Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • Look at this miserable, terrible awful country.

    看看這個悲慘、可怕的國家。

  • I would hate to live here.

    我討厭住在這裡。

  • Wait, no, that's Canada.

    等等,不對,那是加拿大。

  • Look at this cold, dark isolated country.

    看看這個寒冷、黑暗、與世隔絕的國家。

  • I would also hate to live here.

    我也不想住在這裡。

  • Oh, wait, this is apparently the happiest country on Earth: Finland.

    哦,等等,這裡顯然是地球上最幸福的國家:芬蘭。

  • This is the happiest.

    這是最幸福的。

  • Can you imagine how miserable the rest of the world must be?

    你能想象世界上其他地方的人有多悲慘嗎?

  • And they're the happiest by a pretty wide margin.

    他們是最幸福的,而且幸福程度相當高。

  • Here's the rest of the list, and then bam, Finland jumps way ahead of Denmark to first place.

    以下是名單的其他部分。然後,芬蘭一躍超過丹麥,成為第一名。

  • So what can we learn from Finland for us non Fins to be happy too?

    那麼,我們可以從芬蘭學到什麼,讓我們非芬蘭人也能幸福呢?

  • Let's look for some clues so we can stop crying and maybe cheer up for once.

    讓我們尋找一些線索,這樣我們就能停止哭泣,或許還能振作起來。

  • Are they happy from their climate?

    他們的氣候是否讓他們感到幸福?

  • Now, you might be thinking, "What are you talking about? Of course it's not their climate."

    你可能會想:「你在說什麼? 當然不是因為他們的氣候。」

  • This country is full of blizzards, rain, permanent night time, at least long winter nights in the south and mosquitoes.

    這個國家到處都是暴風雪、雨水、永夜,至少在南方是漫長的冬夜,還有蚊子。

  • So many mosquitoes.

    蚊子真多。

  • But out of the top 10 happiest countries on Earth, pretty much all of them are cold.

    但在全球十大最幸福國家中,幾乎所有國家都很寒冷。

  • The happiest hot country is Australia and it's all the way down at 11th.

    最幸福的很熱國家是澳洲,排名第 11 位。

  • Maybe there's something to a cold breeze to make someone happy.

    也許冷風也能讓人開心。

  • But our theory is not always true.

    但我們的理論並不總是正確的。

  • Hot Costa Rica is happier than lukewarm Britain, and boiling Saudi Arabia is happier than hot Italy.

    炎熱的哥斯大黎加比不冷不熱的英國更幸福,熱到沸騰的沙烏地阿拉伯比炎熱的義大利更幸福。

  • So, even though the weather might not influence happiness that much, the environment might.

    所以儘管天氣可能不會對幸福產生太大影響,但環境可能會。

  • Finland is a wooded country.

    芬蘭是一個多樹林的國家。

  • It's got a lot of bush, a whole two-thirds of the country's forest that might have been relevant in the 1800s.

    這裡有很多灌木叢,佔全國森林面積的三分之二,在 1800 年時可能還很重要。

  • But it's the 2000s now.

    但現在是兩千年代。

  • Most don't live in the woods.

    大多數人並不住在森林裡。

  • They live in cities, at least 85% of Finns do.

    他們住在城市裡,至少 85% 的芬蘭人都住在城市裡。

  • But hold up, look at these pictures of those cities.

    但等等,看看這些城市的照片。

  • Why are there trees? Why is there water?

    為什麼會有樹?為什麼有水?

  • Cities are supposed to look like this: road stores, skyscrapers, road, more road, smog, road.

    城市應該是這樣的:路邊商店、摩天大樓、路、更多路、煙霧、路。

  • It's not supposed to have nature, but the average Finnish city uses 30 to 40% of its space for what it calls green space, including Helsinki's 52 Nature Reserves, Campus's green shorelines, and Juve's Green Ring.

