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  • When it comes to Ebola, the first thing you need to know is that dying from the virus

    當我們談到伊波拉,你必須先瞭解到病毒造成的死亡

  • is like something out of a horror movie--extremely painful and terrifying. First, you get a fever;

    猶如恐怖電影一般極度痛苦且令人驚駭,你會先發燒

  • then uncontrollable diarrhea; then you begin hemorrhaging blood; and while all that’s

    接著是失控的腹瀉,然後會開始出血,而當所有症狀

  • hitting you, you lose touch with reality and become delirious.

    侵襲你時,你將無法分辨現實並精神錯亂

  • Finally, within days, you are dead.

    最後,幾天之內就會死亡

  • West Africa is currently in the midst of by far the worst case of the disease since it

    西非目前處於歷來最嚴重的疫情風暴之中 -- 自從

  • was first discovered in Africa back in 1976. This year’s outbreak has been traced to

    1976年首次在非洲發現伊波拉開始。這次的爆發要追溯到

  • a two year old boy who died on December 6th, 2013 in a village in Guinea. He probably got

    幾內亞小村莊一個於2013年12月6日死亡的兩歲男童,他大概

  • the virus by eating contaminated food that had been drooled or defecated on by a bat,

    是吃了遭蝙蝠唾液或糞便污染的食物而感染病毒

  • or - as is common in this part of the world - had eaten some bat for dinner. Bats, researchers

    或是 - 在這裡十分稀鬆平常地 - 他吃了蝙蝠當晚餐,而研究指出

  • believe, are the carriers of the disease. As if the two year old’s death wasn’t

    蝙蝠是此疾病的媒介;彷彿2歲孩童的死還不夠

  • tragic enough, a week after it killed him, it killed his mother, his 3-year-old sister,

    悲慘一般,一週後病毒又帶走了他的媽媽、他3歲的姊姊

  • and then his grandmother.

    以及他的祖母

  • Now, it’s customary in some African villages to prepare a body for burial through the extremely

    某些非洲部落的習俗會在葬禮前對大體進行徹底的

  • sanitary cleansing ritual that involves evacuating the body all food and excreta, often using

    衛生清潔儀式,包括清除體內所有食物和排泄物,且通常是

  • just bare hands. Since the disease is spread by bodily fluids getting into the eyes, nose

    赤手空拳來處理。由於此病是體液經由眼、鼻

  • or mouth, it’s no surprise that two people who travelled to the grandmother’s funeral

    或口散布,所以就不意外之後兩個曾參加祖母葬禮的人

  • caught Ebola and brought it home to their villages. After escaping ground zero, the

    感染伊波拉並將其帶回村落了。在脫離了病源地之後

  • highly contagious, undetected virus was off to the races.

    高傳染力、未被察覺的病毒開始快速蔓延

  • By the end of March, Ebola had reached Liberia, and in June, the first case was reported in

    截至三月底,伊波拉已散佈至賴比瑞亞,六月時第一個通報病例在

  • Monrovia, Liberia’s capital city. That’s when outbreaks like this really start to spread,

    賴比瑞亞首都蒙羅維亞出現,此時大流行真正開始爆發

  • when the infected people make their way to population centers during the incubation phase,

    是由於被感染的人在病毒潛伏期前往人口密集區域

  • before their symptoms begin. A group of people from Sierra Leone who had travelled to an

    -- 在病徵顯現之前。一群塞拉利昂人在參加了一個

  • Ebola victim’s funeral brought the disease back across the border, and in late July,

    伊波拉受害者葬禮後將疾病帶過國界,而在七月下旬

  • the virus had hit Sierra Leone’s capital, Freetown.

    病毒入侵塞拉利昂首都 - 弗里敦

  • Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone are three of the 17 nations that form the Economic Community

    幾內亞、賴比瑞亞以及塞拉利昂是17個西非經濟共同體中的

  • of West African States, whose combined territory is roughly half the land area of the United

    其中三國,他們的領土約和美國陸上領土一半相當

  • States, but with a population roughly the same - at 340,000,000 - it’s about twice

    但人口卻幾乎相同 (約3億4千萬),約是美國

  • as dense as America. And since the disease is easily passed from person to person, and

    人口密度的兩倍,由於此病容易在人與人間傳染

  • there are lots of people here, it’s crucial to get outbreaks like this under control as

    加上此處人口稠密,盡快阻止這種疫情的爆發就非常重要

  • quickly as possible, especially since a staggering 47% - or 2,984 - of the just over 6,400 people

    尤其是在約6400人中造成駭人的47% (2984人)

  • who have been sickened by this strain of Ebola have died.

