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  • It's a common saying that "elephants never forget",

    人們常說大象從不會忘記任何事,

  • but these magnificent animals are more than giant walking hard drives.

    然而這些龐大的動物們,不只是活生生的巨型隨身硬碟而已。

  • The more we learn about elephants,

    我們越了解大象,

  • the more it appears that their impressive memory is only one aspect of an incredible intelligence

    就越能發現他們驚人的記憶力只是他們聰明才智的一部份,

  • that makes them some of the most social, creative and benevolent creatures on Earth.

    大象的智力足以讓他們成為地球上最會社交、最有創造力,最仁慈的動物。

  • Unlike many proverbs, the one about elephant memory is scientifically accurate.

    有別於大多數諺語,這則有關大象記憶的諺語是有科學根據的。

  • Elephants know every member in their herd, able to recognize as many as 30 companions by sight or smell.

    大象能辨認象群裡的每一個成員,他們可以透過視覺或嗅覺認得多達30個夥伴。

  • This is a great help when migrating, or encountering other potentially hostile elephants.

    這項能力在遷徙時,或遇到可能有敵意的大象時有很大的幫助。

  • They also remember and distinguish particular cues that signal danger and can recall important locations long after their last visit.

    他們也能記憶和辨別危險的特殊訊號,並回想起很久以前去過的重要地點。

  • But it's the memories unrelated to survival that are the most fascinating.

    但最令人感興趣的是那些跟生存無關的記憶。

  • Elephants remember not only their herd companions but other creatures who have made a strong impression on them.

    大象不只能記得象群裡的同伴,還會記得其它讓牠們印象深刻的生物。

  • In one case, two circus elephants that had briefly performed together rejoiced when crossing paths 23 years later.

    舉例來說,兩隻曾短時間同台演出的馬戲團大象,在23年後的重逢時欣喜無比。

  • This recognition isn't limited to others of their species.

    這種分辨能力不僅表現在同類之間。

  • Elephants have also recognized humans they've bonded with after decades apart.

    大象也能認出十幾年前接觸密切的人類。

  • All of this shows that elephant memory goes beyond responses to stimuli.

    這些例子都指出大象的記憶能力不僅僅是對刺激的反應。

  • Looking inside their heads, we can see why.

    解答就藏在大象的腦袋中。

  • The elephant boasts the largest brain of any land mammal, as well as an impressive encephalization quotient.

    大象的腦袋是陸地上所有哺乳動物中最大的,且擁有驚人的腦化指數(EQ)。

  • This is the size of the brain relative to what we'd expect for an animal's body size, and the elephants' EQ is nearly as high as a chimpanzee's.

    EQ是真實腦容量和預期腦容量的比值,而大象的EQ幾乎和黑猩猩一樣高。

  • And despite the distant relation, convergent evolution has made it remarkably similar to the human brain, with as many neurons and synapses and a highly developed hippocampus and cerebral cortex.

    儘管兩者關係甚遠,趨同演化使得大象的腦非常接近於人類大腦,有很多神經元和神經突觸、高度發展的海馬迴和大腦皮層。

  • It is the hippocampus strongly associated with emotion that aids recollection by encoding important experiences into long-term memories.

    海馬迴的功能和情緒緊密連結,透過「把重要的經歷編譯成長期記憶」的方式輔助記憶。

  • The ability to distinguish this importance makes elephant memory a complex and adaptable faculty beyond rote memorization.

    辨別哪些屬於長期記憶的能力,讓大象的記憶力變成一項複雜而具有適應力的能力,而不僅僅是機械性的強記。

  • It's what allows elephants who survived a drought in their youth to recognize its warning signs in adulthood,

    因此,幼年時期從乾旱中倖存的大象,在成年後能夠辨別乾旱的預兆。

  • which is why clans with older matriarchs have higher survival rates.

    也就是為什麼依附著耆老的象群存活率較高。

  • Unfortunately, it's also what makes elephants one of the few non-human animals to suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder.

    不幸的是,這種能力也讓大象變成人類以外少數會受「創傷後壓力症候群」所苦的動物之一。

  • The cerebral cortex, on the other hand, enables problem-solving, which elephants display in many creative ways.

    另一方面,大腦皮層也賦予了大象解決問題的能力,大象透過各種有創意的方式展現這種能力。

  • They also tackle problems cooperatively, sometimes even outwitting the researchers and manipulating their partners.