    城市不應該擁有自然風光,但芬蘭城市平均將 30% 到 40% 的空間用於所謂的綠色空間,包括赫爾辛基的 52 個自然保護區、校園的綠色海岸線和尤文圖斯的綠環。

  • Finnish residents even say that their number one priority for their cities is transportation like literally everyone else on Earth but their number two priority is proximity to nature.

    芬蘭居民甚至說,他們對城市的第一優先考慮是交通,就像地球上的其他人一樣,但他們的第二優先考慮是接近自然。

  • It also helps that Finnish cities are some of the least densely populated in Europe and none have a population over a million.

    此外,芬蘭的一些城市是歐洲人口密度最低的,沒有一個城市的人口超過一百萬。

  • So nature is always near to them.

    所以大自然總是離他們很近。

  • Nice.

    不錯。

  • That seems like a good way to be happy.

    這似乎是快樂的好方法。

  • Could it be their culture?

    會不會是因為他們的文化?

  • At over 90% Finnish, 60% Lutheran, and a small percentage Sami in the North, Finland is quite homogeneous.

    芬蘭北部人口超過 90% 是芬蘭人,60% 是路德教徒,還有一小部分薩米人,因此芬蘭的民族相當同質。

  • They have a culture of education and innovation with most people having a bachelor's degree and having a 100% literacy rate.

    他們擁有教育和創新文化,大多數人擁有學士學位,識字率達 100%。

  • Not a single person can't read.

    沒有一個人不識字。

  • I don't know how much I believe that, considering their language looks like.

    考慮到他們的語言,我不知道我有多相信這一點。

  • They also have an egalitarian culture that shows up particularly well in its work, you know, flat organization, autonomous decision making strong work benefits and the average work week only being 35 hours long, just don't show up late.

    他們還擁有在工作中表現得特別好的平等文化,你知道,扁平化組織、自主決策、強大的工作福利以及每周平均工作時間只有 35 小時,只是不要遲到。

  • They'll beat the shit out of you if you do.

    如果你這樣做,他們會把你打得屁滾尿流。

  • Showing up late would probably break their trust, and Finns have built their society very trusting, trusting, trusting.

    如果你遲到了,很可能會辜負他們的信任,芬蘭人建立了非常信任、信任、再信任的社會。

  • Maybe the cold and six centuries of foreign rule force the Finns to rely on their neighbor can't do much alone when outside looks like this and can't go alone when your Swedish ruler drags you into another war.

    也許寒冷和六個世紀的外國統治迫使芬蘭人依賴他們的鄰居,當外面看起來像這樣時,他們無法獨自做很多事情,而當瑞典統治者將你拖入另一場戰爭時,他們也無法獨自前進。

  • Or maybe they're just trusting because of the low crime rates and economic security the Finns have.

    或者也許他們只是因為芬蘭人的低犯罪率和經濟安全而信任。

  • So could it be security that makes the Finns so happy?

    那麼,是安全讓芬蘭人如此快樂嗎?

  • Usually worrying about fighting a war or having your house robbed when you're gone or stepping outside and getting immediately shot is not great for your mental health.

    通常情況下,擔心打仗、擔心自己不在家時房子被搶、擔心一出門就會立即中彈,這些都不利於心理健康。

  • And Finland is a very safe and secure country, having their crime rate since the nineties, having a 0.2% poverty rate, 100% electricity access and a very long life expectancy.

    芬蘭是一個非常安全可靠的國家,犯罪率自九十年代以來一直保持在較低水平,貧困率僅為 0.2%,用電率達到 100%,人均壽命很長。

  • Their biggest crime contributing to that tiny rate, it was traffic offenses.

    造成這一微小比例的最大犯罪是交通違規。

  • Demographically, they're also fairly secure at 5.5 million people expected to fall to around 5 million by 2100.

    從人口結構來看,他們的人口數量也相當穩定,為 550 萬人,預計到 2100 年將降至 500 萬人左右。

  • That's not too big a drop.

    降幅不算太大。

  • Not like some of the drops in population other European nations are expected to face.

    與其他歐洲國家預計將面臨的人口下降不同。

  • It'll be hard on the economy but relatively small to make a relatively happy time.