    罹患此種伊波拉而死亡的浩劫之後

  • So understandably, this is terrifying to neighboring countries, who have responded by shutting

    因此可以理解,周圍國家被嚇壞並都以關閉

  • down their borders. Still, Nigeria - the largest country in Africa by population and economic

    邊境作為回應,然而非洲的人口與經貿輸出大國 - 奈及利亞

  • output - couldn’t keep the disease beyond its borders when an infected Liberian-American

    依舊無法將疾病阻擋在國境之外 - 奈裔美國人

  • named Patrick Sawyer flew into Nigeria’s largest city and died shortly thereafter.

    派翠克‧索耶就在坐飛機到奈國最大城市不久後死亡

  • A Nigerian doctor named Stella Ameyo Adadevoh stopped Sawyer from leaving the hospital,

    奈國醫生史黛拉‧阿美猶‧亞達黛佛不讓索耶離開醫院

  • stopping the spread of Ebola to the 21,000,000 people living in Lagos. Sadly, Dr. Adadevoh

    以防止他把伊波拉散布給拉各斯的2千1百萬居民,很不幸,亞達黛佛醫生

  • contracted Ebola and died, but she left this world a hero by helping to successfully limit

    感染伊波拉去世了,但她英雄般的行徑成功控制

  • the outbreak to just 21 cases and 8 deaths in her country. No new cases have been reported

    奈國的疫情在僅8死和21例感染,且沒有任何新病例

  • in Nigeria in weeks.

    在接下來數週出現於奈國

  • Liberia’s experience, however, has been the exact opposite. The disease is out of

    然而賴比瑞亞的情況恰好相反,疫情在那完全失控

  • control there. Cases doubled in the three weeks between August 31st and September 22.

    病例在 8/31 至 9/22 的三週之間倍增

  • As a response, Liberia’s Harvard-educated president - Nobel Peace Prize Winner Ellen

    而作為回應,畢業於哈佛且獲得諾貝爾和平獎的賴國總統

  • Johnson-Sirleaf (the first female head of state in the history of Africa) - had no choice

    艾倫‧強森‧瑟利夫 (非洲史上第一位女性領袖) 別無選擇

  • but to order a lockdown of a highly-infected slum in the capital. This didn’t last long

    只能封鎖首都中疫情失控的貧民窟,封鎖沒有持續很久

  • though as an angry crowd attacked an Ebola center and freed the infected.

    憤怒的群眾攻擊一個伊波拉中心並釋放病患

  • The second hardest-hit country, Sierra Leone, has resorted to an unprecedented, three-day,

    疫情第二嚴重的塞拉利昂對600萬居民採取了一個為期三日、前所未有的

  • nationwide lockdown of its 6 million residents in an effort to halt the disease.

    全國性封鎖以控制疫情

  • But these countries are fighting an uphill battle. Many parts of West Africa lack even

    但這些國家陷入了苦戰,許多西非地區甚至缺乏最基本的

  • proper sanitation or drinking water. Too many people are poorly educated, scared, and mistrustful.

    衛生以及飲水,且太多人教育程度低落、懼怕並缺乏信心

  • To add insult to injury, aid workers keep getting attacked for spreading information

    更糟糕的是,援助團隊不斷遭受攻擊,只因他們宣導

  • about Ebola or trying to collect the bodies of the disease’s victims. And in September,

    關於伊波拉的資訊,以及試圖集中死者的遺體。九月時

  • an entire team of eight aid workers was murdered by villagers in Guinea.

    一個8人援助團隊甚至全員在幾內亞被村民殺害

  • When American health care workers in Liberia contracted the disease and had to be flown

    當美國醫療人員在賴比瑞亞因染病必須搭乘飛機

  • to the United States for life-saving treatment, the rest of the world was shaken by the possibility

    回美國進行救治時,全世界才驚覺

  • of Ebola spreading outside of Africa’s borders. It was the first time an Ebola-infected person

    伊波拉可能脫離非洲,這是第一次有伊波拉病患

  • had stepped foot on American soil.

