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  • It's a common saying that elephants never forget,

    人們常說大象從不會忘記任何事

  • but these magnificent animals are more than giant walking hard drives.

    然而這些大而美麗的動物們,不只是巨大的行動硬碟而已

  • The more we learn about elephants,

    對大象了解得更多

  • the more it appears that their impressive memory

    我們就更能了解到,大象的驚人記憶力

  • is only one aspect of an incredible intelligence that makes them

    只是他們聰明才智的一部份,大象的聰明足以讓他們成為

  • some of the most social, creative and benevolent creatures on Earth.

    地球上最會社交、有創造力,且最慈愛的動物

  • Unlike many proverbs, the one about elephant memory

    和其它諺語不同,這則關於大象記憶的諺語

  • is scientifically accurate.

    在科學上是正確的

  • Elephants know every member in their herd,

    大象認得象群裡每個成員

  • able to recognize as many as 30 companions by sight or smell.

    透過看或聞,他們認得多達30個夥伴

  • This is a great help when migrating

    這項能力在遷徙

  • or encountering other potentially hostile elephants.

    或遇到不友善的大象時十分有利

  • They also remember and distinguish particular cues that signal danger

    他們還能記憶、辨別特殊的危險訊號

  • and can recall important locations long after their last visit.

    能在很久以後回訪重要的地點

  • But it's the memories unrelated to survival that are the most fascinating.

    但大象的記憶能力最引人入勝的,是無關生存的部分

  • Elephants remember not only their herd companions

    大象不只記得象群裡的夥伴

  • but other creatures who have made a strong impression on them.

    還會記得其它讓牠們印象深刻的生物

  • In one case, two circus elephants that had briefly performed together

    某案例中有兩隻馬戲團大象,曾短暫地一起表演過

  • rejoiced when crossing paths 23 years later.

    23年後重逢,他們表現得激動無比

  • This recognition isn't limited to others of their species.

    這樣的分辨能力不僅表現在象群身上,甚至也表現在其他物種身上

  • Elephants have also recognized humans they've bonded with after decades apart.

    大象也能在幾十年後,認出他們曾經熟識的人類

  • All of this shows that elephant memory goes beyond responses to stimuli.

    這些例子都指出大象的記憶能力遠超過「回應外在刺激」

  • Looking inside their heads, we can see why.

    來看看大象的腦袋,我們就能探究原因

  • The elephant boasts the largest brain of any land mammal,

    大象擁有陸生動物中最大的腦袋

  • as well as an impressive encephalization quotient.

    也有驚人的腦化指數 (註:即EQ,表示哺乳動物智力的商數 )

  • This is the size of the brain relative to what we'd expect for an animal's body size,

    也就是腦的大小相對於預期的身體大小

  • and the elephants EQ is nearly as high as a chimpanzee's.

    而大象的 EQ 指數幾乎和黑猩猩一樣高

  • And despite the distant relation,

    先不論關係有多遠

  • convergent evolution has made it remarkably similar to the human brain,

    趨同演化使大象的腦非常接近於人類大腦

  • with as many neurons and synapses

    有很多神經元和神經突觸

  • and a highly developed hippocampus and cerebral cortex.

    高度發展的海馬迴和大腦皮質

  • It is the hippocampus strongly associated with emotion that aides recollection

    海馬迴的功能和情緒緊密連結

  • hat aides recollection by encoding important experiences into long-term memories.

    透過「把重要的經歷編譯成長期記憶」的方式輔助記憶

  • The ability to distinguish this importance makes elephant memory

    辨別哪些屬於長期記憶的能力,讓大象的記憶力

  • a complex and adaptable faculty beyond rote memorization.

    變成一項複雜且適應力強的本領,不僅是機械性的強記

  • It's what allows elephants who survived a drought in their youth

    因此,幼年時期在乾旱中倖存的大象有能力

  • to recognize its warning signs in adulthood,

    辨別出童年見過的警告訊號

  • which is why clans with older matriarchs have higher survival rates.

    也就是為麼依附著母族長的大象存活率較高

  • Unfortunately, it's also what makes elephants one of the few non-human animals

    不幸的是,這樣的能力讓大象變成人類以外的動物中

  • to suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder.

    會受「創傷後壓力症候群」所苦的動物之一

  • The cerebral cortex, on the other hand, enables problem solving,

    另一方面,象的大腦皮質也給了他們解決問題的能力

  • which elephants display in many creative ways.