    這對經濟會造成困擾,但相對來說是一個相對輕微的困難,以創造一段相對輕鬆愉快的時光。

  • Geopolitically too. They're in a secure region.

    地緣政治上也是如此。 他們在安全區域。

  • They're tucked safely inside the European Union for a free market, coddled by NATO for free defense and all their neighbors are rich and stable.

    他們安全地躲在歐盟內部以獲得自由市場,受到北約的寵愛以進行自由防禦,而且他們所有的鄰國都富裕而穩定。

  • Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Germany, maybe Estonia and oh, right, Russia too.

    瑞典、挪威、丹麥、德國,也許還有愛沙尼亞,哦,對了,還有俄羅斯。

  • Dealing with the Russians has always been high on the Finnish concerns list.

    與俄羅斯打交道一直是芬蘭最關心的問題。

  • They've always had to balance between the West and Russia. After all, Russia would love a port in Helsinki and the Finns are tiny compared to the Russians.

    他們總是不得不在西方和俄羅斯之間保持平衡,因為俄羅斯很想在赫爾辛基建一個港口,而芬蘭人與俄羅斯人相比實在是小巫見大巫。

  • They would get annihilated by them, right?

    他們會被他們消滅,對吧?

  • Well, exhibit one. No.

    好吧,證據之一,不會。

  • And exhibit two, also no.

    證據二,也是不會。

  • The Russians probably wouldn't annihilate the Finns, but they've shown they might still try.

    俄羅斯人可能不會消滅芬蘭人,但他們已經表明他們可能仍會嘗試。

  • So in 2022, Finland applied to join NATO just for that extra layer of security.

    因此,芬蘭在 2022 年申請加入北約,只是為了多一層安全保障。

  • And there's another aspect of security: economic security.

    安全還有另一個面向:經濟安全。

  • Does money really solve happiness?

    錢真的能解決幸福問題嗎?

  • Well, I have two things to say. One, Finland wasn't always rich.

    我有兩件事要說。 第一,芬蘭並不總是富裕的。

  • They used to be a backwater, a sludge water, a stick in the mud nobody cared about for most of history.

    在歷史上的大部分時間裡,他們曾經是一潭死水、一灘汙泥,無人問津。

  • And two, yes, money does make you happy, so this video is sponsored by Surfshark.

    第二,是的,錢確實能讓人快樂,所以這部影片由 Surfshark 贊助。

  • Just kidding.

    開個玩笑。

  • Not with Surfshark.

    不是 Surfshark。

  • You can keep your identity safe online by encrypting all the data that you send between your devices and the websites you browse.

    你可以透過加密你的裝置和你瀏覽的網站之間發送的所有資料來確保你的線上身分安全。

  • Imagine all the criminals out there just waiting to steal your data or the company's wait to sell it.

    想象一下,所有的犯罪分子都在外面等著竊取你的數據,或者公司等著出售數據。

  • Surfshark is essentially just security for your devices.

    Surfshark 本質上就是設備安全軟體。

  • You can change your location by just finding a country and clicking on it.

    你只需找到一個國家並點擊它,就可以更改你的位置。

  • Protect your data while you're using free Wi-Fi studying for your exam in a public library.

    當你在公共圖書館使用免費 Wi-Fi 準備考試時,保護好你的數據。

  • Get real-time alerts about potential threats to you, hide yourself from search engines and even have a built in antivirus on your device.

    獲取有關潛在威脅的實時警報,在搜索引擎上隱藏自己,甚至在設備上內置殺毒軟體。

  • Now, that's Surfshark.

    這才是 Surfshark。

  • If you just peep below and click on the link in the description, you can try it out yourself or use my code HOSER for 83% off and three months free.

    如果您只是看下面並單擊說明中的鏈接,您可以自己嘗試一下,或者使用我的代碼 HOSER 享受 83% 的折扣和三個月的免費。

  • Plus, if you don't love it within 30 days, there is a money back guarantee.

