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  • Welcome to Mindshift.

    歡迎來到心靈轉換。

  • I'm Brandon.

    我叫布蘭登

  • And today's episode six of our series, A Secular Bible Study.

    今天是我們 "世俗聖經研究 "系列的第六集。

  • Today we're looking at the biblical book of Joshua, and there is a lot that happens in this book.

    今天我們來看看聖經中的約書亞記,這本書中發生了很多事情。

  • As always, we'll be going through these seven points to help us.

    我們將一如既往地通過這七點來幫助我們。

  • In point seven, I've also started adding in problematic verses and it's at the end there where I can give some of my more personal opinions on the issues with this book.

    在第七點中,我也開始加入有問題的經文,在最後,我可以就這本書的問題發表一些個人看法。

  • But let's dive in right away with book overview.

    不過,我們還是先來看看書的概述吧。

  • This is a redoing.

    這是一次重做。

  • This is a second Moses.

    這是第二個摩西。

  • In fact, Joshua is referenced as the new Moses.

    事實上,約書亞被稱為新摩西。

  • He is taken over as leader.

    他被接任為領導人。

  • So where we left off was with Moses's death and he's giving this final sermon to the children of the original Exodus generation that are now going to be the ones inheriting the promised land.

    在摩西去世後,他向出埃及的後代們做了最後的佈道,他們將繼承應許之地。

  • So now we start with Joshua.

    現在我們從約書亞開始。

  • He has his position of leadership and the time has finally come.

    他擁有自己的上司地位,時機終於到來。

  • They are going to go into the promised land.

    他們將進入應許之地。

  • Now a lot of Christians who haven't spent a lot of time with the Old Testament may just think of the promised land as this place, right?

    現在,很多沒有花很多時間研讀《舊約全書》的基督徒可能只認為應許之地就是這個地方,對嗎?

  • This small acreage of milk and honey, and it's nice and it's just going to be the resting place for the Israelite generation.

    這一小塊奶與蜜的土地,它很好,將成為以色列一代的安息之地。

  • No, this is a very large space of land.

    不,這是一片很大的土地。

  • And within this territory, there are many different kingdoms, many different tribes to defeat in order to really lay claim to this.

    在這片領土上,有許多不同的王國,許多不同的部落,要打敗它們才能真正擁有這片領土。

  • Because the goal here isn't for all of the Israelites to just group up together.

    因為這裡的目標並不是讓所有以色列人聚集在一起。

  • We're going to establish the 12 tribes of Israel in different parts of Canaan.

    我們要在迦南的不同地方建立以色列的 12 個支派。

  • So it's on a bigger scale than one might think, at least according to the Bible.

    是以,至少根據《聖經》,它的規模比人們想象的要大。

  • So what happens in Joshua?

    那麼,《約書亞記》中發生了什麼?

  • Well, we first have to get into Canaan and we have to cross the Jordan river.

    那麼,我們首先要進入迦南,我們必須渡過約旦河。

  • They'd been camped in the land of Moab right outside of the Jordan river with Canaan being on the other side.

    他們在約旦河外的摩押地安營紮寨,而迦南就在約旦河的對岸。

  • So again, just like I said, we have a second Moses here.

    所以,就像我說的,我們這裡還有第二個摩西。

  • So we part the Jordan river and we walk across it.

    於是,我們分開約旦河,走過約旦河。

  • This just gets completely glossed over in comparison to Moses partying in the red sea, which I think is a bit unfortunate.

    與摩西在紅海中狂歡相比,這一點完全被掩蓋了,我認為這有點遺憾。

  • This is a pretty big deal.

    這可是件大事。

  • Another miraculous river crossing.

    又一次奇蹟般的渡河

  • And what we see right off the bat here is that the same power that Moses had, Joshua has.

    我們在這裡看到的是,摩西擁有的力量,約書亞也擁有。

  • The God is still on their side, even with the death of their main prophet.

    即使他們的主要先知死了,上帝仍然站在他們一邊。

  • Oh, I almost forgot.

    哦,我差點忘了。

  • Before the crossover through the Jordan, they send spies in again and it goes much better than the first time when Moses sent the 12 spies.

    在穿越約旦河之前,他們再次派出探子,結果比摩西第一次派出 12 個探子時順利得多。

  • This is where we get the story of Rahab.

    這就是拉哈布的故事。

  • Now we could spend an entire episode just talking about the story of Rahab.

