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  • I suspect that

    我懷疑

  • every aid worker in Africa

    每位在非洲的救援人員

  • comes to a time in her career

    職業生涯中都會有段時間

  • when she wants to take all the money for her project

    想把所有計畫的經費,

  • maybe it's a school or a training program

    也許是支付學校或訓練的費用,

  • pack it in a suitcase,

    全都放進皮箱裡,

  • get on a plane flying over the poorest villages in the country,

    搭上飛機,飛到全國最窮的村子裡,

  • and start throwing that money out the window.

    然後開始把錢丟出窗外。

  • Because to a veteran aid worker,

    因為對經驗豐富的救援人員來說,

  • the idea of putting cold, hard cash

    把白花花的現金送到

  • into the hands of the poorest people on Earth

    地球上最窮的人手上

  • doesn't sound crazy,

    聽起來不怎麼瘋狂,

  • it sounds really satisfying.

    反而非常大快人心。

  • I had that moment right about the 10-year mark,

    我大概在工作滿十年的時候有這種感覺,

  • and luckily, that's also when I learned

    幸運的是,我正好在那個時候發現

  • that this idea actually exists,

    這種想法真的存在現實生活中,

  • and it might be just what the aid system needs.

    而那也許符合救援機構的需求。

  • Economists call it an unconditional cash transfer,

    經濟學家稱這種方式為現金移轉 (unconditional cash transfer)。

  • and it's exactly that: It's cash given

    意思是:沒有任何條件

  • with no strings attached.

    就直接提供現金。

  • Governments in developing countries

    發展中國家的政府

  • have been doing this for decades,

    做這件事已經幾十年了,

  • and it's only now, with more evidence

    直到現在才有更多證據

  • and new technology that it's possible

    和新興科技顯示

  • to make this a model for delivering aid.

    這種捐助方式可行。

  • It's a pretty simple idea, right?

    這是個很簡單的概念,對吧?

  • Well, why did I spend a decade doing other stuff

    那為什麼我還花了十年做其他的事

  • for the poor?

    來幫助窮人?

  • Honestly, I believed that I could do more good

    老實說,我以前相信

  • with money for the poor

    我比窮人更擅於管理錢,

  • than the poor could do for themselves.

    比他們自己處理得更好。

  • I held two assumptions:

    我假設兩件事:

  • One, that poor people are poor in part

    第一,窮人之所以窮,

  • because they're uneducated and

    有一部分是因為他們沒有受教育,

  • don't make good choices;

    而且不懂得做出好選擇;

  • two is that we then need people like me

    第二,我們需要像我這樣的人,

  • to figure out what they need and get it to them.

    設想他們需要什麼,並提供他們所需。

  • It turns out, the evidence says otherwise.

    結果事實證明完全相反。

  • In recent years, researchers have been studying

    最近幾年,調查員一直研究

  • what happens when we give poor people cash.

    我們給窮人現金之後的發展。

  • Dozens of studies show across the board

    許多研究都顯示

  • that people use cash transfers

    大家把現金用在

  • to improve their own lives.

    改善自己的生活。

  • Pregnant women in Uruguay buy better food

    烏拉圭的孕婦會買好一點的食物,

  • and give birth to healthier babies.

    生下的嬰兒就會比較健康。

  • Sri Lankan men invest in their businesses.

    斯里蘭卡男性則投資在自己的生意上。

  • Researchers who studied our work in Kenya

    調查員研究我們在肯亞做的服務,

  • found that people invested in a range of assets,

    發現大家投資在各種財產上,

  • from livestock to equipment to home improvements,

    從家畜、設備到改善家園,

  • and they saw increases in income

    而且他們還看見收入的成長,

  • from business and farming

    從經商到務農都獲利,

  • one year after the cash was sent.

    成效就出現在他們送出錢的一年後。

  • None of these studies found that people

    沒有任何研究顯示

  • spend more on drinking or smoking

    大家花更多錢去抽煙、喝酒,

  • or that people work less.

    也沒有人因此減少工作。

  • In fact, they work more.

    事實上,他們做得更多。

  • Now, these are all material needs.

    前面談到的都是物質需求。

  • In Vietnam, elderly recipients used

    在越南,年長的受助者

  • their cash transfers to pay for coffins.

    把現金拿來買棺材。

  • As someone who wonders if Maslow got it wrong,

    就像有人懷疑馬斯洛的理論是否錯了,

  • I find this choice to prioritize spiritual needs

    我發現這個優先滿足精神需求的選擇

  • deeply humbling.

    著實令人感到謙遜。

  • I don't know if I would have chosen to give food

    我不知道我會選擇提供食物、

  • or equipment or coffins,

    設備還是棺材,

  • which begs the question:

    這就回到最關鍵的問題:

  • How good are we at allocating resources

    我們有多擅於分配資源

  • on behalf of the poor?

    來為窮人爭取利益?

  • Are we worth the cost?

    我們值那些錢嗎?

  • Again, we can look at empirical evidence

    同樣的,我們可以檢視過去的經驗,

  • on what happens when we give people stuff

    看看給窮人我們選擇的東西之後,

  • of our choosing.

    發生了什麼事。

  • One very telling study looked at a program in India

    有份很有說服力的研究檢視印度做的計畫顯示

  • that gives livestock to the so-called ultra-poor,

    給所謂的赤貧者牲畜之後,

  • and they found that 30 percent of recipients

    他們發現有 30% 的受助者

  • had turned around and sold the livestock they had been given

    情況大幅好轉,並賣出得到的牲畜

  • for cash.

    來換取現金。

  • The real irony is,

    很諷刺的是,

  • for every 100 dollars worth of assets

    價值 100 美元的資產

  • this program gave someone,

    透過計畫提供給受助者,

  • they spent another 99 dollars to do it.