    此外,如果您在 30 天內不喜歡它,還提供退款保證。

  • So there's literally no downside to signing up. Now that you're digitally secure, let's see how Finland got economically secure.

    因此,註冊實際上沒有任何缺點。 現在你已經實現了數位安全,讓我們看看芬蘭如何實現經濟安全。

  • So back to the real economy. For most of history, Finland was poor. I'm talking trenches poor.

    回到實體經濟上來,在歷史上的大部分時間裡,芬蘭都是貧窮的。

  • In a time when the standard of living was pretty much equal to how much your family could farm, this wintry landscape wasn't exactly the richest.

    在那個生活水準幾乎等於你的家庭可以耕種的東西的時代,這片寒冷的土地並不是最富有的。

  • It wasn't the priest either being under Swedish rule until 1809 and then Russian rule until 1917 when they had that whole revolution, although they generally had a great amount of autonomy to focus on whatever they wanted.

    直到1809 年,神父才處於瑞典統治之下,然後又處於俄羅斯統治之下,直到1917 年,他們才發生了整個革命,儘管他們通常擁有很大的自主權,可以專注於他們想做的任何事情。

  • So the law, money, banking and integrity have been stable for centuries, developing trust, trust, trust.

    幾個世紀以來,法律、貨幣、銀行和誠信一直保持穩定,建立信任。

  • This is great news for developing the economy because the rest of it wasn't so great.

    這對發展經濟來說是個好消息,因為其他方面就不太好了。

  • In terms of natural resources, Finland pretty much only had two: water and wood.

    就自然資源而言,芬蘭幾乎只有兩種:水和木材。

  • Can't easily export water, at least without exporting food through virtual water.

    無法輕易輸出水,至少無法透過虛擬水輸出食物。

  • So wood was their money maker for most of history or I guess pulp, paper, peat, parchment print, you name it.

    所以在歷史上的大部分時間裡,木材都是他們的賺錢工具,或者我猜是紙漿、紙張、泥炭、羊皮紙印刷品,凡是你能想到的。

  • In fact, the whole reason they even started to industrialize in the 1800s was to build sawmills to meet new Russian lumber demand.

    事實上,他們甚至在 1800 年代開始工業化的全部原因就是建造鋸木廠,以滿足俄羅斯新的木材需求。

  • And by the time of the world wars, their wood phase wasn't over.

    到世界大戰時,他們的木材階段還沒結束。

  • Wood products made up four-fifths of their exports, one-third of their industry and one-half of their jobs along with agriculture.

    木製品佔其出口的五分之四,佔工業的三分之一,以及農業就業的一半。

  • The wood trade only deepened the balancing act between Western Europe and Russia.

    木材貿易只會加深西歐和俄羅斯之間的平衡。

  • Do we industrialize like these fellows and become filthy rich or do we keep chopping trees for the Russians and become stinking rich?

    我們是像這些傢伙一樣實現工業化並變得暴富,還是繼續為俄羅斯人砍伐樹木並變得臭名昭著?

  • Well, they had no time to think about that because the Russians invaded them in 1939.

    他們沒有時間考慮這個問題,因為俄國人在 1939 年入侵了他們。

  • The Winter War might have prevented a communist government, but it also meant they lost nearly 70,000 men, 10% of their territory and were forced to pay reparations. Bomber.

    冬季戰爭可能阻止了共產黨政府的建立,但這也意味著他們損失了近7萬人、10%的領土,並被迫支付賠償金。 轟炸機。

  • So during the Cold War, not wanting to repeat that whole mess again, the Finns officially stayed neutral, although definitely leaned more to the West than the East from this sour relationship.

    因此,在冷戰期間,芬蘭人不想再次重蹈覆轍,因此正式保持中立,儘管由於這種糟糕的關係,芬蘭人肯定更傾向於西方而不是東方。

  • They stayed out of NATO, stayed out of the EEC and stay out of the marshall plan to rebuild Europe.