    現在,我們可以用一整集的時間來講述喇合的故事。

  • There's a lot of interesting things that happen here.

    這裡發生了很多有趣的事情。

  • Like one, the fact that Rahab is essentially rewarded for lying right after we get all of these curses that will befall people who break the 10 commandments and the other laws, which definitely include lying.

    其一,拉哈布因為撒謊而得到了獎賞,而在此之前,我們已經知道了違反十誡和其他律法(其中肯定包括撒謊)的人將會受到的所有詛咒。

  • It seems that God's objective morality is quite subjective when it suits him.

    看來,上帝的客觀道德在適合他的時候是相當主觀的。

  • Also, we get this really passionate speech from Rahab to the spies of, I know your Lord is the most powerful.

    此外,喇合還對探子們說了這樣一段充滿激情的話:我知道你們的主是最有權柄的。

  • I know he's going to deliver you into this land.

    我知道他會把你送到這片土地上。

  • We've heard about you.

    我們聽說過你

  • We know about the red sea that was part of, and that's why I'm helping you.

    我們知道紅海是其中的一部分,這也是我幫助你的原因。

  • Remember me, let me be in your good graces here.

    請記住我,讓我在這裡受到您的恩寵。

  • And it's a great story where we have this woman who is a prostitute who is going up against the leaders of her land and lying for the spies to help them accomplish their mission.

    這是一個很好的故事,在這個故事裡,有一個妓女,她與當地的首領作對,為間諜撒謊,幫助他們完成任務。

  • But anyways, the Rahab story happens.

    但無論如何,拉哈布的故事還是發生了。

  • They cross the river.

    他們過了河。

  • The next part is not so fun.

    接下來的部分就沒那麼有趣了。

  • The new generation gets circumcised.

    新一代接受割禮

  • Bummer.

    真掃興

  • After this happens, they take a couple days for everyone to heal, which I just think is hilarious that that's even listed in the Bible.

    發生這種情況後,每個人都需要幾天的時間才能痊癒,我只是覺得《聖經》中竟然有這樣的記載實在是太搞笑了。

  • After that, we get their first Passover celebration in the new land.

    之後,我們將看到他們在新大陸的第一個逾越節慶祝活動。

  • And then we get something really exciting here.

    然後,我們會看到一些非常令人興奮的東西。

  • Again, this is the kind of stuff that excited me as a kid.

    同樣,這也是我小時候最興奮的東西。

  • We have Joshua.

    我們有約書亞。

  • He's in his new leadership role.

    他在新的領導崗位上。

  • He just had a successful spy mission.

    他剛剛成功完成了一次間諜任務。

  • They're getting ready to go and attack Jericho.

    他們準備去襲擊傑里科。

  • And what happens?

    然後呢?

  • He runs into this mysterious stranger, this powerful warrior.

    他遇到了這個神祕的陌生人,這個強大的戰士。

  • And he says, who are you?

    他說,你是誰?

  • Are you for us?

    你支持我們嗎?

  • Or are you against us?

    還是你反對我們?

  • And he says neither.

    他說都不是。

  • Essentially.

    從本質上講

  • He says, I am for the Lord.

    他說,我是為主而戰的。

  • He says he is the commander of the Lord's army.

    他說他是上帝軍隊的指揮官。

  • And once again, in this second Moses fashion, Joshua is told to take off his sandals because he is on holy ground.

    又一次,約書亞被告知要脫掉涼鞋,因為他身處聖地。

  • That's it.

    就是這樣。

  • It's like two or three verses long.

    大概有兩三節。

  • And the whole point is to let Joshua know that, Hey, you might be on the right side.

    這樣做的目的是讓約書亞知道,嘿,你可能是站在正確的一邊。

  • You might be with the chosen people, but I'm not on your side.

    你可能是被選中的人,但我不站在你這邊。

  • I'm on the Lord's side and you have the capability of also being against the Lord.

    我站在上帝一邊,而你也有能力與上帝作對。

  • We've seen that with the previous generations.

    我們在前幾代人身上已經看到了這一點。

  • So I'm here to make sure that the Lord's will be done.

    所以我來這裡是為了確保上帝的旨意得以實現。

  • You can either come along for the ride or not.

    你可以選擇加入,也可以選擇不加入。

  • At least that's how I take, what is happening here and what many scholars see to be happening as well.

