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  • Evidence suggests that within a week, 25% of us have failed on our resolutions.

    有證據表明,在一週內我們當中有 25% 的人沒能實現自己的目標。

  • A month later, half of us have.


  • And then you've got those annoyingly persistent 25% or 30% that seem to carry it on for years.

    然後你會看到那些令人惱火的人有 25% 或 30% 似乎會持續很多年。

  • And we've been doing this research for decades and the big revolution we have now is people tend to do what they enjoy and not what they don't enjoy.


  • You're welcome for decades of research for something as simple as that.


  • I'm Dr. Amanda Rebar.

    我是Amanda Rebar博士。

  • I am Associate Professor of Psychology.


  • I'm here to help you make sense of new year's resolutions.


  • Resolutions are really different from habits but they don't have to be.


  • Resolutions are self-initiated plan to change, whereas habits are how we do things day to day.


  • Habits tend to last the long term, whereas resolutions tend to fade out.


  • To make resolutions that work, you need to focus on the behavior rather than the outcome.


  • You need to make sure it fits within your life and you're not forcing yourself to do something.


  • I mean, you need to find a way that it's satisfying, fun or easy, ideally all three.


  • [Step 1: Behavior change] So let's start here with behavior change.

    [第一步:改變行為] 那我們就從改變行為開始吧。

  • When we talk about behavior, really, we think about it in two different ways.


  • We think of the initiation so deciding to do that behavior and execution.


  • So once you decide to do something, how do you do that?


  • My favorite example of that is getting in the car and deciding to go to work.


  • That's the initiation and execution is maybe the route you take.


  • So the more we go through life, the more we go, okay, this is connected to this, or this makes me feel this way.


  • And we reflect on those quite quickly within a quarter of a second to make decisions or to influence how we act or to how we feel.


  • And that's all a habit is, associative learning.


  • That's how we can change our own behaviors.


  • Think what's the reward that continuing this link between me doing this behavior and whatever context I'm in.


  • Why does my mind think that this is a good thing to do?


  • All that means is that we need to make new habits.


  • So how does science say that we do that?


  • Rewards are really interesting because we're driven by them if we like it or not.


  • So reward is kind of that catalyst or the helper between doing a behavior once and making sure we do it over and over again to the point where these habits form.


  • When you're trying to form a habit, it seems really tempting to reward yourself for doing the behavior, having a reward day after you diet for seven days.

    當你試圖養成一種習慣時,似乎很想獎勵自己所做的行為,在節食 7 天後的第二天就會得到獎勵。

  • The problem with that is then you're shifting from habit to goal-directed behavior or to an achievement.


  • You're doing it for something external from the actual behavior, which makes it more about self-control than about just going through your day-to-day life.


  • So how long does it take to make your new habits stick around for good?


  • Every habit researcher dreads the question about how long it takes to form a habit.


  • And it's because it's really hard to know.


  • It's hard because people are so different from each other.


  • The evidence suggests between 21 days or three months.

    有證據表明在 21 天或 3 個月之間。

  • It's not like running is gonna feel any different once your habit's formed.


  • It's that decision to do it.


  • You don't have to talk yourself into it as much as you may have when you started.


  • It's more just a natural part of of your day.


  • And that's really what we want from a behavior change perspective.


  • [Step 2: Make it enjoyable]


  • If you can make goals that are focused on doing something as opposed to stop doing something else, it's really valuable.


  • So trade out a behavior for the context that seems to be quite triggering for that habit.


  • It doesn't work to trade out bad behaviors with behaviors that don't give you the same reward.


  • Some people will try to trade out smoking for chewing a piece of gum or eating a celery stick, and that's not gonna work because you're not getting the same reward out of that that you were from smoking, for example.


  • Keeping track of our habits vary person to person.


  • But for those taking a more high-tech route is technology a benefit or a burden?


  • The role of technology is really interesting, especially from a behavior change perspective.


  • Everyone has activity trackers, for example, or everyone loves tracking their heartbeat or their sleep.


  • And if people find it supportive in the way that helps them have an easier life and more satisfying and fun, brilliant.


  • But the risk of that is we could be monitoring ourselves to death.


  • If you're focusing so much on a goal or watching the outcomes in a way that makes you reflect so much on it that you don't allow those naturally-occurring habits to form, it's gonna be exhausting to maintain over time.


  • If it's stressful or if it's making you feel guilty or ashamed, give it up.


  • It's not gonna help.


  • I started researching physical activity and it's really hard to keep people motivated for a long time if they don't consider it part of their daily lives or if it's not who they see themselves to be.


  • You know, it kind of irks me that a lot of the way we try to intervene with physical activity is by educating people.


  • 98% of the world knows that exercise will make them better in some way.

    世界上 98% 的人都知道運動可以在某種程度上讓他們變得更好。

  • We all know we should, for heaven's sakes.


  • So it needs to move beyond that.


  • We need to make it easier on people.


  • There's so much going on in people's lives.


  • If you've done all three, changing your behavior, making it fun and making it fit into your life, does that mean that you're guaranteed to be successful with your New Year's resolution?


  • Some of my favorite evidence in the habit field is we've tracked people's habits across different types of behaviors, across weeks and month.


  • And we found that those days where people didn't do the behavior that they were trying to become habitual didn't throw you off , but had no impact on how quickly those habits would form.


  • And I'd love that finding because it means we can be kind to ourselves and it means it's okay to miss a few days, or it's okay to give into temptations and just kick back on track the next day.


  • It's really important to remember that when you're making a goal or a resolution, you're not always gonna feel as motivated as you do at that moment.


  • When you do set a goal or you do set a resolution, think about how you can make that behavior that you wanna do the easiest, or the most satisfying, or the funnest option out of all the options you have.


Evidence suggests that within a week, 25% of us have failed on our resolutions.

有證據表明,在一週內我們當中有 25% 的人沒能實現自己的目標。

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