    他們遠離北約,遠離歐洲經濟共同體,遠離重建歐洲的馬歇爾計畫。

  • Sure, they still sold timber to the west and slowly started the Soviet trade back up again too, getting much of their energy from them.

    當然,他們仍然向西方出售木材,並慢慢地重新開始與蘇聯的貿易,從他們那裡獲取大量能源。

  • But they invested that money back to make machines, elevators, ships and paper machines.

    但他們將這筆錢投資回來製造機器、電梯、船和造紙機。

  • They started manufacturing them and selling them to the Soviets.

    他們開始製造並出售給蘇聯。

  • So from their new wealth, they decided to try to fit in with the other Scandinavians and try out the Nordic welfare model, education for all, social care, health care, maternity leave, blah, blah.

    所以他們決定利用新的財富,努力融入其他斯堪地納維亞人,嘗試北歐福利模式、全民教育、社會關懷、醫療保健、產假等等。

  • And they continued the slow and gradual path to richness, emphasizing education and innovation above all to make a heavily research and development-based economy.

    他們繼續走緩慢漸進的致富之路,首先強調教育和創新,使經濟以研發為基礎。

  • Yeah, all nice, until the Soviets collapsed in the 1990s.

    是啊,一切都很美好,直到 1990 年代蘇聯解體。

  • So that means their trade with them just fell dramatically.

    所以這意味著與他們的貿易額急劇下降。

  • And I guess that means their currency just collapsed, which way that means their banks which were already deep in debt just collapsed.

    我想這意味著他們的貨幣崩潰了,這意味著他們已經負債累累的銀行崩潰了。

  • And Finland was hit with the biggest depression it's ever had as everyone decided now was not a good time to invest in anything.

    芬蘭遭遇了有史以來最嚴重的經濟蕭條,因為每個人都認為現在不是投資的好時機。

  • They were covered by the 2000s, but they pretty much gave up paper.

    它們在2000年代有涵蓋,但基本上已經放棄了紙張。

  • It was all innovation now.

    這一切都是創新。

  • You might have even heard of some Finnish tech creations:

    你甚至可能聽過一些芬蘭的科技創作:

  • Nokia, Linux (the first internet browser), SMS (basically texting), Angry Birds and Clash of Clane.

    Nokia、Linux(第一個網路瀏覽器)、SMS(基本上是簡訊)、憤怒鳥和部落衝突。

  • All this made with a tiny population.

    這一切都是在人口極少的情況下完成的。

  • The New Finland is booming economically secure and on the cutting edge of technology.

    新芬蘭經濟蓬勃發展,經濟安全,技術領先。

  • But if there's one thing you should take away from this, it's that there wasn't one moment Finland became rich, it was really a build up from stable institutions of the business over 150 years.

    但是,如果說你應該從這件事中得到什麼啟示的話,那就是芬蘭的富裕並不是一蹴而就的,而是150多年來從穩定的商業機構中積累起來的。

  • So, is it welfare that makes them so happy?

    那麼,是福利讓他們如此快樂嗎?

  • Perhaps the security it brings them makes them worry a lot less.

    也許是安全感讓他們少了許多擔憂。

  • But how do they even afford it?

    但他們怎麼負擔得起呢?

  • Well, Finland is not Norway. The Norwegian government gets nearly half of its revenue from oil money.

    芬蘭不是挪威,挪威政府近一半的收入來自石油收入。

  • Finland doesn't have this luxury and the average Norwegian is almost twice as rich as the average Finn, so they've got a lot more revenue to tax.

    芬蘭沒有這樣的奢侈品,挪威人的平均財富幾乎是芬蘭人的兩倍,所以,他們有更多的收入可以徵稅。

  • Finland has to go to those industries that were slowly built over 150 years and tax them for its revenue.

    芬蘭必須向那些歷經 150 年慢慢發展起來的產業徵稅,以獲得收入。

  • Finland has one of the highest tax burdens on Earth.

    芬蘭是世界上稅收負擔最重的國家之一。

  • Number two for personal income at almost 57% and top 10 in sales tax at nearly 25%.