    至少我是這麼認為的,這裡發生的事情和許多學者看到的情況也是如此。

  • After this, we get into our first few battles.

    之後,我們開始了最初的幾場戰鬥。

  • So maybe I'll try to do more of an overview here.

    所以,也許我會在這裡做更多的概述。

  • And then we can talk about some of these specific battles, because this is a big part of Joshua.

    然後我們可以談談其中的一些具體戰役,因為這是約書亞的重要部分。

  • It's about conquering the land of Canaan.

    這是關於征服迦南地。

  • So the first two battles are Jericho and I, AI, and we see two very different outcomes, a complete destruction and a loss.

    是以,前兩場戰鬥分別是 "傑里科 "和 "我,人工智能",我們看到了兩種截然不同的結果,一種是徹底毀滅,另一種是失敗。

  • And we see a loss because of a individual Israelites sin.

    我們看到,以色列人因為個人的罪過而蒙受了損失。

  • And so here we see the blessings and curses already at play as they're in the new land of Canaan.

    是以,在這裡我們看到,當他們來到迦南新地時,祝福和詛咒已經開始發揮作用。

  • And why is this guy, I think his name is Akin.

    為什麼這個人,我想他叫阿金。

  • Why is he sinning?

    他為什麼要犯罪?

  • Why did he do this?

    他為什麼要這麼做?

  • He kept some treasure after the defeat of Jericho that was meant for God, for himself.

    耶利哥戰敗後,他保留了一些本應獻給上帝的財寶,留給了自己。

  • What did he think was going to happen?

    他以為會發生什麼?

  • This is when I just can't believe these stories are at all true.

    這時,我簡直不敢相信這些故事是真的。

  • These are obviously plot lines.

    這些顯然都是情節線。

  • These are obviously archetypes and narrative structures and plot development at play.

    這顯然是原型、敘事結構和情節發展在起作用。

  • They can't possibly, after everything that has happened, after everyone that has been smited, after every curse and blessing has been clearly seen, after they're talking and being with God, we're going to see God on a walk.

    他們不可能在發生了這麼多事情之後,在每個人都被擊打之後,在每個詛咒和祝福都被清楚地看到之後,在他們與上帝交談和相處之後,我們還能看到上帝在散步。

  • We're going to see God throw rocks down on people in this book.

    在這本書中,我們將看到上帝向人們扔石頭。

  • Like this God is so active in this community.

    上帝就這樣活躍在這個社區。

  • And you're going to tell me this guy thought he could steal treasure from God.

    你要告訴我,這傢伙以為他能從上帝那裡偷走寶藏。

  • Even the very fact that this God needed treasure is something to just look at the corporeal nature of him in the Old Testament versus this God that we supposedly have in the New Testament.

    只要看看舊約中上帝的肉體與我們在新約中所謂的上帝的對比,我們就會知道上帝需要寶藏這一事實。

  • So again, lots of battles.

    所以,還是要打很多仗。

  • And we'll probably honestly talk about those more in the problematic verses when we talk about genocide, not genocide, et cetera, and get into some of the moral issues there.

    當我們談到種族滅絕、非種族滅絕等問題時,我們可能會在有問題的詩句中更誠實地談論這些問題,並深入探討其中的一些道德問題。

  • But then we get a list of all the victories of Moses and Joshua.

    但隨後我們會看到摩西和約書亞的所有勝利。

  • And this seems like a very boring part of the book, but it's a very important part showing God's fulfillment in covenant all the way, starting with Abraham and now happening like this is the book of fulfillment.

    這似乎是這本書中非常無聊的一部分,但卻是非常重要的一部分,它展示了上帝在盟約中一直以來的履行,從亞伯拉罕開始,到現在發生的事情,就像這是一本履行之書。

  • And this is a huge part of it.

    這也是其中重要的一部分。

  • We'll talk about that more when we get into main themes and the book ends with the end of Canaan amongst the 12 tribes and then Joshua's death.

    當我們進入主題時,我們會更多地討論這個問題。這本書以 12 個部落中迦南的終結和約書亞的死亡結束。

  • So Joshua gets one book, Moses got five, but we get a really similar narrative to his life that we see with Moses.

    所以約書亞只得到一本書,摩西得到五本書,但我們得到的是與摩西相似的人生敘事。

  • This is going to set us up as he ends the book by saying, Hey, once again, reiterating kind of like Moses, his final sermon, you can serve God and be blessed or go against him and be cursed.

