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  • Technology has brought us so much


  • The moon landing, the internet, the ability to sequence the human genome


  • but it also taps into a lot of humansfear


  • and about thirty years ago, the cultural critic Neil Postman wrote a book call the amusing ourselves to death

    大約30年前 著名的文化評論家尼爾˙波茲曼寫了本書《娛樂至死》

  • Which lay this out really brilliantly


  • And here’s what he said comparing the dystopian visions of George Orwell and Aldous Huxley


  • He saidOrwell fear that we will become a captive culture; Huxley fear that we would become a trivial culture.’


  • Orwell fear the truth would be conceal from us and Huxley fear we would be drown in the sea of irrelevance.


  • In a nut shell, it’s a choice between big brother watching you and you watching big brother.

    簡而言之 就是在「老大哥監督你」和「你監督老大哥」之間選擇(註: 此處暗指英格蘭社會主義的監視活動與極權統治vs看"Big Brother"這個實境節目)

  • But it doesn’t have to be this way, we are not passive consumer of data and technology.

    其實不必如此 我們不是資訊和科技的被動接收者

  • We shape the role it place in our life and the way we made meaning from it.


  • But to do that, we have to pay as much attention to how we think as how we code

    這時留心思考模式以及撰寫程式語言的過程 就變得同等重要

  • We have to ask question and hard question to move pass counting things to understanding them

    發掘更深入的問題 才能超越單純數算 盡一步了解資訊本身

  • Were constantly bombarded with stories about how much data there is in the world


  • But when it comes to big data, and the challenge is interpreting it

    面對大量數據還有資訊 最困難的是解讀

  • Size isn’t everything.


  • There’s also the speed of which it moves


  • And the many variety of data types


  • And here are just the few examples, Images

    舉幾個例: 影像、

  • Texts


  • Video


  • Audio


  • And what unites these despair it types of data


  • Is that they are created by people


  • And they require context


  • Now, there’s a group of data scientists at the university of Illinos at Chicago


  • And they are called the Health Media collaboratory.


  • And they have been working with the center for disease control


  • To better understand, how people talk about quitting smoking


  • How they talk about electronic cigarets.


  • And what they can do collectively to help them quit.


  • The interesting thing is if you wanna understand how people talk about smoking

    了解大家怎麼談論「smoking」(註: 本意為抽菸) 其實很有趣

  • First you have to understand what they mean, when they say smoking


  • And on Tweeter, they are four main categories.

    根據推特 總共有四大類

  • First one, smoking cigarets.


  • Number two, smoking marijuana.


  • Number three, smoking ribs.

    第三種指的是煙燻肋排(smoking ribs)

  • And number four, smoking hot women

    第四種則是嗆辣美眉(smoking hot women)

  • Sothen you have to think about what have the people talk about electronic cigarets?

    確定之後 下一步是找出大家對電子香菸的看法

  • And there are so many different ways that people do this


  • You can see from the slide.


  • It’s a complex kind of queery.


  • And what that reminds us is that


  • Languages created by people.


  • And people are messy and were complex and we use metaphors and slang and jargon

    而人類混亂、難懂 我們還使用比喻、俚語和黑話

  • And we do this twenty-four seven and many many languages.

    用這些東西進行溝通 許多語言都是這樣

  • And then as soon as we figure it out, we change it up.

    單字意思確立後 馬上又有衍伸意義

  • Sodid this ads that cdcs put on these television ads that feature a woman with a hole in her throat

    疾管局在電視節目中放送的廣告: 吸菸的女人喉嚨破了個洞

  • And that were very graphic and very disturbing


  • Did they actually have an impact on whether people quit?


  • And helpfully, the collaboratory respect the limits of their data


  • But they were able to conclude that those advertisements and you may have seen them

    他們仍能結論: 那些你或許也看過的戒菸文宣

  • They have the affect of jotting people into a thought process.


  • That may have an impact on future behavior.


  • Andwhat I admire, and appreciate about this project design from the fact, including the fact

    我很欣賞這個計畫 他們選擇了「抽菸」這個現實作為出發點

  • That’s base on real human need is that


  • It’s a fantastic example of courage and the face of the sea of relevance.

