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  • Hey, everyone.


  • I'm Anna and this is the English Fluency Journey, where I give tips and advice for English learners.

    我是 Anna,這裡是 English Fluency Journey,我為英語學習者提供提示和建議。

  • And in this video, I'm gonna be answering a question from Tano.

    在這段影片中,我將回答 Tano 的問題。

  • Thank you very much for your question.


  • And guys, don't forget, if you have any questions, please leave them in the comment sections below the videos and I'm gonna be happy to answer them.


  • "Hi, Anna. This is a nice video and really helpful. Thank you.


  • Anna, could you make a video on differences between should have, could have, would have and how could we use them in the sentences?"

    Anna,你能製作一個影片來介紹 should have、could have、would have 之間的區別以及我們如何在句子中使用它們嗎?」

  • So let's start.


  • First of all, when we use could have, should have, would have, we're talking about the past, so we can't change the past, we can regret something.

    首先,當我們使用could have、should have、would have時,我們談論的是過去,所以我們無法改變過去,我們可以後悔一些事情。

  • We can think of possibilities or we can think of a different scenario that could have happened or we can talk about our lost opportunities.


  • And we formed them using could have, should have, would have, plus past participle, and pay attention please on pronunciation.

    我們用could have、shouldhave、wouldhave加上過去分詞來構成它們,請注意發音。

  • So we don't say could have, should have, would have. We contract them and say could've, should've, would've. People rarely say the full version, "I could have."

    所以我們不會直接念 could have, should have, would have。我們會縮略成could've, should've, would've。 人們很少會講完整的 I could have。

  • So should've; basically, we use it to talk about our regrets.


  • We did something in the past, but now we think that that was a bad choice that we should have done it differently.


  • I should have listened to you!


  • I didn't listen to you and something unpleasant happened.


  • And now I understand that I should have listened to you.


  • I should have at least tried to learn how to drive.


  • The result is now that I can't drive because of my decision in the past. I decided not to learn how to drive, but now I understand that I need it and I lost time by not having done it in the past.

    結果現在我因為過去的決定而不能開車了。 我決定不學開車,但現在我明白我需要它,而且我過去沒有學過而浪費了時間。

  • You should have asked me before buying a new car.


  • You bought a new car and you spent a lot of money and you didn't ask your wife, for example.


  • And now she's disappointed because maybe she had different plans for your family budget.


  • So now she's telling you that you should have asked. She's thinking that you were obligated to do that.


  • You shouldn't have drunk so much yesterday.


  • You did drink too much and maybe now you're having a hangover or you did something stupid so you definitely shouldn't have drunk so much.


  • Now, we used could have to talk about possibilities in the past, but they didn't happen under some circumstances or to say that we were able to do something, but we chose not to do that, or that something wasn't possible under some circumstances or that something is possible now.


  • I know a bit complicated but it'll get clearer when we take a look at some examples.


  • It's 8 p.m. already. They could have arrived now.

    已經晚上 8 點了。他們可能已經到了。

  • We were expecting them perhaps earlier or later, but it's a possibility that they can arrive now.


  • In this case, it's an assumption, but it's possible to happen now.


  • You could have waited for me and we could have come to the party together, but you chose not to wait and we came separately.


  • I could have dated her if I wanted it.


  • I think that I had that option, that that was a possibility.


  • You couldn't have saved him.


  • Meaning it was impossible. There was nothing you could do at that moment.

    意思是這是不可能的。 那一刻你無能為力。

  • Why hasn't he come yet?


  • He could've forgotten that we were meeting, or worse, something could have happened.


  • Here, we're making a guess of what probably happened.


  • Everything could have been differently if you chose to stay and fight for us.


  • But you didn't, you decided to do otherwise.


  • You had such a hard life. You could have become an addict.

    你以前的日子過得辛苦。 你本可能會成為一個癮君子。

  • You could have easily ended up on the streets, but you chose to fight and look at you now. You're a successful lawyer. I'm so proud of you.

    你本可能會輕易流落街頭,但你現在選擇奮鬥,所以看看現在的你。 你是一位成功的律師。 我很為你驕傲。

  • You can hear and use might've instead of could've, it means the same thing.

    你可以聽到並使用 might've代替 could've,這意味著同樣的事情。

  • Did you get in trouble, Johnny Galecki?

    你惹麻煩了嗎,Johnny Galecki?

  • Because if I was 15 and I had a TV show, I think I might have partied a little bit.

    因為如果我是 15 歲,我有一個電視節目,我想我可能會狂歡一下。

  • And would've. Just a little bit more complex than the previous ones.

    然後是 would've。 這只比前面提到的稍微複雜一點。

  • So we use "would've" to say that we wanted to do something that it was intended to be done, but we didn't do it because perhaps something didn't let us.

    所以我們用 would've 來表示我們想做一些本來打算做的事情,但我們沒有做,因為也許有些事情不允許我們做。

  • I would have come over, but I wasn't feeling so good.


  • I wanted to come, but my health didn't let me.


  • I would've helped you, but I didn't know that you needed help. You should've told me.


  • So you didn't tell me and I didn't help, although I wanted to.


  • I would have made dinner, but as it turned out, I didn't have any products and honestly, I didn't wanna go grocery shopping.


  • I think this one explains itself. A story of my life.


  • Why is "would've" a bit more complex because it's also a part of the third conditional.

    為什麼 would've 有點複雜,因為它也是第三類條件句的一部分。

  • We use it to talk about past unreal situations and we form it like this.


  • "If + past perfect, ... would have + past participle."

    「If +過去完成式,... would have +過去分詞。」

  • If I hadn't been overeating, I wouldn't have gained so much weight.


  • But in reality, I gained weight because I had been overeating.


  • You wouldn't have broken all the plates if you had listened to me and didn't carry all of them at once.


  • But you didn't listen and you did carry all of them at once and you broke them all.


  • And to make it even more understandable, let's take a look at one sentence using all of these three modal verbs.


  • He should've told her the truth. (It was the right thing to do, but he didn't.)

    他應該告訴她真相。 (這是正確的做法,但他沒有這樣做。)

  • He could've told her the truth. (Of course, it means that he didn't, but if he did, the current situation might have been better.)

    他本來可以告訴她真相的。 (當然,這意味著他沒有,但如果他這樣做了,現在的情況可能會更好。)

  • He would've told her the truth. (This means that he wanted to tell her the truth, but something came up and he wasn't able to do that.)

    他會告訴她真相的。 (這意味著他想告訴她真相,但發生了一些事情,他沒能做到。)

  • And the last thing. This construction doesn't change depending on the subject. We always say should have, could have, would have.

    最後一件事。 這種結構不會根據主詞而改變。 我們總是說 should have, could have, would have。

  • It doesn't matter if we say he, she, we, or they. We don't say could has.

    不管主詞是不是he, she, we 還是 They,。我們不會說 could has。

  • Thank you for watching this video.


  • Subscribe to this channel and just to make sure that you don't miss anything useful, turn on the notifications. And as usual, stay positive and motivated and see you soon.


Hey, everyone.


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