    他在結束這本書時說:"嘿,再次重申,就像摩西最後的佈道一樣,你可以侍奉上帝並得到祝福,也可以違揹他並受到詛咒。"這將為我們做好鋪墊。

  • What are you going to do?

    你打算怎麼辦?

  • Which sets us up for everything that is going to happen starting right away in So let's move on to point to authorship and date.

    這為我們接下來要做的事情做好了準備,讓我們繼續討論作者身份和日期。

  • So Joshua, like a few other books of the Bible and also other books of this ancient time period is that of an eponymous nature, meaning they're using the name Joshua to describe the book and sometimes even tried to attribute authorship to.

    是以,《約書亞記》與《聖經》中的其他幾本書以及古代時期的其他書籍一樣,都具有同名性質,這意味著他們用約書亞這個名字來描述這本書,有時甚至試圖將作者歸於約書亞。

  • We would face the same problems, believing that Joshua wrote the book of Joshua that we would have with Moses writing the first five books of the Bible.

    如果我們相信約書亞寫了《約書亞記》,就會面臨與摩西寫《聖經》前五卷書同樣的問題。

  • One of those things being that Joshua dies in this book and his burial is described as well as other people who died after Joshua.

    其中一件事是,約書亞在本書中去世,書中描述了他的葬禮以及在約書亞之後去世的其他人。

  • So the better hypothesis is similar to what we see with the first five books, except it's no longer this documentary hypothesis with four different sources.

    是以,更好的假說與我們在前五本書中看到的情況類似,只是它不再是有四個不同來源的文獻假說。

  • This seems to be just a collection of oral tradition.

    這似乎只是一部口耳相傳的作品集。

  • It was probably compiled around the same time as the first five books, specifically the Babylonian exile between 586 and 539 BCE, or maybe even shortly thereafter as they were trying to establish their kingdom again.

    它的編纂時間可能與前五卷書差不多,特別是在公元前 586 年至 539 年的巴比倫流亡時期,甚至可能是在那之後不久,當時他們正試圖重新建立自己的王國。

  • And instead of being grouped with those first five books, which were all very similar through those first four sources, Joshua is grouped with judges, Samuel and Kings.

    約書亞記》並沒有與前五卷書(前四卷書的內容都非常相似)放在一起,而是與《法官書》、《撒母耳記》和《列王記》放在一起。

  • So we see a lot of similarities in narrative structure and literary type and in other various commonalities that would lead us to believe that we had some oral traditions that were written down and compiled in different sections that were then amalgamated together to make these books of the Bible coming up.

    是以,我們在敘事結構、文學類型和其他各種共性方面看到了許多相似之處,這讓我們相信,我們有一些口頭傳說,這些傳說被寫下來,編纂成不同的章節,然後合併在一起,形成了《聖經》中的這些書。

  • So again, we don't have a specific person who sat down and penned this.

    是以,我們也沒有一個具體的人坐下來撰寫這篇文章。

  • We just have a specific group at a specific time that was trying to get their story straight, essentially.

    我們只是有一個特定的群體,在一個特定的時間,試圖把他們的故事說清楚。

  • That Babylonian exile is a major time of rebranding for the Israelite nation.

    巴比倫流亡是以色列民族重塑形象的重要時期。

  • And they were looking to all of these ancient stories and traditions for identity.

    他們從這些古老的故事和傳統中尋找身份認同。

  • And this compilation that became a large part of her Old Testament comes again from this during the sixth century BCE.

    公元前六世紀,這本成為《舊約全書》重要組成部分的彙編又來源於此。

  • So let's move on to point three, which is going to be historical context, background, and accuracy.

    接下來,讓我們談談第三點,即歷史背景、背景和準確性。

  • Now, finally, we are getting into some other land.

    現在,我們終於進入了另一片土地。

  • We're getting into some other people groups, and it's going to give us a better frame of reference than some of the events that were isolated, say, like in the book of Leviticus where they're just camped at Mount Sinai for a year.

    我們正在接觸其他一些族群,這將為我們提供一個更好的參考框架,而不是像《利未記》中的一些孤立事件那樣,他們只是在西奈山紮營一年。

  • I should also probably point out that we don't have a precise timeframe, but it seems like most of this is happening just over a couple years.