    踏上美國的國土

  • But it wasn’t the first time someone on western soil had been infected. In 1976, the

    然而這不是西方世界第一次有人被感染,1976年時

  • year of the first documented Ebola outbreak, a British scientist named Geoffrey Platt,

    有文獻記載以來最早伊波拉的爆發,是一位英國科學家傑夫瑞‧普拉特"

  • researching the disease in a lab in England, accidentally stabbed himself with a syringe

    在實驗室研究此病時意外以注射器刺了自己

  • containing the virus. As the unmistakable symptoms of Ebola set in over the next few

    且其中含有病毒,接下來幾天開始出現明顯的症狀之後

  • days, the British government acted swiftly. Platt was transported in a special ambulance

    英國政府迅速做出反應,普拉特由特殊的救護車轉移

  • under police escort to a London hospital where he was the lone patient. He was kept in an

    並在警察戒護下成為倫敦醫院唯一的病人,他被安置在一間

  • isolation chamber and all hospital staff working on his case were quarantined, as was his family

    隔離病房,並隔離所有照顧他的醫護人員、家人

  • and any lab workers and friends he had come in contact with. The extreme action worked,

    實驗室同事、朋友和所有他接觸過的人。非常手段奏效

  • Platt recovered without infecting anyone else.

    普拉特痊癒、且沒有傳染給任何人

  • But the current incarnation of Ebola is threatening to overwhelm the much more economically-challenged

    然而現今伊波拉的現身卻嚴重威脅經濟弱勢的

  • West African region. Answering the call to action, the United States military is taking

    西非區域;而作為回應,美軍主導了

  • the lead in overseeing and coordinating the response to the epidemic. In addition to US

    監督以及協調抗疫作戰;此外,美國的

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention staff who have been there for weeks,

    疾病控制預防中心曾到疫區數週的人員指出

  • President Obama has ordered 3,000 American troops to West Africa to build 17, 100-bed

    歐巴馬下令3000人的部隊至西非設立17個有100張床位的

  • treatment centers and a site capable of training 500 health-care workers a week. The US response

    醫療中心及一個每週可訓練500個照護人員的基地,美國這項行動

  • is worth an estimated $750 million over the next 6 months. The Bill and Melinda Gates

    將在接下來6個月投注約7億5千萬美金,比爾蓋茲基金會

  • Foundation has alone donated $60 million, and the foundation of Paul Allen, Gates

    捐了6千萬美金;保羅‧艾倫基金會 - 比爾蓋茲

  • co-founder of Microsoft, has given nearly $12 million.

    在微軟的共同創辦人 - 也捐了近1千2百萬美金

  • The American-led international response may come just in time, as infection levels were

    美國主導的國際援助來得正是時候 - 正值傳染規模

  • spiking exponentially in the middle of September. If no help had come, some experts were fearing

    在九月中呈指數暴增之時。若沒有這些奧援,當時一些專家擔心

  • the disease could have overwhelmed the region and spread until it exhausted its host population,

    疾病可能蔓延全區、直到全數人口染病為止

  • killing hundreds of thousands or even millions of Africans, all the time increasing the odds

    並造成成千、甚至高達數百萬的非洲人死亡,隨著時間的流逝

  • that it could make its way off the continent. The World Health Organization now optimistically

    病毒離開非洲大陸的機會逐漸增加,而今世界衛生組織樂觀預估

  • hopes to control Ebola by mid-2015, limiting the death-toll to around 10,000.

    2015年年中就能控制伊波拉,將死亡人數控制在約1萬人

  • Thanks for watching this installment of The Daily Conversation. If you’d like us to

    謝謝收看本集的"每日座談",若你希望我們

  • tackle a particular subject in this mini-documentary format, leave your idea in a comment below.

    以這種迷你紀錄片探討特定主題,請在下面留下你的想法

  • Until next time, I’m Bryce Plank.

    下次見,我是布萊斯‧普朗克

When it comes to Ebola, the first thing you need to know is that dying from the virus

當我們談到伊波拉,你必須先瞭解到病毒造成的死亡

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B1 中級 中文 伊波拉 疫情 病毒 賴比瑞亞 西非 死亡

埃博拉:2014年疫情解讀 (Ebola: The 2014 Outbreak Explained)

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    kevin 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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