    他們會合作解決問題,有時候甚至智取研究學者,還會指揮自己的夥伴。

  • And they've grasped basic arithmetic, keeping track of the relative amounts of fruit in two baskets after multiple changes.

    他們擁有基本的數學運算能力,當兩籃蘋果經過多次對換後,他們還能知道兩藍分別有幾顆蘋果。

  • The rare combination of memory and problem solving can explain some of elephant's most clever behaviors,

    大象罕見的記憶力和解決問題的能力,能解釋大象的聰明行為,

  • but it doesn't explain some of the things we're just beginning to learn about their mental lives.

    但還不能解釋我們對他們的新發現:大象的精神活動。

  • Elephants communicate using everything from body signals and vocalizations to infrared rumbles that can be heard kilometers away.

    象群以各種方式進行溝通,包括肢體語言和聲音、甚至發出能傳遞至幾公里外的低頻振動

  • And their understanding of syntax suggests they have their own language and grammar.

    而且他們對句構的理解,顯示他們有自己的語言和文法。

  • This sense of language may even go beyond simple communication.

    他們的語言能力可能已經超越了一般的溝通。

  • Elephants create art by carefully choosing and combining different colors and elements.

    大象還會藝術創作,他們仔細的選擇、組合不同顏色和物件 。

  • They can also recognize twelve distinct tones of music and recreate melodies.

    他們也能分辨十二種不同音調,並重新創造旋律。

  • And yes, there is an elephant band.

    沒錯,有大象組成的樂團!

  • But perhaps the most amazing thing about elephants is a capacity even more important than cleverness: their sense of empathy, altruism, and justice.

    但關於大象,或許最令人驚嘆的是比聰明才智更重要的能力: 他們的同理心、利他傾向和正義感 。

  • Elephants are the only non-human animals to mourn their dead, performing burial rituals and returning to visit graves.

    大象是除了人類以外唯一會哀悼死者的動物,他們會進行葬禮、探望墳墓。

  • They have shown concern for other species, as well.

    他們也表現出對其他動物的關懷。

  • One working elephant refused to set a log down into a hole where a dog was sleeping,

    有隻大象正在工作,牠拒絕把木頭放進洞裡,因為有隻小狗正在裡面睡覺。

  • hile elephants encountering injured humans have sometimes stood guard and gently comforted them with their trunk.

    當大象碰見受傷的人類,有時會留下來守護他們並用象鼻輕輕地安慰他們。

  • On the other hand, elephant attacks on human villages have usually occurred right after massive poachings or callings, suggesting deliberate revenge.

    另一方面,大象往往在大規模盜獵之後攻擊人類的村莊,意謂著他們是蓄意報復。

  • When we consider all this evidence, along with the fact that elephants are one of the few species who can recognize themselves in a mirror.

    當我們考量這些證據,再加上大象是少數能認出鏡中自己的動物之一,

  • it's hard to escape the conclusion that they are conscious, intelligent and emotional beings.

    我們很難跳脫這個結論:大象是有自我意識的、智力過人且富有感情的生物。

  • Unfortunately, humanity's treatment of elephants does not reflect this,

    不幸的是,人們對待大象的方式並沒考慮到這點,

  • as they continue to suffer from habitat destruction in Asia, ivory poaching in Africa, and mistreatment in captivity worldwide.

    因此大象持續地受苦,像是他們在亞洲的棲地被破壞、在非洲因象牙被獵殺,以及在全世界各地的圈養中飽受虐待。

  • Given what we now know about elephants and what they continue to teach us about animal intelligence,

    有鑑於我們對大象的了解,以及大象讓我們領略到的動物智能,

  • it is more important than ever to ensure that what the English poet, John Donne, described as "nature's great masterpiece" does not vanish from the world's canvas.

    現在最重要的是,確保如英國詩人約翰·多恩所說的「大自然的偉大傑作」,不會消失在這世界上。

It's a common saying that "elephants never forget",

人們常說大象從不會忘記任何事,

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 大象 能力 動物 記憶 記憶力

【TED-Ed】為何大象不會忘記任何事? (【TED-Ed】Why elephants never forget - Alex Gendler)

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    Ashley Chen 發佈於 2022 年 11 月 14 日
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