    他們還要多花 99 美元才能有收穫。

  • What if, instead, we use technology to put cash,

    有沒有可能,我們換個方式運用科技捐款,

  • whether from aid agencies or from any one of us

    不論是由慈善團體,還是任何捐助人

  • directly into a poor person's hands.

    直接捐款到窮人手上。

  • Today, three in four Kenyans use mobile money,

    現在有四分之三的肯亞人使用電子錢包,

  • which is basically a bank account that can run

    基本上就是能在任何行動電話上操作的

  • on any cell phone.

    銀行帳戶。

  • A sender can pay a 1.6 percent fee

    捐款人支付 1.6% 的手續費,

  • and with the click of a button

    點一下按鈕,

  • send money directly to a recipient's account

    就能直接捐款到受助者的帳戶,

  • with no intermediaries.

    不需要透過任何人轉手。

  • Like the technologies that are disrupting industries

    就像在我們生活中

  • in our own lives,

    破壞產業的科技一樣,

  • payments technology in poor countries

    貧窮國家的付款科技

  • could disrupt aid.

    也會瓦解救援。

  • It's spreading so quickly that it's possible

    科技傳遞得如此快速,

  • to imagine reaching billions

    讓人可以想像用這種方式

  • of the world's poor this way.

    幫助世界上的幾十億窮人。

  • That's what we've started to do at GiveDirectly.

    那就是我們在「馬上捐」(GiveDirectly)開始做的事。

  • We're the first organization

    我們是第一個

  • dedicated to providing cash transfers to the poor.

    決定直接將現金移轉給窮人的組織。

  • We've sent cash to 35,000 people across rural Kenya

    我們送了現金給三萬五千名住在肯亞

  • and Uganda

    和烏干達鄉村的人,

  • in one-time payments of 1,000 dollars

    一次提供一千美元

  • per family.

    給每個家庭。

  • So far, we've looked for the poorest people

    至今,我們仍尋找最窮苦的人,

  • in the poorest villages, and in this part of the world,

    那些人住在世界這個地區最窮的村莊裡,

  • they're the ones living in homes

    他們住的房子

  • made of mud and thatch,

    用泥巴和茅草搭成,

  • not cement and iron.

    而不是鋼筋水泥。

  • So let's say that's your family.

    假設那是你家,

  • We show up at your door with an Android phone.

    我們帶著安卓手機出現在你家門口。

  • We'll get your name, take your photo

    我們問了你的名字,

  • and a photo of your hut

    幫你還有小屋照張相,

  • and grab the GPS coordinates.

    然後用衛星定位。

  • That night, we send all the data to the cloud,

    當天晚上,我們會把所有資料傳上雲端,

  • and each piece gets checked

    每一個案件都由

  • by an independent team

    獨立團體審查,

  • using, for one example, satellite images.

    運用衛星影像等方式。

  • Then, we'll come back,

    之後我們會再回來,

  • we'll sell you a basic cell phone

    我們會賣你一支簡易手機,

  • if you don't have one already,

    如果你本來沒有手機。

  • and a few weeks later,

    幾週後,

  • we send money to it.

    我們會付錢到那上面。

  • Something that five years ago

    五年前,

  • would have seemed impossible

    這件事看似天方夜譚,

  • we can now do efficiently

    現在,我們可以有效率地執行,

  • and free of corruption.

    而且免受貪汙之苦。

  • The more cash we give to the poor,

    我們給窮人越多錢,

  • and the more evidence we have that it works,

    就有越多的證據顯示這個作法成功,

  • the more we have to reconsider

    我們也就越需要重新思考

  • everything else we give.

    該提供的是什麼。

  • Today, the logic behind aid is too often,

    現在救援背後的念頭經常是

  • well, we do at least some good.

    「嗯,至少我們做了點好事。」

  • When we're complacent

    當我們沾沾自喜

  • with that as our bar,

    認為那是我們的成就,

  • when we tell ourselves that giving aid

    當我們告訴自己有援助

  • is better than no aid at all,

    總比什麼援助都沒有還好的時候,

  • we tend to invest inefficiently,

    我們反而會做效益不大的投資,

  • in our own ideas that strike us as innovative,

    抱著我們自認為創新的想法,

  • on writing reports,

    像是投資在寫報導,

  • on plane tickets and SUVs.

    或是機票和休旅車上。

  • What if the logic was,

    要是採用當時的邏輯,

  • will we do better than cash given directly?

    我們能做得比直接給錢還好嗎?

  • Organizations would have to prove

    組織必須證明

  • that they're doing more good for the poor

    他們幫窮人做得更好,

  • than the poor can do for themselves.

    更勝於窮人自己動手做。

  • Of course, giving cash won't create public goods

    當然,給錢無法創造公共利益,

  • like eradicating disease or building strong institutions,

    像是消滅疾病或蓋穩固的建築,

  • but it could set a higher bar

    但給錢可以提高目標,

  • for how we help individual families

    讓我們幫助每個家庭

  • improve their lives.

    改善他們的生活。

  • I believe in aid.

    我相信援助。

  • I believe most aid is better than just

    我相信大部分的援助都好過於只是

  • throwing money out of a plane.

    從飛機上丟錢。

  • I am also absolutely certain

    我也確信

  • that a lot of aid today

    現在許多援助

  • isn't better than giving directly to the poor.

    都不比直接給窮人錢還好。

  • I hope that one day, it will be.

    我希望有一天,我們能做得更好。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

I suspect that

我懷疑

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TED】Joy Sun。你應該換一種方式捐款嗎?(Joy Sun:你應該換一種方式捐款嗎?) (【TED】Joy Sun: Should you donate differently? (Joy Sun: Should you donate differently?))

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    CUChou 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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