    它還展現了面對瑣碎資訊所需的勇氣 堪稱絕佳典範

  • And soit’s not just big data that causes challenge and interpretation.


  • Because let’s face it. We human-beings have a very rich stream of taking any among of data

    老實說 就算是少少的資料

  • No matter how small and screwing it up.


  • Somany years ago you may remember

    有人也許記得 多年前

  • That formal president Ronald Reagan was very criticize for making a statement the facts are stupid things


  • And it was a slip of the tongue. Let’s be fair.


  • He actually meant to quote John Adamsdefense British soldiers in the Boston Massacre trial

    他本來要引述波士頓大屠殺案審判中 約翰˙亞當斯為英國士兵辯護的名言

  • That facts are stubborn things.


  • But I actually think there’s a bit of accidental wisdom in what he said.


  • Because facts are stubborning things.


  • But sometimes they are stupid too.


  • When I tell you a personal story about why this matters a lot to me

    這句話對我意義重大 因為我的親身經歷印證了同個道理

  • I need to take a breath.


  • My son Isaac when he was two, he is diagnose with autism.

    我兒子以撒兩歲時 被診斷為自閉症

  • And he was happy, hilarious, loving and affectionate little guy.


  • but the metrics on his developmental evaluations, which looked at things like the number of wordsat that point, none

    發展評估是用「會說幾個字」作為標準 當時的他一個字都講不出來

  • Communicate with gestures and minimum eye contact put his developmental level at that of a nine months old baby.

    僅能以手勢溝通、稀少的眼神接觸 讓他的發展程度被評為9個月大的嬰兒

  • And the diagnosis fact is actually correct but it didn’t tell the whole story.

    以數據來看 診斷沒錯 但並非故事全貌

  • And about a year and a half later, he was almost four.

    時隔約一年半 他快四歲了

  • I found him in front of the computer one day.


  • Running a google search on woman

    google「woman」(註: 女人)的圖片

  • Spell w-i-m-e-m

    不過他拼: w「i」m「e」m

  • And I did what any you knowupset parents will do


  • just immediate started hitting the back bottom to see what else he has been searching for

    馬上衝過去按「上一頁」 看他還搜尋了什麼

  • And they were in order men, school, bus and computer (cpyutr)


  • And I was stunned.


  • Because we didn’t know that he could spell much less read

    我們沒想過他能拼字 甭談閱讀

  • So I ask him. Isaac, how do you do this?

    我問他: 「以撒 你怎麼辦到的?」

  • And he looked at me very seriously and saidtype in the box

    他認真的看著我 說: 「在搜尋欄打字」

  • He was teaching himself to communicate.


  • But we were looking at the wrong place.


  • And this is what happens when assessment and analytics over value one matrix in this case verbal communication

    這就是單一指標和分析產生的盲點 只看口語表達

  • And undervalue otherssuch as creating problem solving.

    而低估了其他才能 諸如創造力和問題解決

  • Communication was hard for Isaac.


  • And so he found a work around to find out what he needed to know.


  • And when you think about it, it makes a lot of sense.


  • Because forming a question is really complex process.


  • But he can get himself a lot of way there. By putting a word in the search box.

    但只要在搜尋欄裡輸入文字 他就能進步神速

  • And so this little moment had a really profound impact on me.

    那個瞬間對我和家人 影響都非常深遠

  • In our family. Because it helps us change our reference for what’s going on for him.


  • And worry of a little bit less and appreciate his resource more.

    我們學會了不過分擔憂他的情況 且多欣賞他另外的天賦

  • Facts are stupid things.


  • And theyre vulnerable to misuse willful or otherwise.


  • I have a friend - Emily Willingham who’s a scientist.

    我有個朋友 名叫艾蜜莉˙韋玲翰 她是科學家

  • And she wrote a piece for forbes not long ago.


  • Entitled the ten weirdest things ever linked to autism.


  • It’s quite a list.


  • The internet link for everything, right?


  • And of course mother. Because an actually way, there’s more others the whole bunch in the mother category here.

    當然還有媽媽 其實母親這一項 還可再細分

  • And you can see, it’s a pretty rich and interesting list.

    如你所見 滿多種的 有些很好玩

  • I’m a big fan of you knowbeing pregnant in a free way, personally.


  • The final one is interesting because the term ofrefrigeratormother was actually the original hypothesis for the cause of autism.


