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  • There's a man by the name of Captain

    有位美軍上尉名叫

  • William Swenson

    威廉.斯文森,

  • who recently was awarded the congressional Medal of Honor

    最近獲頒國會榮譽勳章

  • for his actions on September 8, 2009.

    以表揚他在 2009 年 9 月 8 日的行為。

  • On that day, a column of American

    那天,

  • and Afghan troops

    一個美軍縱隊和阿富汗軍隊

  • were making their way

    路經阿富汗某地方,

  • through a part of Afghanistan

    以協助保護

  • to help protect

    一組阿富汗政府官員,

  • a group of government officials,

    官員們將拜訪當地村裡的耆老。

  • a group of Afghan government officials,

    縱隊遭遇到伏擊,

  • who would be meeting with some local

    被敵軍三面包圍,

  • village elders.

    除此之外,

  • The column came under ambush,

    斯文森上尉被目睹

  • and was surrounded on three sides,

    在槍林彈雨中

  • and amongst many other things,

    搶救傷員,

  • Captain Swenson was recognized

    並將死者從戰場撤出。

  • for running into live fire

    其中一位被救的士兵是位中士,

  • to rescue the wounded

    他和他的戰友都被送到

  • and pull out the dead.

    傷兵撤離用直升機。

  • One of the people he rescued was a sergeant,

    這天特別的地方是,

  • and he and a comrade were making their way

    很巧地

  • to a medevac helicopter.

    其中一位醫護兵

  • And what was remarkable about this day

    裝了個 GoPro 攝影機在頭盔上,

  • is, by sheer coincidence,

    並拍攝到整個現場。

  • one of the medevac medics

    顯示上尉斯文森和他的戰友

  • happened to have a GoPro camera on his helmet

    把這位頸部受到槍傷的 士兵帶回來。

  • and captured the whole scene on camera.

    他們把他送上直升機,

  • It shows Captain Swenson and his comrade

    然後上尉斯文森俯身,

  • bringing this wounded soldier

    給他一個吻,

  • who had received a gunshot to the neck.

    之後轉身再拯救更多的傷兵。

  • They put him in the helicopter,

    看到這幕,我思索到,

  • and then you see Captain Swenson bend over

    像這樣的人從哪裡來的?

  • and give him a kiss

    那是什麼? 那是種很深很深的情感,

  • before he turns around to rescue more.

    你才會那樣做。

  • I saw this, and I thought to myself,

    有種愛在其中。

  • where do people like that come from?

    我想知道為什麼

  • What is that? That is some deep, deep emotion,

    跟我一起工作的,沒有那樣的人?

  • when you would want to do that.

    大家知道,在軍中他們頒發勳章

  • There's a love there,

    給那些願意犧牲自我

  • and I wanted to know why is it that

    而使其他人可以受益的人;

  • I don't have people that I work with like that?

    在商界,我們把獎金

  • You know, in the military, they give medals

    頒給那些願意犧牲他人

  • to people who are willing to sacrifice themselves

    而使我們受益的員工。

  • so that others may gain.

    亂套了,是吧?

  • In business, we give bonuses to people

    於是我問自己, 像這樣的人從哪裡來?

  • who are willing to sacrifice others

    我的初步結論是 他們本來就是更好的人。

  • so that we may gain.

    這讓他們對軍隊感興趣。

  • We have it backwards. Right?

    這些較好的人

  • So I asked myself, where do people like this come from?

    被奉獻的概念吸引。

  • And my initial conclusion was that they're just better people.

    但那徹底錯了。

  • That's why they're attracted to the military.

    我的後來發現這跟環境有關,

  • These better people are attracted

    如果你營造正確的環境,

  • to this concept of service.

    我們每個人都有能力

  • But that's completely wrong.

    做到這些意義重大的事情,

  • What I learned was that it's the environment,

    而更重要的是, 其他人也有這個能力。

  • and if you get the environment right,

    我非常榮幸能會見

  • every single one of us has the capacity

    其中一些我們稱之為英雄的人。

  • to do these remarkable things,

    他們曾經把自身生命

  • and more importantly, others have that capacity too.

    置於危險中以拯救他人。

  • I've had the great honor of getting to meet

    我問他們:「你為什麼會這樣做?

  • some of these, who we would call heroes,

    你為什麼這樣做?」

  • who have put themselves and put their lives

    他們都說同樣的話:

  • at risk to save others,

    「因為其他人也會為我這麼做。」

  • and I asked them, "Why would you do it?

    這是深深的信任和合作。

  • Why did you do it?"