    個人所得稅排名第二,佔近 57%,銷售稅排名前十,佔近 25%。

  • But luckily for the Finns, their government also has a fairly competent accounting department.

    但幸運的是,芬蘭政府也有一個相當稱職的會計部門。

  • Every electoral term the government is given pretty strict spending limits that they have to stick to.

    每屆選舉期間,政府都必須遵守相當嚴格的開支限制。

  • It's not every year.

    這不是每年都有。

  • It's every government.

    每個政府都是如此。

  • This means they've usually ended up with a 2% to 3% surplus.

    這意味著他們通常會有 2% 至 3% 的盈餘。

  • And although they did get into some serious debt during their depression in the nineties, they ended up balancing it back out with their 2000s boom and then deficit again with 2008.

    儘管在九十年代的經濟蕭條時期,它們曾經陷入一些嚴重的債務,但最終在2000年代的經濟蓬勃發展中實現了平衡,然後在2008年再次虧損。

  • But as their population ages drinks and takes that tax money back through pensions, they've had to go back to this deficit spending which is threatening their Nordic welfare way of life and could scare investment.

    但隨著他們的人口老化並透過退休金收回稅收,他們不得不回到赤字支出,這威脅著他們的北歐福利生活方式,並可能嚇跑投資。

  • Well, what are they getting for all this spending, though?

    那麼,他們花這麼多錢得到了什麼呢?

  • Pensions, free education, unemployment benefits, health care, family benefits, state subsidized housing, government loans on housing and of course, the training needed to deliver these services. Sounds pretty nice to me.

    退休金、免費教育、失業救濟金、醫療保健、家庭福利、國家補貼住房、政府房屋貸款,當然還有提供這些服務所需的培訓。 對我來說聽起來不錯。

  • It also helps you could actually trust that your government will get these services to you.

    它還可以幫助您真正相信您的政府將為您提供這些服務。

  • In a lot of less developed nations, your tax bill will come, you'll wait for the new services you'll get and keep waiting and keep waiting and keep waiting, and they never seem to come.

    在許多欠發達國家,你的稅單將會到來,你將等待你將獲得的新服務,一直等待,一直等待,一直等待,但它們似乎永遠不會到來。

  • Trusting that the government won't screw you when you give them 57% of your income is pretty important to feel secure.

    當您將收入的 57% 交給政府時,相信政府不會欺騙您,這對獲得安全感非常重要。

  • So it's up to you personally to decide if you would take this deal.

    所以是否接受這筆交易取決於您個人。

  • But taking it doesn't seem to make them any sadder.

    但接受它似乎並沒有讓他們變得更悲傷。

  • Ok.

    好的。

  • That's way too much about this happy jolly jovial nation.

    對於這個幸福快樂的國家來說,這實在太多了。

  • Let's talk about their problems.

    我們先來談談他們的問題。

  • First is obviously they're shrinking population threatening their whole welfare model, bringing rising debt and falling investment along with it.

    首先,顯然他們正在減少的人口威脅到他們的整個福利模式,帶來債務增加和投資下降。

  • Second, they have a housing crisis. House prices are climbing at a pretty scary rate.

    其次,他們面臨住房危機。 房價正以相當可怕的速度攀升。

  • But tell me which developed nation isn't facing a housing crisis. Am I right?

    但告訴我哪個已開發國家沒有面臨住房危機。 對嗎?

  • I wish I could afford a house.

    我希望我能買得起房子。

  • Third, the whole Russia situation isn't getting any friendlier right now.

    第三,目前整個俄羅斯局勢並不友好。

  • And it sucks, considering Russia was a huge supplier of energy to them.

    考慮到俄羅斯曾是他們巨大的能源供應國,這就很糟糕了。

  • When they got cut off from Russian gas, electricity prices rose almost 50% in one year.

    俄羅斯天然氣供應中斷後,電價在一年內上漲了近 50%。

  • They've had to get some coal plants back online to meet demand<