll look at in the course of

    以及大多數我們這學期課程會看的其它城市

  • this semester, were surrounded by defensive

    被防禦性的

  • walls.

    城牆包圍

  • As a major military machine in its own right,

    城市本身做為軍事設施

  • Rome was only too aware of the dangers of attack from others,

    羅馬人非常清楚遭受攻擊的危險性

  • and consequently they walled their cities.

    因此他們以城牆圍住城市

  • And we will look at the two major walls in Rome,

    我們會談到在羅馬的兩道主要城牆

  • as well as walls in other parts of the Roman world.

    以及羅馬帝國其它地區的牆

  • I promise not to spend too much time on walls,

    我保證不花太多時間談城牆

  • because they're essentially piles of stone.

    因為它們根本就是一堆石頭

  • But they're important in their own right and I will speak to

    但他們很重要,必要的時候我會講解

  • them on occasion, and especially the two in Rome.

    尤其是這兩道在羅馬的牆

  • You see them here.

    這裡看到的是

  • This is the first wall in Rome, the so-called Servian Walls,

    羅馬城的第一道牆,被稱為「塞維安城牆」

  • which was built in the Republic, in the Roman Republic,

    是羅馬共和國時期建造的(509 BC-27 BC)

  • to surround the city, the Republican city,

    城牆包圍了共和國人民的城市

  • and essentially the Seven Hills, the famous Seven Hills of

    和七個重要的山丘,知名的「羅馬七山丘」

  • Rome, to surround the Seven Hills of

    在西元前四世紀的時候

  • Rome, in the fourth century B.C.

    包圍了「羅馬七山丘」

  • You see a section of it here.

    你看到的是其中一段城牆

  • This wall--any of you who've come to Rome by train,

    這道牆,任何搭火車來到羅馬的人

  • and the Stazione Termini, see a very extensive section of

    抵達特米尼車站,一出來的時候會看到這段龐大的

  • the Servian Walls, as you get out--I don't know if

    「塞維安城牆」,不知道你們有沒有注意到

  • you've noticed it, but you should see--an

    但你們應該看一下

  • extensive section of the Servian Walls right outside the train

    龐大的城牆佇立在

  • station.

    車站外面

  • This is a different section, a picture I took on the

    這是另外一段,這張照片是我在