Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • Hi this Ceema

  • and I'm back with a new lesson

  • on the usage of words like under

  • below, beneath and underneath.

  • Well all these words sound quite similar don't they?

  • Well, they do and yeah their meanings are quite similar

  • but they are used in quite different context.

  • Now what is all these three words mean?

  • When I refer to words like under

  • below beneath and underneath,

  • I'm talking about you know

  • I'm referring to things that are you know down in the downward position

  • So, of course when I talk about under below, I'm talking but anything that is

  • down there, but let's see where we can use these words

  • and in how many context we can use it in.

  • Okay, the first one is the word under.

  • Now the first context in which you will use the word

  • under, is to talk about something

  • that is below a three dimensional object

  • So we have an example, the sentence which is

  • They sat under a tree. Now, I remember I said

  • below a three-dimensional object

  • So anything under a three-dimensional object like a tree, for example

  • then I use the word under. So if I want to say

  • me and my friend we sat under

  • a tree, which is a three-dimensional object,

  • then I use the word under. For example I could have

  • a three dimensional object like a table, I can say that

  • the book was under the table

  • or I could say that the cat was sleeping under

  • the chair, the chair again being a three-dimensional object.

  • Now I can also use the word under

  • when I want to talk about layers of something

  • So, if

  • I want to say that you know something is under a layer,

  • so for example I have a sentence like, I have a T-shirt

  • under my jacket. So this is a shirt

  • now imagine if I was wearing a jacket on top of it,

  • I could say that I have a shirt

  • under my jacket because I'm talking about.

  • layers of something. Okay, so

  • we use under also when we're talking about layers

  • and then I could say I could use under

  • also when I'm talking about numbers so I will say

  • I can raise under fifteen thousand dollars

  • or I can do it under seven hours

  • So, if I'm talking about time which is also numbers,

  • money which is again numbers

  • I will use the word under okay so

  • I was under-17 when I learned to drive

  • that's again when you use the word under and

  • the last context where you use the word under

  • is to talk about a state of mental

  • well-being or ill being, so it talks about your

  • mental state. So I can say that

  • this group is under a lot of stress.

  • Now my mental state in this case

  • is stress. I can say that I was under

  • a lot of pressure. So

  • we're talking about a mental state and that is when I use the word

  • under. So here please notice that unlike

  • these, the under used out here

  • is talking about a mental situation,

  • a mental state and not a physical state like these three sentences are.

  • Okay now we will deal with the next word

  • which is below and see what contexts they can be used in.

  • As I said the word below can also be used

  • in different contexts, so let's see the different

  • ways in which we can use the word below.

  • Let's look up our first sentence which is,

  • the red photo is below

  • the black one. Now why do I use

  • below in this context? I'll help you understand this

  • by means of a diagram

  • Okay, now imagine this is my wall or

  • a blackboard if you may, on now this context

  • in which I use below the talks about

  • comparing the level of one thing

  • against the other, provided

  • both of them are on the same plane.

  • Okay so as I said imagine that

  • this is my blackboard or maybe this is my

  • wall this square out here, okay.

  • so I will draw a red photo

  • okay, and now we will have a black photo

  • okay well it doesn't take a rocket scientist to figure out

  • which one is up there and which one is down. The sentence says that,

  • the red photo is below

  • the black one and that it's true but why do I use the word below and not

  • under because I'm talking about

  • two things which are on one plane

  • surface, so if both the photos were

  • on the blackboard, I would say the red photo is below

  • the black one. If this was on

  • a wall I would again say the red

  • photo is below the black one, but

  • suppose I have a table here and

  • the black photo is somewhere here, but

  • the red photo is lying somewhere here.

  • Could I say the red photo is below

  • the black one? No! I will then use the word

  • under because when I explained under,

  • I clearly mentioeds that anything that is

  • you know under a three-dimensional

  • object, will always have an under

  • used in it. But when I'm talking about

  • a plane surface and I'm comparing the levels of two things,

  • it is always the word below.

  • okay then let's move on to

  • the next sentence which is, the temperature

  • has dropped below freezing point.

  • So here again I use the word below when I want to talk about

  • the level of temperature

  • so

  • I've talked about the level of temperature being below freezing point

  • Maybe I want to talk about level, the sea level.

  • So I can say that the diver

  • went a hundred feet below sea level

  • that's quite possible, I could also talk about

  • you know the level of altitude.

  • So i can

  • that, that is the height, of course and I can say the plane lost control

  • and went immediately 100 feet you know

  • below 100 altitude

  • so i'm talking about here the level of temperature, the sea level

  • and level of altitude

  • and then you have the last context where you use below

  • when I talk about thing that are mentioned

  • later. So let's see

  • a sentence which is, read the instructions

  • below, not under. Read the instructions below

  • before you start. Now when I say

  • I use the word below when I'm talking about things that happen

  • later or a mention later I am saying that

  • I use below because I know there are certain things that I need to

  • you know consider, certain things that I need to

  • read before I start my next

  • action. So maybe I'm sitting in an exam

  • and I've got to write you know give the exam

  • but I need to consider things are mentioned

  • at you know a later stage, so before I start my exam

  • I have to read the instructions which are mentioned

  • after you know a page or maybe after two pages

  • before I start doing something okay

  • So now that we have learned below, let's talk about the other two words which are

  • beneath and underneath. Alright now let's look at the last two pair of words

  • which is beneath and underneath and see how they are used.

  • The first sentence says,

  • they slept beneath the blankets.

  • So, the first context in which I use the word

  • beneath is talking about being

  • covered by something.

  • so now

  • you are sleeping beneath the blankets, so what I'm actually saying is,

  • I am being covered by the blankets.

  • maybe I could also say that she hid

  • beneath the water. She was beneath

  • the surface of the water. So I wanted to hide from somebody looking at me

  • I wanted to be covered by the surface of the water so I

  • I just go dip in and I'm covered by the surface of water.

  • So, that is nothing but being covered by something.

  • Moving onto the next context, we talk about using the word

  • beneath, when we are talking about

  • a person's emotions,

  • a person's feelings

  • or maybe their actions.

  • So a sentence like this which goes, beneath

  • it all, he still loves her. So maybe

  • we're talking about a couple who you know gets into a lot

  • arguments, a lot of petty fights but beneath that

  • all which means beneath all the emotions, the feelings, the drama