    因此信任和合作非常重要,

  • And they all say the same thing:

    關於信任和合作的問題是:

  • "Because they would have done it for me."

    它們是情感,不是命令。

  • It's this deep sense of trust and cooperation.

    我無法簡單地對你說「相信我」, 然後你就相信。

  • So trust and cooperation are really important here.

    我不能簡單地指示兩人合作, 然後他們就合作,

  • The problem with concepts of trust and cooperation

    並不是這樣的,這是一種感覺。

  • is that they are feelings, they are not instructions.

    那麼,這種感覺從哪裡來的?

  • I can't simply say to you, "Trust me," and you will.

    如果你回到五萬年前的

  • I can't simply instruct two people to cooperate, and they will.

    舊石器時代,

  • It's not how it works. It's a feeling.

    到人類文明的初期,

  • So where does that feeling come from?

    我們發現這世界

  • If you go back 50,000 years

    充滿了危險,

  • to the Paleolithic era,

    所有的這些力量 致力於殺死我們。

  • to the early days of Homo sapiens,

    對什麼東西都一樣。

  • what we find is that the world

    無論是天氣、

  • was filled with danger,

    缺乏資源、

  • all of these forces working very, very hard to kill us.

    或者是一隻劍齒虎,

  • Nothing personal.

    所有這些事情

  • Whether it was the weather,

    都在削減我們的壽命。

  • lack of resources,

    因此,我們演化成群居動物,

  • maybe a saber-toothed tiger,

    我們住在一起,一起工作,

  • all of these things working

    在我稱之為安全範圍的部落裡面,

  • to reduce our lifespan.

    那我們視為歸宿的地方。

  • And so we evolved into social animals,

    當我們在群體中感到安全,

  • where we lived together and worked together

    自然反應就是信任和合作。

  • in what I call a circle of safety, inside the tribe,

    連帶好處是,

  • where we felt like we belonged.

    這意味我可以在晚上睡覺,

  • And when we felt safe amongst our own,

    並且信任部落裡的 其他人會防範危險。

  • the natural reaction was trust and cooperation.

    如果我們不信任彼此, 如果我不信任你,

  • There are inherent benefits to this.

    也就是你不會擔任警戒。

  • It means I can fall asleep at night

    這將是糟糕的生存機制。

  • and trust that someone from within my tribe will watch for danger.

    現代的情況完全一樣,

  • If we don't trust each other, if I don't trust you,

    這個世界充滿危險,

  • that means you won't watch for danger.

    使我們感到挫敗、

  • Bad system of survival.

    阻撓我們成功、

  • The modern day is exactly the same thing.

    降低我們成功的機會。

  • The world is filled with danger,

    或許是跌宕起伏的經濟、

  • things that are trying to frustrate our lives

    股市的不確定性;

  • or reduce our success,

    或許是種新技術,

  • reduce our opportunity for success.

    使你的商業模式瞬間被淘汰;

  • It could be the ups and downs in the economy,

    或許是不時試著毀掉你的 競爭對手,

  • the uncertainty of the stock market.

    可能沒讓你倒閉,

  • It could be a new technology that renders

    但是他們至少

  • your business model obsolete overnight.

    也會奮力阻撓你的成長,

  • Or it could be your competition

    搶走你的業務。

  • that is sometimes trying to kill you.

    我們無法控制這些力量。

  • It's sometimes trying to put you out of business,

    這東西不會變,

  • but at the very minimum

    也不會消失。

  • is working hard to frustrate your growth

    唯一的變數

  • and steal your business from you.

    是組織的內部情況,

  • We have no control over these forces.

    這才是領導才能彰顯之處,

  • These are a constant,

    因為領導者決定風氣。

  • and they're not going away.

    當一個領導者作出選擇,

  • The only variable are the conditions

    把組織裡面的人

  • inside the organization,

    的安全和性命放在第一位,

  • and that's where leadership matters,

    犧牲自己的安逸

  • because it's the leader that sets the tone.

    以及一些有形的結果,

  • When a leader makes the choice

    以使大家感到安全和歸屬感,

  • to put the safety and lives

    就會發生很棒的事情。

  • of the people inside the organization first,

    我搭飛機的時候,

  • to sacrifice their comforts and sacrifice

    親眼目睹這麼一件事:

  • the tangible results, so that the people remain

    一名乘客在被叫到號碼前 就企圖登上飛機,

  • and feel safe and feel like they belong,

    我看著登機門的地勤人員,

  • remarkable things happen.