    我或許還應該指出,我們沒有一個準確的時間框架,但似乎大部分情況都是在幾年內發生的。

  • So this would be years like 40 through 43, most likely since the Exodus.

    是以,這將是 40 年到 43 年這樣的年份,很可能是出埃及記以來的年份。

  • This is happening during the 13th century BCE, best that we could guess.

    這發生在公元前 13 世紀,這是我們能猜到的最好的時間。

  • And there are some archeological aspects that back up certain parts of the story.

    此外,還有一些考古方面的內容可以佐證故事的某些部分。

  • One would be Jericho.

    一個是傑里科。

  • Jericho is one of the main cities mentioned, and it seems to be a real place that also had a real layer of conquest.

    耶利哥是提到的主要城市之一,它似乎是一個真實的地方,也有一層真實的征服。

  • And that's where we get into some of the problems.

    問題就出在這裡。

  • And I'll save some of this for the contradictions and misconceptions and errors part in 0.7.

    我會把其中的一些內容留到 0.7 版的矛盾、誤解和錯誤部分。

  • But from a historical accuracy point, yes, did certain places like Jericho and Ai and Hazor exist and show destruction?

    但是,從歷史準確性的角度來看,是的,像耶利哥、艾城和夏瑣這樣的某些地方是否存在過,是否出現過毀滅?

  • Yes.

    是的。

  • Many of the other cities mentioned don't or haven't existed in an archeological aspect or were shown to be at peace during this time.

    所提到的許多其他城市在考古方面並不存在或尚未存在,或者在這一時期顯示出和平。

  • So this swift couple year campaign of taking out all of the tribes of Canaan does not align archeologically speaking, or even that a lot of these cities existed at the same time.

    是以,從考古學角度來看,這種用幾年時間迅速消滅迦南所有部落的行動並不符合事實,甚至不符合這些城市同時存在的事實。

  • It's hard for us to visualize, but it's akin to saying something like within a couple of years, we did World War I, World War II, Vietnam, and the Korean War.

    我們很難想象這一點,但這就好比說,在幾年內,我們經歷了第一次世界大戰、第二次世界大戰、越南戰爭和朝鮮戰爭。

  • Like those things are not all at the same time period.

    比如說,這些事情並不都是在同一時期發生的。

  • They could not have happened this quickly.

    它們不可能發生得這麼快。

  • Let's add in that we conquered some other countries that weren't even countries yet.

    此外,我們還征服了其他一些甚至還不是國家的國家。

  • And we'll start getting closer to what we're seeing the claims of the book of Joshua.

    我們將開始接近《約書亞記》中的說法。

  • But we do get a glimpse into the historical accuracy of this tribal warfare of the claim of the monotheistic God versus the dualistic worshipers or more pagan practices of people in the Canaanite nation who worshiped a sun God, a fertility God, a war God, et cetera.

    但是,我們確實可以從歷史中窺見這種部落戰爭的準確性,即一神論的神與二元崇拜者的對抗,或者說是迦南人的異教習俗,他們崇拜太陽神、生育之神、戰爭之神等等。

  • There is a heavy amount of bias being that this is all coming from these Jewish tradition and source painting these other nations as evil, where really they were just following the constructs of their day and their culture, no different than the Israelites were.

    這其中有很大的偏見,因為這一切都來自於猶太人的傳統和來源,他們把其他民族描繪成邪惡的,而實際上他們只是在遵循他們那個時代和他們的文化,與以色列人沒有什麼不同。

  • And you can point to both saying there were good things here and there were definitely bad things here, but that's a big part of Joshua, right?

    你既可以說這裡有好的一面,也可以說這裡肯定有不好的一面,但這也是約書亞的一大特色,對嗎?

  • We have to believe that the Canaanites are pure evil for their eradication.

    我們必須相信迦南人是純粹的惡魔,才能剷除他們。

  • This is done a lot by looking to the child sacrifice of a lot of the Canaanite tribes, or if you really want to stretch it, and I've already seen it in my comments in some of the last videos, the belief that everyone in the land of Canaan was a giant, a half breed from the Nephilim.

    這主要是通過觀察許多迦南部落的兒童祭祀來實現的,或者如果你真的想延伸一下,我已經在上幾個視頻的評論中看到了,那就是認為迦南土地上的每個人都是巨人,都是拿非利人的混血兒。