    大象的行為展現了多種創造力

  • They also tackle problems cooperatively,

    他們會合作解決問題

  • sometimes even outwitting the researchers and manipulating their partners.

    有時候甚至智取研究學者,還會指揮自己的夥伴

  • And they've grasped basic arithmetic,

    他們有基本的數學運算能力

  • keeping track of the relative amounts of fruit in two baskets after multiple changes.

    能發覺兩籃水果裡的相對數量被動過手腳了

  • The rare combination of memory and problem solving

    大象罕見的記憶力和解決問題的能力

  • can explain some of elephant's most clever behaviors,

    能解釋大象的一些聰明行為

  • but it doesn't explain some of the things we're just beginning to learn

    但還不能解釋我們才剛開始研究的課題:

  • about their mental lives.

    有關大象的日常生活感受

  • Elephants communicate using everything from body signals and vocalizations,

    象群以各種方式,包括肢體語言和聲音溝通彼此

  • to infrared rumbles that can be heard kilometers away.

    發出低沉的聲音,傳遞至幾公里外

  • And their understanding of syntax suggests they have their own language and grammar.

    而且他們能理解句構,這說明了他們有自己的語言和文法

  • This sense of language may even go beyond simple communication.

    他們的語言能力已超越了一般的溝通

  • Elephants create art by carefully choosing and combining

    大象還會藝術創作

  • by carefully choosing and combining different colors and elements.

    他們仔細的選擇、組合不同顏色和物件

  • They can also recognize twelve distinct tones of music and recreate melodies.

    他們也能分辨十二種不同音調,並重新創造旋律

  • And yes, there is an elephant band.

    沒錯,有大象組成的樂團!

  • But perhaps the most amazing thing about elephants

    但關於大象,或許最令人驚嘆的

  • is a capacity even more important than cleverness:

    是比聰明才智更重要的能力:

  • their sense of empathy, altruism and justice.

    他們有同理心,有利他傾向和正義感

  • Elephants are the only non-human animals to mourn their dead,

    大象是除了人類以外唯一會哀悼死者的動物

  • performing burial rituals and returning to visit graves.

    會進行葬禮儀式、回訪墓地

  • They have shown concern for other species, as well.

    他們也表現出對其他動物的關懷

  • One working elephant refused to set a log down into a hole

    有隻工作中的大象,拒絕把木頭放進洞裡

  • where a dog was sleeping,

    因為有隻小狗正在裡面睡覺

  • while elephants encountering injured humans have sometimes stood guard

    當大象碰見受傷的人類,有時會留下來守護他們

  • and gently comforted them with their trunk.

    並用象鼻輕輕地安慰他們

  • On the other hand, elephant attacks on human villages have usually occurred

    另一方面,大象攻擊人的村落

  • have usually occurred right after massive poachings or callings, suggesting deliberate revenge.

    經常發生在大規模盜獵或偷獵之後,意謂著故意報復

  • When we consider all this evidence,along with the fact that elephants are one of the few species

    當我們思考這些事實,再加上大象是少數

  • who can recognize themselves in a mirror,

    能認出鏡中自己的動物之一

  • it's hard to escape the conclusion

    我們很難跳脫這個結論:

  • that they are conscious, intelligent and emotional beings.

    大象是有自覺意識的,智力過人且富有感情的生物

  • Unfortunately, humanity's treatment of elephants does not reflect this,

    不幸的是,人們對待大象並沒考慮到這點

  • as they continue to suffer from habitat destruction in Asia,

    因此大象持續地受難,像是發生在亞洲的棲地破壞、

  • ivory poaching in Africa, and mistreatment in captivity worldwide.

    非洲的象牙盜獵,以及在全世界各地受到囚禁虐待

  • Given when we now know about elephants

    有鑑於我們對大象的了解

  • and what they continue to teach us about animal intelligence,

    以及大象持續教給我們的動物智能知識

  • it is more important than ever to ensure that what the English poet John Donne described as

    現在更重要的是,確保英國詩人「約翰·多恩」形容為

  • "nature's great masterpiece," does not vanish from the world's canvas.

    「大自然傑作」的大象,不會消失在這世界上

It's a common saying that elephants never forget,

人們常說大象從不會忘記任何事

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 大象 能力 動物 記憶 記憶力

TED-Ed】為什麼大象永遠不會忘記--亞歷克斯-根德勒。 (【TED-Ed】Why elephants never forget - Alex Gendler)

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    Ashley Chen 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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