    待這男人像是他犯了法,

  • I was flying on a trip,

    像罪犯一樣。

  • and I was witness to an incident

    他被衝著叫喊,

  • where a passenger attempted to board

    就因為他太快登機。

  • before their number was called,

    於是我說了些話。

  • and I watched the gate agent

    我說:「為什麼你 非得把我們當作牲畜?

  • treat this man like he had broken the law,

    為什麼不能把我們當人看?」

  • like a criminal.

    而她確切是這麼回答,

  • He was yelled at for attempting to board

    她說:「先生, 如果我不遵守規定,

  • one group too soon.

    我可能會惹上麻煩或失去工作。」

  • So I said something.

    她再再告訴我的是

  • I said, "Why do you have treat us like cattle?

    她缺乏安全感。

  • Why can't you treat us like human beings?"

    她再再告訴我的是

  • And this is exactly what she said to me.

    她並不信任她的領導者。

  • She said, "Sir, if I don't follow the rules,

    我們喜歡搭西南航空的原因,

  • I could get in trouble or lose my job."

    並不是因為他們 必然聘請更好的員工,

  • All she was telling me

    而是因為他們 不會害怕他們的領導者。

  • is that she doesn't feel safe.

    你要知道,如果狀況不對,

  • All she was telling me is that

    我們就被迫耗費時間和精力

  • she doesn't trust her leaders.

    去保護自己不受彼此傷害!

  • The reason we like flying Southwest Airlines

    這從根本上使組織弱化。

  • is not because they necessarily hire better people.

    當我們在組織裡感到安全,

  • It's because they don't fear their leaders.

    自然就會把才能和實力結合,

  • You see, if the conditions are wrong,

    不屈不撓地

  • we are forced to expend our own time and energy

    面對外界危險,

  • to protect ourselves from each other,

    並把握各式各樣的機遇。

  • and that inherently weakens the organization.

    最貼切的比喻是,

  • When we feel safe inside the organization,

    優秀的領導者要像為人雙親。

  • we will naturally combine our talents

    如果你想一下 一個優秀的雙親是什麼樣的,

  • and our strengths and work tirelessly

    你想要什麼?怎樣才能 成為優秀的雙親?

  • to face the dangers outside

    我們希望給孩子們 各種機會、教育,

  • and seize the opportunities.

    必要時管教他們,

  • The closest analogy I can give

    使他們成長

  • to what a great leader is, is like being a parent.

    並實現比我們更多的成就。

  • If you think about what being a great parent is,

    偉大領袖的想法完全一致。

  • what do you want? What makes a great parent?

    他們要給追隨者提供機會、

  • We want to give our child opportunities,

    教育,必要時管教他們,

  • education, discipline them when necessary,

    建立他們的自信心, 給他們嘗試和失敗的機會,

  • all so that they can grow up and achieve more

    使他們能夠做得更多,

  • than we could for ourselves.

    以至於超出我們想像。

  • Great leaders want exactly the same thing.

    查理.金是 Next Jump 的執行長,

  • They want to provide their people opportunity,

    這家科技公司位於紐約市。

  • education, discipline when necessary,

    他提出一個論點:

  • build their self-confidence, give them the opportunity to try and fail,

    如果你家庭遭遇困難,

  • all so that they could achieve more

    你會考慮裁掉一個孩子嗎?

  • than we could ever imagine for ourselves.

    我們絕不會這麼做。

  • Charlie Kim, who's the CEO of a company called Next Jump

    那我們為什麼考慮裁掉

  • in New York City, a tech company,

    公司的員工呢?

  • he makes the point that

    查理實施了一項

  • if you had hard times in your family,

    終身僱用的政策,

  • would you ever consider laying off one of your children?

    如果 Next Jump 聘了你,

  • We would never do it.

    你就不會因為績效問題 而遭到解僱,

  • Then why do we consider laying off people

    事實上,當你遇到問題時,

  • inside our organization?

    他們會指導你、提供支持,

  • Charlie implemented a policy

    如我們待自己孩子,

  • of lifetime employment.

    即使他成績不理想。

  • If you get a job at Next Jump,

    這完全相反。

  • you cannot get fired for performance issues.

    這就是為何這麼多人

  • In fact, if you have issues,

    深惡痛絕

  • they will coach you and they will give you support,

    那些銀行執行長,

  • just like we would with one of our children

    及其不相稱的薪資與獎金結構。

  • who happens to come home with a C from school.

    這和表面數字無關。

  • It's the complete opposite.