  • And that meant somebody was cold and unloving.


  • And at this point, you might be thinkingokaySusan we get it.

    你可能正在想「好啦 我們懂妳意思了

  • You can take data. You can make it mean anything and this is true.


  • It’s absolutely true.


  • But the challenge is that


  • We have this opportunity to try make meaning out of ourselves.


  • Because frankly, data doesn’t create meaning, we do.

    資料不可能自己生出意義來 人才有辦法

  • So as business people, as consumers, as patients, as citizens


  • We have our responsibility, I think.


  • To spend more time focus on our critical thinking skills.


  • Why?


  • Because at this point in our history as we heard, many times over we can process Exabyte in lightening speed.

    今天這個世代 可以用光速處理好幾EB的資訊量

  • And we have potential to make bad decisions far more quickly, efficiently and far greater impact than we did in the past.

    大家更容易做錯決定 而後果不容小覷

  • Great, right?


  • And so what we need to do instead is spend a little bit more time on things like the humanities.


  • And sociology, and the social sciences, rhetoric, philosophy, ethics.


  • Because it gives us context that is so important for big data.

    如此一來 我們就更知道如何詮釋龐大的數據資料

  • Because they help us become better critical thinkers.


  • Because after all, if I can spot a problem in an argument, it doesn’t much matter whether it’s express in words or numbers

    若我能在論據裡發現疑點 那麼不管是用文字或數字呈現都不會有影響

  • And this means, teaching ourselves.


  • To find those conformation by thesis and false correlations.

    藉著探討特定主題與錯誤關連 偵測自身偏見

  • And being able to spot a naked emotional appeal from thirty yards.


  • Because something that happens after something doesn’t mean it happen because of it necessarily.


  • And if you let me geek out on your first second, the Romans call thispost hoc ergo propterhoc

    容我稍微賣弄 羅馬人說這是「巧合關係」

  • After which therefore because of which.


  • And it means questioning disciplines like demographics


  • Why? Because they're based on assumptions about who we all are based on our gender

    什麼意思? 因為人口統計假設我們都是某一種類的人-同個性別、

  • and our age and where we live as opposed to data on what we actually think and do

    同個年齡、同居住地 而忽略了每個獨立個體的思想和行為

  • And since we have this data


  • we need to treat it with appropriate privacy controls and consumer opt-in

    必須保障個人隱私 吸引消費者參與

  • and beyond that, we need to be clear about our hypotheses,

    此外 假設、使用的方法要清楚明確

  • the methodologies that we use, and our confidence in the result


  • As my high school algebra teacher used to say


  • show your math, because if I don't know what steps you took

    「算一次給我看 如果我不知道你採取哪些步驟,

  • I don't know what steps you didn't take


  • and if I don't know what questions you asked, I don't know what questions you didn't ask


  • And it means asking ourselves, really, the hardest question of all


  • Did the data really show us this, or does the result make us feel more successful and more comfortable?

    「從資料裡可以推知這個結論嗎? 或這個結果是為了讓我們感到更成功、更自在而人為捏造出來的?」

  • So the Health Media Collaboratory, at the end of their project

    計畫接近尾聲時 衛生媒體合作實驗室

  • they were able to find that 87 percent of tweets about those very graphic and disturbing anti-smoking ads expressed fear


  • but did they conclude that they actually made people stop smoking?


  • No. It's science, not magic.

    並沒有 這是科學 不是魔術

  • So if we are to unlock the power of data


  • We don't have to go blindly into Orwell's vision of a totalitarian future


  • or Huxley's vision of a trivial one, or some horrible cocktail of both.

    也不用篤信赫胥黎的瑣碎文化 或混合了兩種的可怕產物

  • What we have to do is treat critical thinking with respect and be inspired by examples like the Health Media Collaboratory

    只須正視批判性思考 向衛生媒體合作實驗室之類的模範學習

  • and as they say in the superhero movies, let's use our powers for good.

    就像電影裡的超級英雄們說: 「讓我們好好善用超能力」

  • Thank you.


Technology has brought us so much


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【TED】蘇珊‧艾特林格: 我們應該拿這些大數據怎麼辦? (Susan Etlinger: What do we do with all this big data?)

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