Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • Albert Einstein played a key role in launching quantum mechanics to his theory of photoelectric effect.


  • But remains deeply bothered by its philosophical implications.


  • And though most of us still still remember him for deriving e equal m c square.


  • His last contribution to physics was actually a 1935 paper.


  • Co-author with his young colleague - Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen.


  • Regarded as an art philosophical foot note well into the 1980s.


  • This EPR paper has recently become central to a new understanding of quantum physics.


  • With its description of a strange phenomenon now known as entangled states.


  • The paper begins by considering a source that splits out the pair of particles


  • Each with two measurable properties.


  • Each of these measurements has two possible results of equal probability.


  • Let’s say zero or one for the first probability and A or B for the second.


  • Once a measurements is performed, subsequent measurement of the same properties in the same particle will yelled the same result.

    第一種量測方法結束後 執行第二種量測方法 測量同個粒子的同個性質 會得到相同結果

  • The strange application of this scenario is not only the state of the single particle


  • Is indeterminate until it’s measured.


  • But that the measurement then determine the state


  • What’s more the measurements affect each others.


  • If you measure a particle as being in state one and followed it up with the second type of measurement

    例如: 測量後發現粒子的狀態是1 此時再用第二種標準測量

  • Youll have a fifty percent chance of getting either A or B.


  • But if you then repeat the first measurement,


  • Youll have a fifty percent chance of getting zero

    得到的結果卻不一定是1 雖然第一次測的結果是1

  • Even that the particle have already been measured one.


  • So switching the properties been measured scramble the original results.


  • Allowing for a new random value.


  • Things get even stranger when you look at both particles.

    考慮兩個粒子時 就更奇怪了

  • Each of the particle will produce random results, but if you compare the two


  • Youll find that theyre always perfect league correlated.


  • For example, if both particle are measured at zero.


  • The relationship will always hold.


  • The states of the two are entangled.


  • Measuring one will tell you the other with absolute certainty.

    測量其中一個 就能準確預測另一個

  • But this entanglement seems to defy Einstein’s famous theory of relativity

    但量子糾纏說 似乎違背了鼎鼎有名的相對論

  • Because there is nothing to limit the distance between particles.

    因為後者說 粒子間的距離不受控制

  • If you measure one in New York at noon, and the other in San Fransinco and then the second later

    舉例來說: 中午在紐約的測量 和稍後在舊金山的測量結果

  • They still give the exactly same result.


  • But if the measurement does the terminate value then this will require one particle sending some sort of signal to the other

    測量若真能決定某些數字 就代表粒子能以光速1300萬倍的速度

  • At thirteen million time the speed of light which according to relativity is impossible.

    傳達某種信號給別的粒子 在相對論裡 這是不可能的事

  • For this reason, Einstein dismiss entanglement asspuckhafte ferwirklung

    因此愛因斯坦認定量子糾纏是「spuckhafte ferwirklung」

  • Orspooky action at a distance


  • He decided that the quantum mechanics must be incomplete a mere approximation of a deeper reality.

    他說量子力學無法解釋的 只有那粗略評估出的深奧現實

  • In which all particles have pre-determine states that are hidden from us.

    所有粒子都處於特定的狀態 只是我們沒注意到

  • So porter of orthodox quantum theory led by Neil Bohr maintain that quantum state really are fundamentally indeterminate

    尼爾斯˙波爾是傳統量子力論的擁護者 他始終認為粒子原來沒有特定性質

  • And entanglement allows the states of one particle to depend on that the distance partner


  • For thirty years, physics remained at in past until John Bell

    30年來 物理學家也都深信不疑 直到約翰˙貝爾發現

  • Figured it out that the key to testing the EPR argument was to look in cases involving different measurements on the two particles


  • The local hidden variable theories favored by Einstein Podolsky and Rosen


  • Strictly limited how often you can get results like 1A or B0


  • Because the outcome would have to be defined in advance


  • Bell showed that the purely quantum approach where the state is truly indeterminate until measured has different limits

    貝爾說之前的量子力學假設粒子的狀態要測量後才能得知 這樣有諸多限制

  • And predicts measurement results that are impossible in the pre-determine scenario

    如果粒子本身有特定性質 那假設結果就沒有意義

  • Once Bell had worked out how to test the EPR argument physicists went out and did it.

    貝爾發現驗證EPR論點的方法後 物理學家紛紛跟進

  • Beginning with John Clauster in the seventies and Alain Aspect in the early 80s

    70年代打頭陣的約翰˙克勞澤(註: 美國物理學家)、80年代初期的阿蘭˙阿斯佩(註: 法國物理學家)

  • Dozens of experiments has tested the EPR prediction and all have found the same thing

    許多人都實驗了論文中的假設 結果如出一轍

  • Quantum mechanics is correct.


  • The correlations between the indeterminate states of entangle particles are real

    糾纏的兩粒子之間那未確定狀態的關聯 也正確

  • And cannot be explained by any deeper variable


  • The EPR paper turned out to be wrong but brilliantly sell

    EPR論文有紕漏 卻曾為許多人稱頌

  • By leading physicists to think deeply about the foundations of quantum physics


  • It led to further elaborations of the theory and help launch research into subjects like quantum information

    讓理論更完善 也開啟了量子資訊之類的研究

  • Now a thriving field with the potential to develop computers of unparallel power

    現在這領域日漸茁壯 將來可能開發出能力無與倫比的電腦

  • Unfortunately, the random of measure results prevent science fiction scenario like using entangle particles

    不幸的是 測量結果的隨機性證明了科幻小說中

  • To send messages faster than light.


  • So relativities is save for now but the quantum universe is far stranger than Einstein wanted to believe

    相對論的地位目前還不可動搖 但量子宇宙可比愛因斯坦想的還要複雜太多了

Albert Einstein played a key role in launching quantum mechanics to his theory of photoelectric effect.


已審核 字幕已審核

單字即點即查 點擊單字可以查詢單字解釋