    這是因為他們違背了 領導的根本定義,

  • This is the reason so many people

    這是因為他們已違反了 這份深植的社會契約。

  • have such a visceral hatred, anger,

    我們知道,他們容許 員工權益被犧牲,

  • at some of these banking CEOs

    以保護自身利益,

  • with their disproportionate salaries and bonus structures.

    或更糟的是, 他們犧牲員工權益,

  • It's not the numbers.

    以保護自身利益。

  • It's that they have violated the very definition of leadership.

    我們因此憤怒, 而不是數字。

  • They have violated this deep-seated social contract.

    如果我們給甘地 1.5 億 獎金,會犯眾怒嗎?

  • We know that they allowed their people

    給德蕾莎修女 2.5 億獎金?

  • to be sacrificed so they could protect their own interests,

    對此我們有爭議嗎? 完全沒有。

  • or worse, they sacrificed their people

    完全沒有。

  • to protect their own interests.

    偉大的領袖絕不會犧牲大家

  • This is what so offends us, not the numbers.

    以獲得利益。

  • Would anybody be offended if we gave

    他們會先犧牲利益,

  • a $150 million bonus to Gandhi?

    以挽救大家。

  • How about a $250 million bonus to Mother Teresa?

    鮑勃.查普曼經營一間

  • Do we have an issue with that? None at all.

    位於中西部的大型製造公司

  • None at all.

    叫 Barry-Wehmiller,

  • Great leaders would never sacrifice

    在 2008 年受經濟衰退衝擊,

  • the people to save the numbers.

    他們突然失去了 30% 的訂單。

  • They would sooner sacrifice the numbers

    對一個大製造商來說,

  • to save the people.

    這是件大事,

  • Bob Chapman, who runs

    他們無法再負擔 這樣的人力成本,

  • a large manufacturing company in the Midwest

    他們需要省下一千萬美金,

  • called Barry-Wehmiller,

    就像如今許多公司一樣,

  • in 2008 was hit very hard by the recession,

    董事會聚集在一起 召開會議商討裁員,

  • and they lost 30 percent of their orders overnight.

    然而鮑勃拒絕裁員。

  • Now in a large manufacturing company,

    鮑勃並不相信「人頭」,

  • this is a big deal,

    鮑勃在意的是「人心」,

  • and they could no longer afford their labor pool.

    而「人心」不是那種 可以隨意縮減的東西。

  • They needed to save 10 million dollars,

    於是他們想出一個休假計劃,

  • so, like so many companies today,

    由秘書到執行長,

  • the board got together and discussed layoffs.

    每位員工都必須休四星期無薪假,

  • And Bob refused.

    他們可以在任何時間休假,

  • You see, Bob doesn't believe in head counts.

    也無須連續休假。

  • Bob believes in heart counts,

    但重要的是, 鮑勃如何宣布此計劃。

  • and it's much more difficult to simply reduce

    他說,我們所有人都受一點苦,

  • the heart count.

    會比由任何一個人 承受所有苦來得好。

  • And so they came up with a furlough program.

    員工士氣不降反升。

  • Every employee, from secretary to CEO,

    他們節省了二千萬美金,

  • was required to take four weeks of unpaid vacation.

    而最重要的是,正如預期,

  • They could take it any time they wanted,

    當大家感到安全, 感受到領導者的保護,

  • and they did not have to take it consecutively.

    自然反應就是信任和合作,

  • But it was how Bob announced the program

    這是自發的,沒有人預料到,

  • that mattered so much.

    大家開始互相交換,

  • He said, it's better that we should all suffer a little

    能夠承擔起較多的

  • than any of us should have to suffer a lot,

    就跟能承擔起較少的交換。

  • and morale went up.

    有人放假五星期,

  • They saved 20 million dollars,

    有人就可以放假三星期。

  • and most importantly, as would be expected,

    領導是一項選擇,和職位無關。

  • when the people feel safe and protected by the leadership in the organization,

    我認識很多組織裡的高層,

  • the natural reaction is to trust and cooperate.

    他們絕對不是一位領袖。

  • And quite spontaneously, nobody expected,

    他們是當權者, 我們聽他們的,

  • people started trading with each other.

    因為他們的職權高於我們,

  • Those who could afford it more

    但我們不會追隨他們。

  • would trade with those who could afford it less.

    我認識很多位於

  • People would take five weeks

    組織基層的人們,

  • so that somebody else only had to take three.

    他們無權無勢,

  • Leadership is a choice. It is not a rank.

    但絕對是一位領袖,

  • I know many people at the seniormost

    因為他們選擇照顧

  • levels of organizations

    他們身邊所有的人。

  • who are absolutely not leaders.

    領袖就是這樣子的。