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  • The thermochemical conversion process uses heat to break down biomass into

  • intermediates, such as gas or bio-oil, which can be upgraded into fuel

  • and other products.

  • One type of thermochemical conversion process is pyrolysis, a method that uses

  • heat to decompose biomass in the absence of oxygen.

  • Here's one example of a pyrolysis conversion process.

  • Wood material such as forest residue is a common feedstock for the

  • pyrolysis process.

  • For best results, feedstock particles are less than two millimeters in size and

  • have less than 10% moisture content by weight.

  • The process of pyrolysis heats the biomass at moderate temperatures in the

  • absence of oxygen.

  • This produces vapors that are condensed into liquid bio-oil.

  • Char is also produced during the pyrolysis process.

  • Cleanup and stabilization of the bio-oil make it more suitable for storage,

  • downstream processing, and end use.

  • Cleanup can consist of filtering out particulates and ash before the

  • bio-oil is condensed into a liquid.

  • Stabilization typically involves mild hydrotreating, a process that uses

  • hydrogen to remove contaminants such as sulfur, nitrogen, or in the case of bio-oils,

  • oxygen.

  • Hydrotreating occurs with high hydrogen pressures in the presence of catalysts.

  • Oxygen is eliminated mostly as water, along with some carbon dioxide.

  • Other processes to remove oxygen are also being examined.

  • Eliminating oxygen creates a less reactive bio-oil with lower acidity.

  • The less reactive bio-oil may be stored longer and is more suitable for use as a

  • fuel oil.

  • The less acidic bio-oil may be more readily accepted into current

  • infrastructure, by achieving chemical compatibility with infrastructure

  • materials, such as pipes, reactors, and tanks.

  • Mild hydrotreating is usually followed by more severe hydrotreating, which is

  • required for the bio-oil to be suitable for use in a conventional

  • petroleum refinery at several insertion points.

  • Then, using technologies employed by existing refineries today, the bio-oil

  • goes through a hydrocracking process, which tailors the molecule

  • sizes to be in the desired range for gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel.

  • The Department of Energy is supporting development of innovative technologies

  • that result in higher quality bio-oil that lowers subsequent upgrading costs,

  • allows for longer storage, and improves commercial viability.

  • Advancing these technologies will help bring clean, renewable transportation

  • fuels to the marketplace

  • that can be used in place of petroleum.

The thermochemical conversion process uses heat to break down biomass into


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B2 中高級

通過熱解將生物質轉化為生物燃料的熱化學方法 (Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels via Pyrolysis)

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    Cheng-Hong Liu 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日