字幕列表 影片播放 列印英文字幕 - There are over 14,000 identified varieties of mushrooms. Today, we're gonna go over some of the most commonly found, rare, and delicious edible mushrooms. We're gonna be slicing dicing, frying, and tasting. Oh, my God! Over 15 types of mushrooms. [upbeat music] Okay, since there is so much to consider, we're going break it down into chapters, to try to keep things simple. In chapters one and two, we're going to break down some of the most common edible mushrooms, like the ones that you're most likely to encounter in your market. We'll take a look into what makes each category unique, and cook some delicious dishes to show you the best ways to utilize them. In chapter three, we'll be looking at even more mushrooms, and compare them to some that I've been growing at home. We'll also talk about mushrooms as a meat substitute, and make some delicious king trumpet steaks. And in our final chapter, we'll talk about some specialty mushrooms, like this black truffle. Chapter one, The Big Three. Here we have three of the most common mushrooms, white button, cremini and portobello. Combined, these three mushrooms account for over 90% of mushroom consumption, but that's not all. The secret truth about these mushrooms is that they are all the same mushroom. [crowd gasps] That's right, portobellos are just mature criminis, and white buttons are just the young, white version of criminis. Even though these three mushrooms are technically the same species, they can have different uses. So let's get into what makes them each unique. White button aka champignon. He's so cute. It's one of the most cultivated varieties in the world, and has been grown for centuries. These grow in the dark, and they were believed to have first been grown in the catacombs beneath Paris. So when you're buying white buttons in the store, you'll probably find them in a package like this. If you're not cooking with them right away, take them out of the package and put them in a paper bag. This will help them breathe and get ventilation. Man down! So when you put them in the refrigerator, you can even leave the paperback open, so that the air flow can circulate, and that they don't get slimy and mushy. If you leave them in an airtight container for a few days, like I did, they start to get slimy, and they'll also bruise. They'll get brown spots from where the moisture is starting to come out. It'll just accelerate them breaking down and rotting. So you wanna let them breathe and have plenty of space. It is very common as a topping on pizza, where you'll just see it sliced and then scattered over the top, and baked on top of the pizza. They can be eaten raw, as long as they're clean, and they don't really taste like much, but they have a very spongy kind of texture, that's kind of firm, has a little crunch to it, but not a ton of flavor. So these are white buttons that have just been roasted, with a little oil and salt. You can see the color deepens as the moisture content starts to come out and they shrivel up a little bit. Mm. It does concentrate their flavor, a lot more of that, kind of like deep caramelized flavor, but still on the milder side. Cremino aka Baby Bella. So these are crimini. This is a cremino, kind of like octopus and octopi. I don't think that's a thing. [elevator music] When purchasing these mushrooms, check under the cap to see if the gills are covered. Typically, covered gills means that they'll have a more delicate flavor. The gills are these thin structures just underneath the cap. The purpose of the gills is to create and release spores for reproduction. As you cook white buttons, they start to get darker and turn brown anyway, when the water starts to leech out. So, unless you need that white color shaved raw on a salad, feel free to use crimini for any use that you would use white buttons for, that's cooked anyway. It tastes just like a white button, spongy texture, firm, a little crunch to it, but still very mild. And look, without the outer layer, it even looks like a white button. These are portobello or portobella. The name means beautiful door in Italian. No one's really sure where it came from. Some people say it was a marketing gimmick that came about in the '80s, to make it sell better, because it wasn't as popular as its smaller siblings. And it worked. Nowadays, these are incredibly popular. Compared to the crimini, these gills are much longer and very well-defined. You always wanna check the gills on mushrooms like this, to make sure that they're not holding any dirt, or particles of sand, or twigs in between, because that can really get caught in there. Because of this shape and size, they're great to use as buns, as a bread replacement, or you can do what I'm about to do and make mini pizzas. [bright music] So we're gonna make some mini portobello pizzas, using the mushroom cap instead of a pizza crust. So, first thing we're going to do is just pop off the stem here. We're just gonna scrape these out, using a spoon. It's like a drum. Instead of washing these in the sink, we're just gonna wipe them off with a damp cloth, just to remove any dirt that might be on the outside of the cap. Now we're ready to cook. So we're just gonna start with a little bit of oil, and we're gonna sear the mushroom gills side down first. We're gonna let it soften, and as it cooks, then we'll start pressing on the mushroom to press out any of the excess moisture. As it loses water, it'll start to shrink a little bit. And this you definitely want to do on high heat, because you want the moisture to evaporate as soon as it comes out of the mushroom. It's kind of like searing a piece of meat. This is like the size of one of those, like Pizza Hut personal pan pizzas from back in the day. See all that liquid? That's probably about half of the volume that it was before, maybe a little bit more than that. All right, we are ready to top it. So we're gonna start with our tomato sauce, add a little bit of fresh basil. This is freshly grated mozzarella. We're gonna grate a little bit of Parmesan, then we're gonna bake it in the oven, until the cheese is bubbling and golden brown. [bright music] Nice. So this was in the oven for about 10 or 15 minutes at 375, just until the cheese is melted and bubbling and golden on top. And now we're gonna top it with a little bit of fresh basil and a little bit of grated Parmesan.